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Death - Top 30 Publications

The Screening ECG and Cardiac Risks.


Incidence and determinants of stillbirth among women who gave birth in Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia.

Worldwide approximately 2.7 million are stillborn, more than 98% of these occur in developing countries. To address the problem, incidence and determinants of stillbirth must be understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess incidence and determinants of stillbirth among women who gave birth in Jimma University specialized hospital.

Interventions for investigating and identifying the causes of stillbirth.

Identification of the causes of stillbirth is critical to the primary prevention of stillbirth and to the provision of optimal care in subsequent pregnancies. A wide variety of investigations are available, but there is currently no consensus on the optimal approach. Given their cost and potential to add further emotional burden to parents, there is a need to systematically assess the effect of these interventions on outcomes for parents, including psychosocial outcomes, economic costs, and on rates of diagnosis of the causes of stillbirth.

A delayed diagnosis of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with a mutant of RYR2 at c.7580T>G for 6 years in a 9-year-old child.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare but potentially lethal inherited arrhythmia syndrome induced by adrenergic stress. Due to the atypical clinical manifestations in early age, limited recognition and experience of pediatric cardiologists, and low awareness of the significance of genetic diagnosis in some underdeveloped areas in China, a delayed or missed diagnosis of CPVT in children is common and concerning.

Successful management of fatal peripartum cardiomyopathy in a young pregnant woman: A case report.

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare and life-threatening form of pregnancy associated myocardial disease.

Defining Death-Making Sense of the Case of Jahi McMath.

Associated Factors and Quality of Care Received among Maternal Deaths at a Regional Hospital in Ghana: Maternal Death Audit Review.

Maternal death audits are crucial to the reduction of maternal deaths. The aim of this study was to identity factors contributing to maternal deaths at Eastern Regional Hospital of Ghana. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Quantitative data on all the maternal deaths from January to December 2012 was extracted from completed audit forms and patients records using a standardized questionnaire. The data were analyzed in Epi-info. Qualitative data was collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health staff to assess care received and factors leading to death. A total of 43 maternal deaths occurred out of which 37 (86%) were audited. Major causes of deaths were pregnancy induced hypertension (27%) and abortion (21%). Late referrals, poor supervision of junior staff, inadequate numbers of senior clinicians, lack of intensive care facility as well as unavailability and insufficient blood and blood products were the main contributory factors to the deaths. Tertiary health institutions should be adequately equipped, staffed, and funded to address these causes of maternal death.

Facing the Unfaceable.

Suicidal hanging donors for lung transplantation: Is this chapter still closed? Midterm experience from a single center in United Kingdom.

In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group.Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed.No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P < .001, P = .022 and P = .0042, respectively). Recipient preoperative and perioperative characteristics were comparable. Postoperatively in group 1 there was a higher incidence of extracorporeal life support (27.3 vs 9.1%, P = .019). There were no significant differences in chronic lung allograft dysfunction-free survival between group 1 and 2: 92.3 vs 94% at 1 year and 65.9 vs 75.5% at 3 years (P = .99). The estimated cumulative survival rate was also similar between groups: 68.2 vs 83.2% at 1 year and 68.2% versus 72% at 3 years (P = .3758).Hanging as a donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation.

Deaths of children and women in Gaza hostilities - Authors' reply.

Deaths of children and women in Gaza hostilities.

From Misfortune to Mortality: Sudden Loss of Wealth and Increased Risk of Death.

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Proposed Mechanisms.

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including premature death from different causes. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, or SUDEP, is one of the most common causes of death in people with epilepsy and originally brought to light by medical examiners. It accounts for 5% to 30% of all deaths in individuals with epilepsy and up to 50% in individuals with medically refractory epilepsy. It is commonly associated with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and may be mitigated by other electroclinical risk factors, such as postictal electroencephalographic suppression, prone position, altered heart rate variability, conduction abnormalities, gender, or antiepileptic medications, to name a few. More recently, potential neuroimaging biomarkers have also been identified. Still, despite the increased mortality risk in people with epilepsy due to SUDEP, little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. The pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, resulting in neurogenic pulmonary edema or, in some cases, fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Medical examiners can provide an important role in our understanding of the magnitude of the problem and ongoing research into the underlying mechanisms. In this review, we discuss diagnostic criteria, incidence, risk factors, and current theories regarding the pathophysiology of SUDEP.

Social autopsy: a potential health-promotion tool for preventing maternal mortality in low-income countries.

