A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Death - Top 30 Publications

Understanding the effect of corticosteroid pretreatment in brain-dead organ donors: new mechanistic insights for improvement of organ quality in liver transplantation.

Transplant surgeons are currently faced with the challenge to accept marginal liver transplants due to steatosis or old age. Improving organ quality by implementing a selective organ protective donor management could be the first step towards a graft of enhanced quality. However, the molecular mechanisms of such treatments are still poorly understood. Glucocorticoid medication in donor medicine has been carried out and discussed for a long time. In a recent study published in Clinical Science, Jiménez-Castro et al. [Clin. Sci. (2017) 131, 733-746] demonstrate how liver histology and transplant liver function can be improved by administration of glucocorticoids to brain-dead donor rats with steatotic livers. This work illustrates the need for further trials in order to selectively improve the quality of steatotic livers with a potential for liver transplantation.

Media accounts of unintentional child injury deaths in New Zealand: a teachable moment?

To review media accounts of fatal child unintentional injury events reported in leading New Zealand newspapers for their completeness and potential to deliver evidence-based injury prevention messages.

Aborted Sudden Cardiac Death After Unroofing of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery.

We describe a patient with anomalous left coronary artery with a short intramural course and a previously unrecognized myocardial bridge who presented with a recurrent episode of aborted sudden cardiac death. Intravascular ultrasound and fractional flow reserve showed significant compression at the left coronary artery ostium by the intercoronary pillar and at the myocardial bridge. Intravascular ultrasound and fractional flow reserve were normal after coronary translocation and unroofing of the myocardial bridge. All potential anatomic culprits should be addressed when operating on patients with anomalous coronaries.

Physiologic Features of Brain Death.

Brain death is known to be associated with physiologic derangements but their incidence is poorly described. Knowledge of the changes that occur during brain death is important for management of the potential organ donor. Thus, we sought to characterize the pathophysiology that occurs during brain death in patients with traumatic injuries. All brain-dead patients over a 10-year period were identified from the trauma registry at a level 1 urban trauma center. Patient demographics, injury characteristics, and clinical data for defining organ dysfunction were reviewed for the 24 hours surrounding brain-death declaration. Three hundred and seventy-three patients were identified. Mean age was 37 years (±17.2). Seventy-five per cent were male. Major mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 66 per cent. Median injury severity score was 34 (IQR 25-43) with a median head abbreviated injury scale score of 5. The most common physiological disturbance was hypotension with 91 per cent of subjects requiring vasopressors. Thrombocytopenia and acidosis both had an incidence of 79 per cent. The next most common disturbances were hypothermia and moderate-to-severe respiratory dysfunction in 62 per cent. Myocardial injury was seen in 91 per cent but only 5.7 per cent of patients manifested severe cardiac dysfunction with an ejection fraction of <35. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed in 50 per cent of patients. Interestingly, coagulopathy was noted in only 61.3 per cent, and hyperglycemia was seen in 36 per cent despite widespread belief that these occur universally during brain death. This is the first and largest study to characterize the incidence of pathophysiological disturbances following brain death in humans. Appropriate management of these dysfunctions is important for support of potential brain-dead organ donors.

Notes from the Field: Death of a Farm Worker After Exposure to Manure Gas in an Open Air Environment - Wisconsin, August 2016.

Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

Denervated Myocardium Is Preferentially Associated With Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: A Pilot Competing Risks Analysis of Cause-Specific Mortality.

Previous studies have identified multiple risk factors that are associated with total cardiac mortality. Nevertheless, identifying specific factors that distinguish patients at risk of arrhythmic death versus heart failure could better target patients likely to benefit from implantable cardiac defibrillators, which have no impact on nonsudden cardiac death.

Sudden Death Due to Coronary Artery Lesions Long-term After the Arterial Switch Operation: A Systematic Review.

The arterial switch operation (ASO) is the preferred procedure for children with dextrotransposition of the great arteries or Taussig-Bing anomaly. Short- as well as long-term outcome of ASO are excellent, but coronary artery stenoses are reported as a common long-term complication. It has been hypothesized that these might result in sudden cardiac death late after ASO.

Underestimation of sudden deaths among patients with seizures and epilepsy.

To determine the definite and potential frequency of seizures and epilepsy as a cause of death (COD) and how often this goes unrecognized.

Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar using verbal autopsy: A population-based study.

India was estimated to have the largest numbers of stillbirths globally in 2015, and the Indian government has adopted a target of <10 stillbirths per 1,000 births by 2030 through the India Newborn Action Plan (INAP). The objective of this study was to use verbal autopsy interviews to examine factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar and make recommendations for the INAP to better inform the setting of priorities and actions to reduce stillbirths.

Counting stillbirths and achieving accountability: A global health priority.

In a Perspective, Zulfiqar Bhutta discusses the importance of regular and timely reporting on stillbirths.

Severe ventricular arrhythmias in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and automated implantable defibrillator (AID).

