A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Death - Top 30 Publications

Unexpected custodial death due to acute epiglottitis: A rare autopsy case report.

Acute epiglottitis is a potentially life-threaten disease, which makes it more challenging to save the life for doctors. Unexpected deaths in custody are a primary cause of concern for the forensic community and doctor worldwide.

Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism after Achilles tendon open repair: A rare case report.

The operative procedure for Achilles tendon rupture is relatively simple, but venous thromboembolism is serious complication with a high incidence after Achilles tendon rupture. However, the guideline for thromboprophylaxis in Achilles tendon rupture is unclear.

Sudden cardiac death owing to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: Two case reports and systematic literature review.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is increasingly recognized in forensic practice with controversial diagnosis. Here we described the epidemiological characteristics and reported the pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic challenges, and forensic implications of Chinese ARVC autopsy cases.

Vital Signs: Trends and Disparities in Infant Safe Sleep Practices - United States, 2009-2015.

There have been dramatic improvements in reducing infant sleep-related deaths since the 1990s, when recommendations were introduced to place infants on their backs for sleep. However, there are still approximately 3,500 sleep-related deaths among infants each year in the United States, including those from sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, and unknown causes. Unsafe sleep practices, including placing infants in a nonsupine (on side or on stomach) sleep position, bed sharing, and using soft bedding in the sleep environment (e.g., blankets, pillows, and soft objects) are modifiable risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths.

Cisplatin-induced sudden cardiac death with hemodynamic collapse: a severe adverse drug reaction: Case report.

Cisplatin is responsible for a significant percentage of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in oncology setting. A great proportion of cisplatin-induced severe adverse events are difficult to foresee, and giving premedication does not always prevent the occurrence of such events.

Time to change focus? Transitioning from higher neonatal to higher stillbirth mortality in São Paulo State, Brazil.

Differential trends in mortality suggest that stillbirths may dominate neonatal mortality in the medium to long run. Brazil has made major efforts to improve data collection on health indicators at granular geographic levels, and provides an ideal environment to test this hypothesis. Our goals were to examine levels and trends in stillbirths and neonatal deaths and the extent to which the mortality burden caused by stillbirths dominates neonatal mortality at the municipality- and state-level.


Despite a marked reduction in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infant deaths from 1998 to 2012 (AIHW 2015) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants remain over-represented in sudden and unexpected infant death rates.


Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) is four times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander babies compared to non-indigenous babies (Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian 2014). Co-sleeping is a culturally valued practice used by many indigenous families however is associated with an increased risk of infant death in hazardous circumstances (Venneman et al. 2012; Blair et al. 2014).

Targeted next-generation sequencing provides novel clues for associated epilepsy and cardiac conduction disorder/SUDEP.

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is an unpredicted condition in patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy, and autopsy does not conclusively identify cause of death. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie this entity remain unknown, the fact that epilepsy can affect cardiac function is not surprising. The genetic factors involving ion channels co-expressed in the heart and brain and other candidate genes have been previously described. In the present study, 20 epilepsy patients with personal or family history of heart rhythm disturbance/cardiac arrhythmias/sudden death were sequenced using a custom re-sequencing panel. Twenty-six relatives were genetically analysed to ascertain the family segregation in ten individuals. Four subjects revealed variants with positive genotype-phenotype segregation: four missense variants in the CDKL5, CNTNAP2, GRIN2A and ADGRV1 genes and one copy number variant in KCNQ1. The potential pathogenic role of variants in new candidate genes will need further studies in larger cohorts, and the evaluation of the potential pathogenic role in the cardio-cerebral mechanisms requires in vivo/in vitro studies. In addition to family segregation, evaluation of the potential pathogenic roles of these variants in cardio-cerebral mechanisms by in vivo/in vitro studies should also be performed. The potential pathogenic role of variants in new candidate genes will need further studies in larger cohorts.

Hydroquinidine Prevents Life-Threatening Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Short QT Syndrome.

Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a rare and life-threatening arrhythmogenic syndrome characterized by abbreviated repolarization. Hydroquinidine (HQ) prolongs the QT interval in SQTS patients, although whether it reduces cardiac events is currently unknown.

Monitoring of arrhythmia and sudden death in a hemodialysis population: The CRASH-ILR Study.

It has been suggested that sudden cardiac death (SCD) contributes around 50% of cardiovascular and 27% of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. The true burden of arrhythmias and arrhythmic deaths in this population, however, remains poorly characterised. Cardio Renal Arrhythmia Study in Hemodialysis (CRASH-ILR) is a prospective, implantable loop recorder single centre study of 30 established hemodialysis patients and one of the first to provide long-term ambulatory ECG monitoring.

Maternal death review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria.