Despite significant global improvements, maternal mortality in low-income countries remains unacceptably high. Increasing attention in recent years has focused on how social factors, such as family and peer influences, the community context, health services, legal and policy environments, and cultural and social values, can shape and influence maternal outcomes. Whereas verbal autopsy is used to attribute a clinical cause to a maternal death, the aim of social autopsy is to determine the non-clinical contributing factors. A social autopsy of a maternal death is a group interaction with the family of the deceased woman and her wider local community, where facilitators explore the social causes of the death and identify improvements needed. Although still relatively new, the process has proved useful to capture data for policy-makers on the social determinants of maternal deaths. This article highlights a second aspect of social autopsy - its potential role in health promotion. A social autopsy facilitates "community self-diagnosis" and identification of modifiable social and cultural factors that are attributable to the death. Social autopsy therefore has the potential not only for increasing awareness among community members, but also for promoting behavioural change at the individual and community level. There has been little formal assessment of social autopsy as a tool for health promotion. Rigorous research is now needed to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of social autopsy as a preventive community-based intervention, especially with respect to effects on social determinants. There is also a need to document how communities can take ownership of such activities and achieve a sustainable impact on preventable maternal deaths.

Research Progress on Determination of Drowning Site.

The bodies found in water are one of the most common types in forensic practice. The discovery site of the body is often not the drowning site. However, the determination of drowning site is vital for the identification of victim. Inorganic particles and planktons, such as granular impurities, diatoms and bacteria, are valuable markers for the diagnosis of drowning. By comparing the granular impurities and planktons in tissues and suspicious drowning mediums, the drowning site can be concluded based on their similarity of types and distribution, which has practical applied value. In this paper, the research progress on determination of drowning site is summarized to provide reference for the peers.

Research Progress of Vitreous Humor Detection Technique on Estimation of Postmortem Interval.

Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) plays a crucial role in forensic study and identification work. Because of the unique anatomy location, vitreous humor is considered to be used for estima- ting PMI, which has aroused interest among scholars, and some researches have been carried out. The detection techniques of vitreous humor are constantly developed and improved which have been gradually applied in forensic science, meanwhile, the study of PMI estimation using vitreous humor is updated rapidly. This paper reviews various techniques and instruments applied to vitreous humor detection, such as ion selective electrode, capillary ion analysis, spectroscopy, chromatography, nano-sensing technology, automatic biochemical analyser, flow cytometer, etc., as well as the related research progress on PMI estimation in recent years. In order to provide a research direction for scholars and promote a more accurate and efficient application in PMI estimation by vitreous humor analysis, some inner problems are also analysed in this paper.

Application of Mixed-effect Model in PMI Estimation by Vitreous Humor.

To test the changes of the potassium (K⁺) and magnesium (Mg²⁺) concentrations in vitreous humor of rabbits along with postmortem interval (PMI) under different temperatures, and explore the feasibility of PMI estimation using mixed-effect model.

Establishment of the Mathematical Model for PMI Estimation Using FTIR Spectroscopy and Data Mining Method.

To analyse the relationship between Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of rat's spleen tissue and postmortem interval (PMI) for PMI estimation using FTIR spectroscopy combined with data mining method.

'Extremely concerning' deaths at Cheltenham.

Sudden and Unexpected Death During Sexual Activity, Due to a Glial Cyst of the Pineal Gland.

Cysts of the pineal gland are benign lesions. Often asymptomatic, in the majority of cases they are discovered incidentally during brain magnetic resonance imaging or autopsy. Sporadically, however, they may cause such symptoms as chronic headache, loss of consciousness, corticospinal and sensory impairment, and, in some cases, even sudden death. A 45-year-old woman, in apparently good health, collapsed and died suddenly, after reaching orgasm while engaged in sexual intercourse. According to the circumstantial account of her relatives, the woman suffered from severe headaches, which were exacerbated by certain types of physical strain, such as sexual activity. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except for a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Microscopically, the wall of the cyst consisted of a layer of glial tissue surrounded by an area of pineal elements. A complete forensic approach concluded that the cause of death was fatal cardiorespiratory failure resulting from midbrain compression due to a nonneoplastic pineal gland cyst, exacerbated by sexual activity. In this case, the intracranial pressure increase, secondary to Valsalva maneuver during climax, may further aggravate compression on the brainstem, thus concurring to determine the death.

Postmortem Cholesterol Levels in Peripheral Nerve Tissue: Preliminar Considerations on Interindividual and Intraindividual Variation.