Severe ventricular arrhythmias are frequent during heart failure; they are a life-threatening condition due to the increased risk of sudden death. Efficient management remains limited in sub-Saharan Africa because of the limited or unavailable medical resources as automated implantable defibrillator (AID). We report the case of a 56-year old patient with non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with very low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)who underwent AID implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias in 2012. Maintenance therapy combined diuretic, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and anti-vitamin K. In the month of November 2014 the patient had iterative episodes requiring the delivery of electric shocks by the AID, without the sensation of palpitations suggestive of episodes of arrhythmias. Clinical examination is a poor screening test, especially for heart failure. AID detected multiple episodes of tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation justifying antitachycardia pacing (ATP) therapy or the delivery of electric shocks of 15J. The patient was treated with amiodarone and beta blocker. Evolution was favorable at 3-months follow-up. The patients had resumed normal activities, without experiencing new episodes requiring the delivery of electric shocks. This study emphasizes the essential role of anti-arrhythmic drug therapy for severe ventricular arrhythmias, even in the presence of AID.

Biological effects of anti-RANKL antibody administration in pregnant mice and their newborns.

Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and blocks osteoclast differentiation, has received approval in Japan for use as an anti-resorptive drug for osteoporosis and skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with solid cancer. Denosumab is contraindicated during pregnancy, though the effects of blocking RANKL activity on pregnant mothers and their newborns are unclear. We used mice to investigate the effects of an anti-RANKL antibody on maternal and newborn health. Mothers injected with the anti-RANKL antibody had increased bone mass as compared with the controls, while osteoclast number and the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in serum were increased at the end of pregnancy. Newborn mice exposed to the antibody in utero were normally born, but showed increased bone mass and died within 48 h after birth. None of the newborns were found to have milk in their stomachs, suggesting that they died due to a maternal defect in lactation. Consistent with this, anti-RANKL antibody-injected mothers displayed impaired mammary gland development. However, fostering by healthy surrogate mothers rescued only 33% of the antibody-exposed newborns, suggesting that neonatal mortality was due, at least in part, to an intrinsic defect in the newborns. Our findings show that anti-RANKL antibody administration during pregnancy results in not only an undesirable increase in bone mass, but also has harmful effects on newborn survival.

Prevention of sudden cardiac death in the young: Developing a rational, reliable, and sustainable national health care resource. A report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

This White Paper, prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, discusses important issues regarding sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY), a problem that does not discriminate by gender, race, ethnicity, education, socioeconomic level, or athletic status. The occurrence of SCDY has devastating impact on families and communities. Sudden cardiac death in the young is a matter of national and international public health, and its prevention has generated deep interest from multiple stakeholders, including families who have lost children, advocacy groups, academicians, regulators, and the medical industry. To promote scientific and clinical discussion of SCDY prevention and to germinate future initiatives to move this field forward, a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium-sponsored Think Tank was held on February 21, 2015 at the US Food and Drug Administration's White Oak facilities, Silver Spring, MD. The ultimate goal of the Think Tank was to spark initiatives that lead to the development of a rational, reliable, and sustainable national health care resource focused on SCDY prevention. This article provides a detailed summary of discussions at the Think Tank and descriptions of related multistakeholder initiatives now underway: it does not represent regulatory guidance.

Variations in Cause-of-Death Determination for Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths.

To quantify and describe variation in cause-of-death certification of sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) among US medical examiners and coroners.

Prematurity and Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths in the United States.

Prematurity, a strong risk factor for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID), was addressed in recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2011 for safe sleep education in NICUs. We documented associations between gestational age (GA) and SUID subsequent to these guidelines.

Is ambient temperature associated with risk of infant mortality? A multi-city study in Korea.

Although numerous studies have shown increased risk of mortality from elevated temperatures for adults, limited studies have examined temperature's effect on mortality for infants. Our study investigated the city-specific and overall effects of ambient temperature on infant mortality in seven major cities in Korea, 2004-2007.

Intimate Strangers.

A PICU nurse writes of walking with parents in their pain.

Evidence of bone marrow downregulation in brain-dead rats.

Experimental findings support the evidence of a persistent leucopenia triggered by brain death (BD). This study aimed to investigate leucocyte behaviour in bone marrow and blood after BD in rats. BD was induced using intracranial balloon catheter inflation. Sham-operated (SH) rats were trepanned only. Thereafter bone marrow cells were harvested every six hours from the femoral cavity and used for total and differential counts. They were analysed further by flow cytometry to characterize lymphocyte subsets, granulocyte adhesion molecules expression and apoptosis/necrosis [annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) protocol]. BD rats exhibited a reduction in bone marrow cells due to a reduction in lymphocytes (40%) and segmented cells (45%). Bone marrow lymphocyte subsets were similar in BD and SH rats (CD3, P = 0.1; CD4, P = 0.4; CD3/CD4, P = 0.4; CD5, P = 0.4, CD3/CD5, P = 0.2; CD8, P = 0.8). Expression of L-selectin and beta2 -integrins on granulocytes did not differ (CD11a, P = 0.9; CD11b/c, P = 0.7; CD62L, P = 0.1). There were no differences in the percentage of apoptosis and necrosis (Annexin V, P = 0.73; PI, P = 0.21; Annexin V/PI, P = 0.29). In conclusion, data presented suggest that the downregulation of the bone marrow is triggered by brain death itself, and it is not related to changes in lymphocyte subsets, granulocyte adhesion molecules expression or apoptosis and necrosis.

