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Clostridium difficile - Top 30 Publications

Recurrent bacteremia and liver abscess caused by Clostridium difficile: A case report.

Clostridium difficile bacteremia (CDB) and liver abscess is a quite rare presentation of C. difficile infection.

Six Things You Can Do Today to Prevent Hospital-Onset C. difficile Tomorrow.

Some lesser-known advice on keeping patients safe.

Carvacrol reduces Clostridium difficile sporulation and spore outgrowth in vitro.

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming pathogen that causes a serious toxin-mediated enteric disease in humans. Therapeutic agents that are capable of reducing C. difficile spore production could significantly minimize the transmission and relapse of C. difficile infections. This study investigated the efficacy of a food-grade, plant-derived compound, carvacrol (CR), in reducing C. difficile spore production, germination and spore outgrowth.

Predictors of 30-Day Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States, with associated annual costs of approximately $3 billion. The epidemiology of CDI has changed with the identification of novel risk factors for incident and recurrent CDI. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CDI.

Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

Increasing Incidence of Multiply Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in the United States: A Cohort Study.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common health care-associated infection, often recurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation is increasingly used to treat multiply recurrent CDI (mrCDI).

Fatal course of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a female with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

Among diverse triggering factors of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), a viral or bacterial infection is rarely observed. Sepsis is an exception, regardless of the etiologic pathogen, in which case an excess of catecholamines may result in acute left ventricular dysfunction. TC precipitated by Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been reported only in two patients so far.

A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium difficile Biofilm and Toxin Production during Stationary Phase.

The signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) mediates physiological adaptation to extracellular stimuli in a wide range of bacteria. The complex metabolic pathways governing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation are highly regulated, but the specific cues that impact c-di-GMP signaling are largely unknown. In the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, c-di-GMP inhibits flagellar motility and toxin production and promotes pilus-dependent biofilm formation, but no specific biological functions have been ascribed to any of the individual c-di-GMP synthases or phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP PDE, PdcA, 1 of 37 confirmed or putative c-di-GMP metabolism proteins in C. difficile 630. Our studies reveal that pdcA transcription is controlled by the nutrient-regulated transcriptional regulator CodY and accordingly increases during stationary phase. In addition, PdcA PDE activity is allosterically regulated by GTP, further linking c-di-GMP levels to nutrient availability. Mutation of pdcA increased biofilm formation and reduced toxin biosynthesis without affecting swimming motility or global intracellular c-di-GMP. Analysis of the transcriptional response to pdcA mutation indicates that PdcA-dependent phenotypes manifest during stationary phase, consistent with regulation by CodY. These results demonstrate that inactivation of this single PDE gene is sufficient to impact multiple c-di-GMP-dependent phenotypes, including the production of major virulence factors, and suggest a link between c-di-GMP signaling and nutrient availability.

Effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Antibiotic stewardship programmes have been shown to reduce antibiotic use and hospital costs. We aimed to evaluate evidence of the effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical site infections as a risk factor for infection with Clostridium difficile.

We aimed to measure the association between 2013 guideline concordant prophylactic antibiotic use prior to surgery and infection with Clostridium difficile.

A prospective control study of Saccharomyces boulardii in prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the older inpatients.

Objective: To study the value of Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in older inpatients. Methods: A total of 163 older patients who were treated with wide-spectrum antibiotics at least three days during January 2014 to December 2015 were randomly divided into control and study group. In study group, 81 patients were administrated with oral Saccharomyces boulardii 500 mg twice a day for 21 days. The control group was of no intervention. Morbidity rate of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, frequency and duration of diarrhea were recorded. Results: The incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in study group was significantly lower than that in control group [14.8%(12/81) vs 28.0%(23/82), P<0.05], whereas no difference was seen in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea [3.7%(3/81) vs 4.9%(4/82), P>0.05] in two groups. The frequency and duration of diarrhea in the study group were significantly lower and shorter than those in control group[(4.3±1.7) times/day vs (6.9±2.0) times/day; (3.0±1.1) days vs (5.7±1.8) days, both P<0.01]. Conclusion:Saccharomyces boulardii may reduce the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea therefore improving the symptom of diarrhea in older inpatients.

Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: Receptors, pores, and translocation into cells.

The most potent toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria contain enzymatic moieties that must reach the cytosol of target cells to exert their full toxicity. Toxins such as anthrax, diphtheria, and botulinum toxin all use three well-defined functional domains to intoxicate cells: a receptor-binding moiety that triggers endocytosis into acidified vesicles by binding to a specific host-cell receptor, a translocation domain that forms pores across the endosomal membrane in response to acidic pH, and an enzyme that translocates through these pores to catalytically inactivate an essential host cytosolic substrate. The homologous toxins A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB) secreted by Clostridium difficile are large enzyme-containing toxins that for many years have eluded characterization. The cell-surface receptors for these toxins, the non-classical nature of the pores that they form in membranes, and mechanism of translocation have remained undefined, exacerbated, in part, by the lack of any structural information for the central ∼1000 amino acid translocation domain. Recent advances in the identification of receptors for TcdB, high-resolution structural information for the translocation domain, and a model for the pore have begun to shed light on the mode-of-action of these toxins. Here, we will review TcdA/TcdB uptake and entry into mammalian cells, with focus on receptor binding, endocytosis, pore formation, and translocation. We will highlight how these toxins diverge from classical models of translocating toxins, and offer our perspective on key unanswered questions for TcdA/TcdB binding and entry into mammalian cells.

Treatment With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: The Need for Complete Methodological Reporting for Clinical Trials.

Identification of novel risk factors for community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection using spatial statistics and geographic information system analyses.

The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied.

A Clostridium difficile alanine racemase affects spore germination and accommodates serine as a substrate.

Clostridium difficile has become one of the most common bacterial pathogens in hospital-acquired infections in the United States. Although C. difficile is strictly anaerobic, it survives in aerobic environments and transmits between hosts via spores. C. difficile spore germination is triggered in response to certain bile acids and glycine. Although glycine is the most effective co-germinant, other amino acids can substitute with varying efficiencies. Of these, l-alanine is an effective co-germinant and is also a germinant for most bacterial spores. Many endospore-forming bacteria embed alanine racemases into their spore coats, and these enzymes are thought to convert the l-alanine germinant into d-alanine, a spore germination inhibitor. Although the C. difficile Alr2 racemase is the sixth most highly expressed gene during C. difficile spore formation, a previous study reported that Alr2 has little to no role in germination of C. difficile spores in rich medium. Here, we hypothesized that Alr2 could affect C. difficile l-alanine-induced spore germination in a defined medium. We found that alr2 mutant spores more readily germinate in response to l-alanine as a co-germinant. Surprisingly, d-alanine also functioned as a co-germinant. Moreover, we found that Alr2 could interconvert l- and d-serine and that Alr2 bound to l- and d-serine with ∼2-fold weaker affinity to that of l- and d-alanine. Finally, we demonstrate that l- and d-serine are also co-germinants for C. difficile spores. These results suggest that C. difficile spores can respond to a diverse set of amino acid co-germinants and reveal that Alr2 can accommodate serine as a substrate.

Higher Incidence of Clostridium difficile Infection Among Individuals With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Studies of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) among individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have used data from single centers or CDI administrative data codes of limited diagnostic accuracy. We determined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes after CDI in a population-based cohort of patients with IBD and laboratory confirmation diagnoses of CDI.

Microbicidal effects of weakly acidified chlorous acid water against feline calicivirus and Clostridium difficile spores under protein-rich conditions.

