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Clostridium difficile - Top 30 Publications

Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis.

To evaluate the frequency, possible risk factors, and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.There has been an upsurge of CDI in patients with IBD who has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Various risk factors have been found to predispose IBD patients to CDI.A retrospective case-control study on IBD patients admitted with exacerbation and tested for CDI at the Tel Aviv Medical Center in 2008 to 2013. Epidemiologic, laboratory, and prognostic data were retrieved from electronic files and compared between patients who tested positive (CDI+) or negative (CDI-) for CDI.CDI was identified in 28 of 311 (7.31%) IBD patients hospitalized with diarrhea. IBD-specific risk factors (univariate analysis) for CDI included: use of systemic steroids therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-10.6) and combinations of ≥2 immunomodulator medications (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3). Additional risk factors for CDI that are common in the general population were hospitalization in the preceding 2 months (OR = 6.0, 95% CI 2.6-14.1), use of antacids (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.4), and high Charlson comorbidity score (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). A multivariate analysis confirmed that only hospitalization within the preceding 2 months and use of antacids were significant risk factors for CDI. The prognosis of CDI+ patients was similar to that of CDI- patients.Hospitalized IBD patients with exacerbation treated with antacids or recently hospitalized are at increased risk for CDI and should be tested and empirically treated until confirmation or exclusion of the infection.

Economic evaluation of interventions designed to reduce Clostridium difficile infection.

Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly expected to balance increasing demand for health services with a finite budget. The role of economic evaluation in healthcare is increasing and this research provides decision-makers with new information about the management of Clostridium difficile infection, from an economic perspective.

Ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infection incidence in Dutch hospitals is not associated with provincial pig farming: Results from a national sentinel surveillance, 2009-2015.

It has been suggested that the high incidence of ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the Netherlands is related to pig farming.

Improved Patient Hand Hygiene Reduces C. Difficile Infections in Hospitals.

Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children.

Antibiotics can disturb gastrointestinal microbiota which may lead to reduced resistance to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Probiotics are live microbial preparations that, when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit to the host, and are a potential C. difficile prevention strategy. Recent clinical practice guidelines do not recommend probiotic prophylaxis, even though probiotics have the highest quality evidence among cited prophylactic therapies.

Purine analogs targeting the guanine riboswitch as potential antibiotics against Clostridioides difficile.

Riboswitches recently emerged as possible targets for the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches. Guanine-sensing riboswitches in the bacterial pathogen Clostridioides difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile) constitute potential targets based on their involvement in the regulation of basal metabolic control of purine compounds. In this study, we deciphered the structure-activity relationship of several guanine derivatives on the guanine riboswitch and determined their antimicrobial activity. We describe the synthesis of purine analogs modified in ring B as well as positions 2 and 6. Their biological activity was determined by measuring their affinity for the C. difficile guanine riboswitch and their inhibitory effect on bacterial growth, including a counter-screen to discriminate against riboswitch-independent antibacterial effects. Altogether, our results suggest that improvements in riboswitch binding affinity in vitro do not necessarily translate into improved antibacterial activity in bacteria, despite the fact that some structure-activity relationship was observed at least with respect to binding affinity.

Clostridium difficile flagellin FliC: Evaluation as adjuvant and use in a mucosal vaccine against Clostridium difficile.

The immunogenicity of bacterial flagellin has been reported in different studies. By its close interaction with the immune system, the flagellin represents an interesting adjuvant and vaccine candidate. Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin has already been tested as adjuvant to stimulate mucosal immunity. Here, we assessed the ability of Clostridium difficile flagellin FliC to act as a mucosal adjuvant, first combined with ovalbumin as antigen and second with a C. difficile surface protein, the precursor of the S-layer proteins SlpA. Using ovalbumin as antigen, we compared the gut mucosal adjuvanticity of FliC to Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin and cholera toxin. Two routes of immunization were tested in a mouse model: intra-rectal and intra-peritoneal, following which, gut mucosal and systemic antibody responses against ovalbumin (Immunoglobulins G and Immunoglobulins A) were analyzed by Enzyme-Linked Immuno Assay in intestinal contents and in sera. In addition, ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin producing cells were detected in the intestinal lamina propria by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot. Results showed that FliC as adjuvant for immunization targeting ovalbumin was able to stimulate a gut mucosal and systemic antibody response independently of the immunization route. In order to develop a mucosal vaccine to prevent C. difficile intestinal colonization, we assessed in a mouse model the efficacy of FliC as adjuvant compared with cholera toxin co-administrated with the C. difficile S-layer precursor SlpA as antigen. After challenge, a significant decrease of C. difficile intestinal colonization was observed in immunized groups compared to the control group. Our results showed that C. difficile FliC could be used as adjuvant in mucosal vaccination strategy against C. difficile infections.

Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Age-Matched Controls.

To assess whether features of the infant intestinal microbiome, including the carriage of toxigenic bacteria, are associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from hospitals during a 4-year period in China.

The aim of this study was to perform molecular characterization for and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Clostridium difficile collected from hospitals during a 4-year period (2009-2013) in China.

Prevalence of binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile in diarrhoeal humans in the absence of epidemic ribotype 027.

Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B. We performed a prospective investigation into the prevalence and genetic characteristics of A-B-CDT+ C. difficile in symptomatic humans. All glutamate dehydrogenase or toxin B gene positive faecal specimens from symptomatic inpatients over 30 days (n = 43) were cultured by enrichment, and C. difficile PCR ribotypes (RTs) and toxin gene profiles determined. From 39 culture-positive specimens, 43 C. difficile isolates were recovered, including two A-B-CDT+ isolates. This corresponded to an A-B-CDT+ prevalence of 2/35 (5.7%) isolates possessing at least one toxin, 2/10 (20%) A-B- isolates, 2/3 CDT+ isolates and 1/28 (3.6%) presumed true CDI cases. No link to Australian livestock-associated C. difficile was found. Neither A-B-CDT+ isolate was the predominant A-B-CDT+ strain found in Australia, RT 033, nor did they belong to toxinotype XI. Previous reports infrequently describe A-B-CDT+ C. difficile in patients and strain collections but the prevalence of human A-B-CDT+ C. difficile is rarely investigated. This study highlights the occurrence of A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile in symptomatic patients, warranting further investigations of its role in human infection.

A Surgical Clostridium-Associated Risk of Death Score Predicts Mortality After Colectomy for Clostridium difficile.

A Clostridium difficile-associated risk of death score was recently developed and validated by using a national cohort of both nonsurgical and surgical patients admitted with C difficile infection. However, risk scores specifically derived from surgical cohorts and designed for patients with C difficile infection are currently unavailable.

Safety and Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With Cancer Treated With Cytotoxic Chemotherapy: A Single-Institution Retrospective Case Series.

To study the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with cancer treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy in a single-institution retrospective case series.

Clostridium difficile infections in a university hospital in Greece are mainly associated with PCR ribotypes 017 and 126.

Data regarding the incidence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Greece are limited.

The molecular structure of the glycoside hydrolase domain of Cwp19 from Clostridium difficile.

Clostridium difficile is a burden to healthcare systems around the world, causing tens of thousands of deaths annually. The S-layer of the bacterium, a layer of protein found of the surface of cells, has received a significant amount of attention over the past two decades as a potential target to combat the growing threat presented by C. difficile infections. The S-layer contains a wide range of proteins, each of which possesses three cell wall-binding domains, while many also possess a "functional" region. Here, we present the high resolution structure of the functional region of one such protein, Cwp19 along with preliminary functional characterisation of the predicted glycoside hydrolase. Cwp19 has a TIM barrel fold and appears to possess a high degree of substrate selectivity. The protein also exhibits peptidoglycan hydrolase activity, an order of magnitude slower than that of lysozyme and is the first member of glycoside hydrolase-like family 10 to be characterised. This research goes some way to understanding the role of Cwp19 in the S-layer of C. difficile.

Does Proton Pump Inhibitor Increase the Clostridium difficile Infection Risk in the Treatment and Prophylaxis of Stress Ulcers than Histanime-2 Receptor Antagonist?

Evaluation of AISI Type 304 stainless steel as a suitable surface material for evaluating the efficacy of peracetic acid-based disinfectants against Clostridium difficile spores.