Interventions to Improve Infant Safe Sleep Practices.

Unrecognized viral infections and chromosome abnormalities as a cause of fetal death - examination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction.

Fifteen to 50% of fetal deaths remain unexplained after post-mortem examination depending on inclusion criteria and classification systems. Our aim was to examine a selection of unexplained fetal deaths in order to investigate whether any common chromosome aberrations or viral infections were present. Reports from 351 fetal autopsies performed at the Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics at St. Olavs University Hospital from 2001 through 2010 were reviewed. Of these, 105 fetal deaths were classified as unexplained. Tissue samples from 30 cases were further examined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect abnormalities in chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. The samples were also examined with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect infections with cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, enterovirus, and parechovirus. In two cases, a possible trisomy 13 mosaicism was found. No viruses were detected. In our selection of 30 unexplained cases, possible trisomy 13 mosaicism was found in two cases, and no viruses were detected. High degree of maceration and missing placental examination often complicate the investigation of fetal death, and extensive ancillary examinations do not necessarily contribute to a more specific diagnosis.

Contemporary Outcomes in Patients With Long QT Syndrome.

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal cardiac channelopathy with a 1% to 5% annual risk of LQTS-triggered syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death.

Return of the cadaver: Key role of anatomic dissection for plastic surgery resident training.

Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.

Risk stratification personalised model for prediction of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with chronic heart failure.

The development of prognostic factors of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) continues to maintain its priority and relevance in cardiology. The development of a method of personalised prognosis based on multifactorial analysis of the risk factors associated with life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances is considered a key research and clinical task.

Personalizing Risk Stratification for Sudden Death in Dilated Cardiomyopathy: The Past, Present, and Future.

Results from the DANISH Study (Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs in Patients With Non-Ischemic Systolic Heat Failure on Mortality) suggest that for many patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators do not increase longevity. Accurate identification of patients who are more likely to die of an arrhythmia and less likely to die of other causes is required to ensure improvement in outcomes and wise use of resources. Until now, left ventricular ejection fraction has been used as a key criterion for selecting patients with DCM for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention purposes. However, registry data suggest that many patients with DCM and an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest do not have a markedly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, many patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction die of nonsudden causes of death. Methods to predict a higher or lower risk of sudden death include the detection of myocardial fibrosis (a substrate for ventricular arrhythmia), microvolt T-wave alternans (a marker of electrophysiological vulnerability), and genetic testing. Midwall fibrosis is identified by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in ≈30% of patients and provides incremental value in addition to left ventricular ejection fraction for the prediction of sudden cardiac death events. Microvolt T-wave alternans represents another promising predictor, supported by large meta-analyses that have highlighted the negative predictive value of this test. However, neither of these strategies have been routinely adopted for risk stratification in clinical practice. More convincing data from randomized trials are required to inform the management of patients with these features. Understanding of the genetics of DCM and how specific mutations affect arrhythmic risk is also rapidly increasing. The finding of a mutation in lamin A/C, the cause of ≈6% of idiopathic DCM, commonly underpins more aggressive management because of the malignant nature of the associated phenotype. With the expansion of genetic sequencing, the identification of further high-risk mutations appears likely, leading to better-informed clinical decision making and providing insight into disease mechanisms. Over the next 5 to 10 years, we expect these techniques to be integrated into the existing algorithm to form a more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective approach to the selection of patients with DCM for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Do the Guidelines Fall Short?

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. SCD may be prevented by implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation, but patient stratification remains troublesome. The 2014 Consensus Statement on Arrhythmias in ACHD patients and the 2015 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines specified recommendations for ICD implantation in ACHD patients for the first time. We assess the discriminative ability of these ICD recommendations for SCD in ACHD patients.

Efficacy and safety of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator: a systematic review.

Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICDs) are considered an alternative to conventional transvenous ICDs (TV-ICDs) in patients not requiring pacing.

Declining Risk of Sudden Death in Heart Failure.

The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. We sought to examine this trend in detail.

Clinicians' Perception and Experience of Organ Donation From Brain-Dead Patients.

ICU clinicians are primarily involved in organ donation after brain death of ICU patients. Their perceptions of organ donation may affect outcomes. Our objective was to describe ICU clinician's perceptions and experience of organ donation.

Sudden cardiac death due to sarcoidosis. Case report.

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology, which is characterized by bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary disease. Clinically detected cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of sarcoid patients, although cardiac manifestations are discovered in 25% of the cases at autopsy. Sarcoid heart disease frequently causes atrioventricular block. The authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with bradycardia. On admission, second degree Mobitz II, then third degree atrioventricular block was diagnosed. Coronarography showed normal coronary arteries. 2.5 years following artificial Biotronik Entovis DR type pacemaker implantation, sudden cardiac death occurred. Autopsy revealed sarcoidosis with cardiac, pulmonary, splenic, renal and lymph node involvement. In case of young or middle-aged patients with atrioventricular block, it is best to search for other causes if the most common coronary origin can be excluded. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(27): 1067-1070.