Sanitation of environmental surfaces with chlorine based-disinfectants is a principal measure to control outbreaks of norovirus or Clostridium difficile. The microbicidal activity of chlorine-based disinfectants depends on the free available chlorine (FAC), but their oxidative potential is rapidly eliminated by organic matter. In this study, the microbicidal activities of weakly acidified chlorous acid water (WACAW) and sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO) against feline calcivirus (FCV) and C. difficile spores were compared in protein-rich conditions. WACAW inactivated FCV and C. difficile spores better than NaClO under all experimental conditions used in this study. WACAW above 100 ppm FAC decreased FCV >4 log10 within 30 sec in the presence of 0.5% each of bovine serum albumin (BSA), polypeptone or meat extract. Even in the presence of 5% BSA, WACAW at 600 ppm FAC reduced FCV >4 log10 within 30 sec. Polypeptone inhibited the virucidal activity of WACAW against FCV more so than BSA or meat extract. WACAW at 200 ppm FAC decreased C. difficile spores >3 log10 within 1 min in the presence of 0.5% polypeptone. The microbicidal activity of NaClO was extensively diminished in the presence of organic matter. WACAW recovered its FAC to the initial level after partial neutralization by sodium thiosulfate, while no restoration of the FAC was observed in NaClO. These results indicate that WACAW is relatively stable under organic matter-rich conditions and therefore may be useful for treating environmental surfaces contaminated by human excretions.

The emergence of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of incidence and impact.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare associated infection and is highly prevalent in Europe and North America. Limited data is available on the prevalence of CDI in Asia. However, secular increases in prevalence of risk factors for CDI suggest that it may be emerging as a major cause of morbidity, highlighting the urgent need for a systematic study of the prevalence of CDI in Asia.

Colonization rate of Clostridium Difficile in healthy children.

Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: <1 year old(n=53), 1-<3 years old(n=50), 3-<6 years old(n=50) and 6-<14 years old(n=50) respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Clostridium difficile toxin genes including tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin CDT (cdtA and cdtB), and toxin regulatory genes including tcdC, tcdD and tcdE. And then the positive samples were sequenced. Measurement data were compared by using t test and rank sum test, while, enumeration data were compared using chi-square test. Result: Fifteen (7.4%) specimens were positive for Clostridium difficile toxin genes in 203 stool specimens. Of the 15 positive specimens, eight(53.3%) were tcdA(+) tcdB(-)(A(+) B(-)), four were A(+) B(+) , 3(20.0%) were A(-)B(+) , the binary toxin-positive specimens were not detected. TcdC, tcdD, tcdE positive specimens were 8, 6 and 11, respectively. Gene mutations were not found in positive samples by DNA sequencing. In the 15 positive samples, four (7.5%) specimens were in <1 year old group; four (8.0%) specimens were in 1-<3 years old group; one(2.0%) specimen was in 3-<6 years old group; and 6(12.0%) specimens were in 6-<14 years old group. The colonization rate had no significance in different age groups. Conclusion: The colonization rate of Clostridium difficile in healthy children was 7.4%. And toxigenic Clostridium difficile can be detected in all age groups.

Reducing Recurrence of C. difficile Infection.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is facilitated by alteration of the microbiome following antibiotic administration. Antimicrobial therapy directed against the pathogen can treat CDI. Unfortunately, ∼20% of successfully treated patients will suffer recurrence. Bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody, binds to C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), reducing recurrence presumably by limiting epithelial damage and facilitating microbiome recovery.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Trends in the Incidence and Outcomes of Hospitalized Cancer Patients With Clostridium difficile Infection: A Nationwide Analysis.