Disinfectants play an important role in controlling microbial contamination on hard surfaces in hospitals. The effectiveness of disinfectants in real life can be predicted by laboratory tests that measure killing of microbes on carriers. The modified Quantitative Disk Carrier Test (QCT-2) is a standard laboratory method that employs American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Type 430 stainless steel carriers to measure hospital disinfectant efficacy against Clostridium difficile spores. The formation of a rust-colored precipitate was observed on Type 430 carriers when testing a peracetic acid (PAA)-based disinfectant with the QCT-2 method. It was hypothesized that the precipitate was indicative of corrosion of the Type 430 carrier, and that corrosion could impact efficacy results. The objective of this study was to compare the suitability of AISI Type 430 to Type 304 stainless steel carriers for evaluating PAA-based disinfectants using the QCT-2 method. Type 304 is more corrosion-resistant than Type 430, is ubiquitous in healthcare environments, and is used in other standard methods. Suitability of the carriers was evaluated by comparing their impacts on efficacy results and PAA degradation rates. In efficacy tests with 1376 ppm PAA, reductions of C. difficile spores after 5, 7 and 10 minutes on Type 430 carriers were at least about 1.5 log10 lower than reductions on Type 304 carriers. In conditions simulating a QCT-2 test, PAA concentration with Type 430 carriers was reduced by approximately 80% in 10 minutes, whereas PAA concentration in the presence of Type 304 carriers remained stable. Elemental analyses of residues on each carrier type after efficacy testing were indicative of corrosion on the Type 430 carrier. Use of Type 430 stainless steel carriers for measuring the efficacy of PAA-based disinfectants should be avoided as it can lead to an underestimation of real life sporicidal efficacy. Type 304 stainless steel carriers are recommended as a suitable alternative.

Microencapsulation of Clostridium difficile specific bacteriophages using microfluidic glass capillary devices for colon delivery using pH triggered release.

The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses) as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly difficult to treat with existing antibiotics; phage therapy may offer a viable alternative. The punitive environment within the gastrointestinal tract can inactivate orally delivered phages. C. difficile specific bacteriophage, myovirus CDKM9 was encapsulated in a pH responsive polymer (Eudragit® S100 with and without alginate) using a flow focussing glass microcapillary device. Highly monodispersed core-shell microparticles containing phages trapped within the particle core were produced by in situ polymer curing using 4-aminobenzoic acid dissolved in the oil phase. The size of the generated microparticles could be precisely controlled in the range 80 μm to 160 μm through design of the microfluidic device geometry and by varying flow rates of the dispersed and continuous phase. In contrast to free 'naked' phages, those encapsulated within the microparticles could withstand a 3 h exposure to simulated gastric fluid at pH 2 and then underwent a subsequent pH triggered burst release at pH 7. The significance of our research is in demonstrating that C. difficile specific phage can be formulated and encapsulated in highly uniform pH responsive microparticles using a microfluidic system. The microparticles were shown to afford significant protection to the encapsulated phage upon prolonged exposure to an acid solution mimicking the human stomach environment. Phage encapsulation and subsequent release kinetics revealed that the microparticles prepared using Eudragit® S100 formulations possess pH responsive characteristics with phage release triggered in an intestinal pH range suitable for therapeutic purposes. The results reported here provide proof-of-concept data supporting the suitability of our approach for colon targeted delivery of phages for therapeutic purposes.

Accuracy of Xpert Clostridium difficile assay for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: A meta analysis.

There is an urgent need for rapid and accurate microbiological diagnostic assay for detection of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert Clostridium difficile assay (Xpert CD) for the diagnosis of CDI.

The Spore Coat Protein CotE Facilitates Host Colonization by Clostridium difficile.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important hospital-acquired infection resulting from the germination of spores in the intestine as a consequence of antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Key to this is CotE, a protein displayed on the spore surface and carrying 2 functional elements, an N-terminal peroxiredoxin and a C-terminal chitinase domain. Using isogenic mutants, we show in vitro and ex vivo that CotE enables binding of spores to mucus by direct interaction with mucin and contributes to its degradation. In animal models of CDI, we show that when CotE is absent, both colonization and virulence were markedly reduced. We demonstrate here that the attachment of spores to the intestine is essential in the development of CDI. Spores are usually regarded as biochemically dormant, but our findings demonstrate that rather than being simply agents of transmission and dissemination, spores directly contribute to the establishment and promotion of disease.

Strong antimicrobial activity of xanthohumol and other derivatives from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on gut anaerobic bacteria.

Anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis or Clostridium perfringens, are part of indigenous human flora. However, Clostridium difficile represents also an important causative agent of nosocomial infectious antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection is problematic, making it imperative to search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain substances with antibacterial properties. We tested antimicrobial activity of purified hop constituents humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol against anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was established against B. fragilis, C. perfringens and C. difficile strains according to standard testing protocols (CLSI, EUCAST), and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were calculated. All C. difficile strains were toxigenic and clinically relevant, as they were isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Strongest antimicrobial effects were observed with xanthohumol showing MIC and MBC values of 15-107 μg/mL, which are close to those of conventional antibiotics in the strains of bacteria with increased resistance. Slightly higher MIC and MBC values were obtained with lupulone followed by higher values of humulone. Our study, thus, shows a potential of purified hop compounds, especially xanthohumol, as alternatives for treatment of infections caused by select anaerobic bacteria, namely nosocomial diarrhoea caused by resistant strains.

Clostridium difficile colonization and infection in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

The aim of this study was to investigate the toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (CDC, colonization with toxigenic C. difficile but without symptoms) and C. difficile infection (CDI, active C. difficile infection resulting in disease symptoms) in hepatic cirrhosis patients, identify the risk factors of CDC, and determine the correlation between CDC and CDI.

Clostridium difficile infection in the Lao People's Democratic Republic: first isolation and review of the literature.

Current knowledge of the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia, and in particular the Greater Mekong Subregion, is very limited. Only a few studies from Thailand and Vietnam have been reported from the region with variable testing methods and results, and no studies from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Therefore we investigated the presence of C. difficile in a single centre in the Lao PDR and determined the ribotypes present.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities and molecular characterization of toxin-positive Clostridium difficile isolates: the first report on the presence of hypervirulent strains from Turkey.

Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities and molecular characteristics of 61 C.difficile strains isolated by culture from toxin-positive fecal samples of patients who were admitted to three different laboratories in Ankara, between September 2012 and November 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by using gradient test strips and results were interpreted according to the current CLSI and EUCAST criteria. The presence of toxin genes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and mutations in the tcdC gene were determined by sequence analysis following PCR amplification. Genetic characterization of one hypervirulent strain was performed by Public Health Institution of Turkey using the GenoType CDiff (Hain Lifescience, Germany) test. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. Three (4.9%) isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 8 µg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for erythromycin and clindamycin were 1.5-3 µg/ml, and 2-4 µg/ml, respectively. All strains carried the tcdA and tcdB genes, and 1 (1.6%) was positive for the binary-toxin (cdtA and cdtB) genes. The binary-toxin positive strain carried a 54 bp deletion as well as a single nucleotide change in the tcdC gene. Various single nucleotide changes were found in the tcdC gene of 12 strains (19.6%). Our results have shown that, hypervirulent strains exist in our country, but we have no evidence for the presence of ribotype 027 yet. On the other hand, when the increasing incidence of these strains through out the world is taken into consideration, it would be of great importance to perform surveillance studies and characterize the isolated strains.

Molecular, microbiological and clinical characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from tertiary care hospitals in Colombia.

In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed. From a total of 913 stool samples collected during 2013-2014, 775 were included in the study. The frequency of A/B toxins-positive samples was 9.7% (75/775). A total of 143 isolates of C.difficile were recovered from culture, 110 (76.9%) produced cytotoxic effect in cell culture, 100 (69.9%) were tcdA+/tcdB+, 11 (7.7%) tcdA-/tcdB+, 32 (22.4%) tcdA-/tcdB- and 25 (17.5%) CDTa+/CDTb+. From 37 ribotypes identified, ribotypes 591 (20%), 106 (9%) and 002 (7.9%) were the most prevalent; only one isolate corresponded to ribotype 027, four to ribotype 078 and four were new ribotypes (794,795, 804,805). All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, while 85% and 7.7% were resistant to clindamycin and moxifloxacin, respectively. By multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated to CDI were, staying in orthopedic service, exposure to third-generation cephalosporins and staying in an ICU before CDI symptoms; moreover, steroids showed to be a protector factor. These results revealed new C. difficile ribotypes and a high diversity profile circulating in Colombia different from those reported in America and European countries.

Fidaxomicin reduces early toxin A and B production and sporulation in Clostridium difficilein vitro.

Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated.

Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia.

Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.

Revisiting the Role of Csp Family Proteins in Regulating Clostridium difficile Spore Germination.

Clostridium difficile