The objective of the study was to investigate the results of Maternal and Perinatal Death Surveillance and Response (MPDSR) conducted in three referral hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria over a two-year period and to report the outcomes and the lessons learned. MPDRS panels were constituted in the three hospitals, and beginning from January 2015, we conducted monthly MPDSR in the three hospitals using a nationally approved protocol. Data on births and deaths and causes of deaths as identified by the MPDSR panels were collated in the hospitals. The results show that over a 21-month period (January 1, 2015 -September 30, 2016), maternal mortality ratio (MMR) remained high in the hospitals. Although there was a trend towards an increase in MMR in Lagos Island Maternity Hospital and Gbagada General Hospital, and a trend towards a decline in Ajeromi Hospital, none of these trends were statistically significant. Eclampsia, primary post-partum haemorrhage, obstructed labour and puerperal sepsis were the leading obstetric causes of death. By contrast, delay in arrival in hospital, the lack of antenatal care and patients' refusal to receive recommended treatment were the patients' associated causes of death, while delay in treatment, poor use of treatment protocols, lack of equipment and lack of skills by providers to use available equipment were the identified facility-related causes of death. Failure to address the patients and facility-related causes of maternal mortality possibly accounted for the persistently high maternal mortality ratio in the hospitals. We conclude that interventions aimed at redressing all causes of maternal deaths identified in the reviews will likely reduce the maternal mortality ratios in the hospitals.

Diagnosis and Prognosis in Sudden Cardiac Arrest Survivors Without Coronary Artery Disease: Utility of a Clinical Approach Using Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Determining the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac arrest or periarrest without significant coronary artery disease is crucial for management and prognosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can detect morphological, functional, or tissue abnormalities, and we sought to evaluate the role of CMR in determining sudden cardiac arrest pathogenesis and prognosis in survivors.

Challenges and Opportunities in Identifying, Reviewing, and Preventing Maternal Deaths.

Despite many efforts at the state, city, and national levels over the past 70 years, a nationwide consensus on how best to identify, review, and prevent maternal deaths remains challenging. We present a brief history of maternal death surveillance in the United States and compare the three systems of national surveillance that exist today: the National Vital Statistics System, the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System, and maternal mortality review committees. We discuss strategies to address the perennial challenges of shared terminology and accurate, comparable data among maternal mortality review committees. Finally, we propose that with the opportunity presented by a systematized shared data system that can accurately account for all maternal deaths, state and local-level maternal mortality review committees could become the gold standard for understanding the true burden of maternal mortality at the national level.

Pragmatic criteria of the definition of neonatal near miss: a comparative study.

The objective of this study was to test the validity of the pragmatic criteria of the definitions of neonatal near miss, extending them throughout the infant period, and to estimate the indicators of perinatal care in public maternity hospitals.

Uterine rupture in a primigravid patient, an uncommon but severe obstetrical event: a case report.

A spontaneous rupture of the unscarred uterus in a primigravid patient is extremely rare and is associated with high perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

Parent-infant co-sleeping and the implications for sudden infant death syndrome.

In 2015 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) updated its 2006 guideline to clarify the association between parent infant co-sleeping and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The practice of co-sleeping is a topic of continuing controversy and debate. Rather than highlighting the risks, the emphasis of the NICE guideline is to provide parents with balanced information so that they can make informed decisions about where their babies sleep. This contradicts previous public health messages on co-sleeping that discourages parents from the practice. Consequently, the updated national guideline has been criticised for failing to provide parents with safer sleep information, which has led to widespread confusion for parents and professionals. Health professionals can deliver safer sleep advice to support parents in their decision-making. However, as a result of inconsistent guidelines and evidence about parent-infant co-sleeping, health professionals may feel apprehensive and ill-equipped to provide advice and support. This article draws on a non-exhaustive literature review to discuss the risks and benefits of parent-infant co-sleeping, and the implications of this practice for SIDS. It also aims to provide transparency and improve understanding for health professionals so that they can support parents to adopt safer sleep strategies for their baby.

Research Progress on Estimation of Early Postmortem Interval.

Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is very important for judging the nature of cases, restricting the scope of investigation and suspect, which is always the emphasis and difficulty for forensic pathology. Early postmortem interval is the time between 0 and 24 hours after death. Due to the shorter time after the case occurred, precisely estimating early postmortem interval can help solve crimes, which has important significance in forensic medicine. In recent years, series of advanced methods and technologies are used to estimate the early PMI by the internal and overseas scholars who work in the forensic area. This paper reviews the research progress on fluids biochemistry, supravital reactions, metabolomics, imageology and the degradation rule of genetic material to provide a new idea to the study and application for estimation of early PMI.

Comparison between manual and mechanical chest compressions during resuscitation in a pediatric animal model of asphyxial cardiac arrest.

Chest compressions (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are not sufficiently effective in many circumstances. Mechanical CC could be more effective than manual CC, but there are no studies comparing both techniques in children. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of manual and mechanical chest compressions with Thumper device in a pediatric cardiac arrest animal model.

Trends of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Death Among Children and Young Adults.

Previous estimates of sudden cardiac death in children and young adults vary significantly, and population-based studies in the United States are lacking. We sought to estimate the incidence, causes, and mortality trends of sudden cardiac death in children and young adults (1-34 years).