Background: Patients with cancer have several risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the impact of CDI on outcomes in this population needs elucidation. We analyzed the incidence of CDI and its impact on outcomes in patients with cancer using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Diagnosis codes were used to identify patients with cancer and CDI events. Demographics, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and discharge information were abstracted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models with weighted analysis were conducted to study CDI incidence and CDI-associated outcomes. Analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4. Results: During the 10-year study period, 20.1 million discharges had a cancer diagnosis. CDI developed in 1.09% of patients with cancer versus 0.77% of patients without cancer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.28-1.29; P<.001). The incidence of CDI in patients with cancer increased during the 10-year study period (64.7 per 10,000 discharges in 2001-2002 to 109.1 in 2009-2010; P<.001). In multivariable analysis, compared with patients with cancer without CDI, patients with cancer and CDI had a longer mean LOS (5.67 days; 95% CI, 5.39-5.94) and higher rates of in-hospital mortality (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16-1.20) and discharge to a care facility (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.72-1.75; all P<.001). Conclusions: In this national database, CDI incidence increased significantly in patients with cancer over the study period and was associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased mortality, and discharge to a care facility. Despite increased attention, CDI remained a serious infection and merits appropriate prevention and management.

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Bile Acid Analogues Inhibitory to Clostridium difficile Spore Germination.

Standard antibiotic-based strategies for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections disrupt indigenous microbiota and commonly fail to eradicate bacterial spores, two key factors that allow recurrence of infection. As an alternative approach to controlling C. difficile infection, a series of bile acid derivatives have been prepared that inhibit taurocholate-induced spore germination. These analogues have been evaluated in a highly virulent NAP1 strain using optical density and phase-contrast microscopy assays. Heterocycle substitutions at C24 were well-tolerated and several tetrazole-containing derivatives were highly potent inhibitors in both assays, with complete inhibition of spore germination observed at 10-25 μM. To limit intestinal absorption, C7-sulfated analogues designed to avoid active and passive transport pathways were prepared. One of these derivatives, compound 21b, was found to be a potent inhibitor of C. difficile spore germination and poorly permeable in a Caco-2 model of intestinal epithelial absorption, suggesting that it is likely to be gut-restricted.

Survival of Clostridium difficile spores at low water activity.

Clostridium difficile is frequently found in meat and meat products. Germination efficiency, defined as colony formation, was previously investigated at temperatures found in meat handling and processing for spores of strain M120 (animal isolate), R20291 (human isolate), and DK1 (beef isolate). In this study, germination efficiency of these spore strains was assessed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, aw ∼1.00), commercial beef jerky (aw ∼0.82/0.72), and aw-adjusted PBS (aw ∼0.82/0.72). Surface hydrophobicity was followed for spores stored in PBS. After three months and for all PBS aw levels tested, M120 and DK1 spores showed a ∼1 decimal reduction in colony formation but this was not the case when kept in beef jerky suggesting a protective food matrix effect. During storage, and with no significant aw effect, an increase in colony formation was observed for R20291 spores kept in PBS (∼2 decimal log increase) and beef jerky (∼1 decimal log increase) suggesting a loss of spore superdormancy. For all strains, no significant changes in spore surface hydrophobicity were observed after storage. Collectively, these results indicate that depending on the germination properties of C. difficile spores and the media properties, their germination efficiency may increase or decrease during long term food storage.

Risk Factors for Community-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection in Children.

To characterize the medication and other exposures associated with pediatric community-associated Clostridium difficile infections (CA-CDIs).

Effect of Clostridium difficile Prevalence in Hospitals and Nursing Homes on Risk of Infection.

To assess the effect of facility Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevalence on risk of healthcare facility (HFC) acquired CDI.

Old and new models for studying host-microbe interactions in health and disease: C. difficile as an example.

There has been an explosion of interest in studying the indigenous microbiota, which plays an important role in human health and disease. Traditionally, the study of microbes in relationship to human health involved consideration of individual microbial species that caused classical infectious diseases. With the interest in the human microbiome, an appreciation of the influence that complex communities of microbes can have on their environment has developed. When considering either individual pathogenic microbes or a symbiotic microbial community, researchers have employed a variety of model systems with which they can study the host-microbe interaction. With the use of studies of infections with the toxin-producing bacterium Clostridium difficile as a model for both a pathogen and beneficial bacterial communities as an example, this review will summarize and compare various model systems that can be used to gain insight into the host-microbe interaction.