The study reports the evolution of the demyelinization process based on cholesterol ([CHOL]) levels quantified in median nerve samples and collected at different times-from death from both right and left wrists. The statistical data show that the phenomenon evolves differently in the right and left nerves. Such a difference can reasonably be attributed to a different multicenter evolution of the demyelinization. For data analysis, the enrolled subjects were grouped by similar postmortem intervals (PMIs), considering 3 intervals: PMI < 48 hours, 48 hours < PMI < 78 hours, and PMI > 78 hours. Data obtained from tissue dissected within 48 hours of death allowed for a PMI estimation according to the following equations: PMI = 0.000 + 0.7623 [CHOL]right (R = 0.581) for the right wrist and PMI = 0.000 + 0.8911 [CHOL]left (R = 0.794) for the left wrist.At present, this correlation cannot be considered to be definitive because of the limitation of the small size of the samples analyzed, because the differences in the sampling time and the interindividual and intraindividual variation may influence the demyelinization process.

An International Legal Review of the Relationship between Brain Death and Organ Transplantation.

The "dead-donor rule" states that, in any case of vital organ donation, the potential donor should be determined to be dead before transplantation occurs. In many countries around the world, neurological criteria can be used to legally determine death (also referred to as brain death). Nevertheless, there is considerable controversy in the bioethics literature over whether brain death is the equivalent of biological death. This international legal review demonstrates that there is considerable variability in how different jurisdictions have evolved to justify the legal status of brain death and its relationship to the dead-donor rule. In this article, we chose to review approaches that are representative of many different jurisdictions-the United States takes an approach similar to that of many European countries; the United Kingdom's approach is followed by Canada, India, and influences many other Commonwealth countries; Islamic jurisprudence is applicable to several different national laws; the Israeli approach is similar to many Western countries, but incorporates noteworthy modifications; and Japan's relatively idiosyncratic approach has received some attention in the literature. Illuminating these different justifications may help develop respectful policies regarding organ donation within countries with diverse populations and allow for more informed debate about brain death and the dead-donor rule.

Slowing Down Fast Thinking to Enhance Understanding.

Stress can make the comprehension of complex information more difficult, yet patients and their family members often must receive, process, and make decisions based on new, complex information presented in unfamiliar and stressful clinical environments such the intensive care unit. Family members may be asked to make decisions regarding the donation of organs and genetic tissue soon after the death of a loved one, based on new, complex information, under tight time limits. How can we assist patients and families better process complex information while under stress, and to make better decisions for themselves or for a loved one?

Lethal asphyxiation due to sadomasochistic sex training - How some sex partners avoid criminal responsibility even though their actions lead to someone's death.

Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication.

Comparison of autopsy findings and injury severity scores in deaths due to traumatic asphyxia (perthes syndrome).

Traumatic asphyxia is a rare clinical syndrome usually caused by sudden and severe thoracic and/or thoracoabdominal compression. It presents with craniofacial cyanosis, petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhages. The present study employed a postmortem retrospective methodology to analyse autopsy findings and accompanying injuries in cases of death due to traumatic asphyxia. Four years of case files from a morgue department at a forensic medicine institute were searched and 53 cases of lethal traumatic asphyxia were found. These cases were then classified into groups and compared using the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and New Injury Severity Score (NISS) indices to measure trauma.

Annual variation in decomposition and insect succession at a periurban area of central Iberian Peninsula.

The variation in decomposition and insect succession among the four seasons of one year was studied for the first time in a periurban area of central Spain. During the winter trial, the carcasses showed corification, a cadaveric preservation phenomenon which apparently leaded to a significant delay in decomposition processes. The composition of the insect fauna breeding on carcasses changed significantly between trials. Active decay was mainly driven by Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae in every season except in winter trial, when larvae of Thanatophilus species (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were the main consumers of soft tissues. Advanced decay was characterized by the occurrence of Dermestidae, Silphidae, Cleridae, Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) and Piophilidae (Diptera) larvae. Differences in the species composition in comparison with other regions of the Iberian Peninsula were also observed. The current paper provides baseline and preliminary information on the insect succession on carrion in central Spain, as well as a starting point for further research on forensic entomology in this region.

Cadaveric organ donation in China: A crossroads for ethics and sociocultural factors.

In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered.

A Ruse on Eternity.

A Vaginal Stillbirth after Aortic Surgery of Type B Aortic Dissection in a Pregnant Woman.

Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy poses great danger to both the mother and fetus. Cesareans are usually performed before or after the aortic repair depending on the conditions of the mother and fetus. Here we report our experience in treating a 32-week pregnant woman with a type B aortic dissection, whose baby had died before admission. A cesarean section was initially arranged after emergency aortic repair. However, the patient started to deliver the fetus vaginally after the aortic surgery and the stillborn baby was delivered vaginally. This case report provides new insight into the method of delivery in a pregnant woman with an aortic dissection.