The wearable cardioverter defibrillator as a bridge to reimplantation in patients with ICD or CRT-D-related infections.

The approach to treat device infection in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) is a challenging procedure. Optimal treatment is complete extraction of the infected device. To protect these patients from sudden cardiac arrest while waiting for reimplantation and to avoid recurrent infection, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) seems to be a valuable solution. Therefore, we investigated the management and outcome of patients with ICD or CRT-D infections using the WCD as a bridge to re-implantation after lead extraction procedures.

Future Directions: Management of Sudden Cardiac Death.

There will always be a need to optimize early recognition and treatment of sudden cardiac arrest. For out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, this requires a complex system of care involving bystanders, 911 dispatchers, and emergency medical service and hospital-based providers. Optimizing this system is fundamental to improving outcomes. In addition, personnel and resources are needed to develop and sustain a research pipeline that will bring new scientific discoveries and technologies to the field. The 2015 Institute of Medicine report, "Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act," provides a roadmap.

The Subcutaneous Defibrillator.

The transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been shown in multiple studies to be effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death in select populations. The Achilles heel of traditional ICD technology has been the transvenous lead. The subcutaneous ICD provides effective sudden death protection while avoiding lead-related complications of traditional transvenous systems. The subcutaneous ICD is a reasonable option for patients with an ICD indication who do not need bradycardia pacing or cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Primary Prevention Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator Trials: What Have We Learned?

Patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function frequently die suddenly because of arrhythmic and nonarrhythmic causes. Nine trials have evaluated the utility of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICDs) primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Individuals with stable ischemic heart disease (no recent myocardial infarction), especially those with inducible arrhythmias, seem to derive the highest mortality benefit from prophylactic ICD use. The role of ICDs in other patient populations is much less clear and may even be harmful. The use of antiarrhythmic medications has not been shown to improve survival in any patient population at risk for sudden death.

Sudden Cardiac Death: Lessons Learned from Cardiac Implantable Rhythm Devices.

Trials have demonstrated that implantable-cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD). The degree of left ventricular dysfunction is the only parameter to identify primary prevention populations at higher risk of SCD in which ICDs may reduce longitudinal mortality risk. Clinical application of current stratification approaches based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) alone has failed to prevent most SCD in the general population. This lack of specificity has resulted in a significant number of potentially unnecessary ICDs. Future studies should focus on newer risk markers to improve the predictive value of LVEF and SCD prevention.

Neuromuscular Disease: Cardiac Manifestations and Sudden Death Risk.

Cardiovascular complications of neuromuscular diseases disproportionately affect the cardiac conduction system. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrhythmias produce significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with neuromuscular diseases should be carefully and frequently evaluated for the presence of bradycardia, heart block, and tachyarrhythmias. Preemptive treatment with permanent pacemakers or implanted defibrillators is appropriate in patients with conduction system disease or who are at risk for ventricular arrhythmias.

Sudden Cardiac Death in Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Sudden cardiac death in acute coronary syndromes mostly results from complex ventricular arrhythmias. Although the incidence has fallen with contemporary management, they still pose a threat for many patients. Treatment consists of immediate termination by electrical cardioversion and prompt coronary revascularization for relief of ischemia. Beta-blockers administered prophylactically have a protective effect. For recurrent episodes, pharmacologic treatment consists of beta-blockers and amiodarone, or, in nonresponsive patients, lidocaine. Other antiarrhythmic drugs play only a marginal role. Catheter ablation performed in qualified centers can be effective in recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation triggered by premature ventricular contractions.

Heart Failure and Sudden Cardiac Death.

The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 5.7 million adults in the United States suffer from heart failure and 1 in 9 deaths in 2009 cited heart failure as a contributing cause. Almost 50% of patients who are diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years of diagnosis. Cardiovascular disease is a public health burden. The prognosis of patients with heart failure has improved significantly. However, the risk for death remains high. Managing sudden death risk and intervening appropriately with primary or secondary prevention strategies are of paramount importance.

Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death.

Ventricular arrhythmias remain a significant cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and knowledge of their cause and high-risk features is important. SCD occurs when the interaction between vulnerable substrates and acute triggers results in sustained ventricular tachycardia progressing to ventricular fibrillation. Here, the authors aim to review the role of ventricular arrhythmias in SCD, first by approaching the substrates that support ventricular arrhythmias, and then by exploring features of these substrates and the acute triggers that may lead to SCD.

Sudden Cardiac Death in Ischemic Heart Disease: Pathophysiology and Risk Stratification.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for approximately 360,000 deaths annually in the United States. Ischemic heart disease is the major cause of death in the general adult population. SCD can be due to arrhythmic or nonarrhythmic cardiac causes. Arrhythmic SCD may be caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia or pulseless electrical activity/asystole. This article reviews the most recent pathophysiology and risk stratification strategies for SCD, emphasizing electrophysiologic surrogates of conduction disorder, dispersion of repolarization, and autonomic imbalance. Factors that modify arrhythmic death are addressed.