PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Digestive System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Clinical outcome and molecular characterization of brain metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer: a systematic review.

The aim of the study was to collect the available data on central nervous system (CNS) metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer. A PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, LILACS, Ovid and Cochrane Library search was performed. Thirty-seven studies including 779 patients were considered. Among the data extracted, treatment of tumor and brain metastases (BMs), time to BMs development, number and subsite, extracerebral metastases rate, median overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were included. For esophageal cancer, the median OS from diagnosis of BMs was 4.2 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: performance status, multimodal therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, single BM, brain only disease and surgery. For gastric cancer, median OS was 2.4 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: recursive partitioning analysis class 2, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRT) and use of intrathecal therapy. HER2-positive gastric cancer was shown to be associated with a higher risk and shorter time to CNS relapse. Patients harboring BMs from gastric and esophageal tumors, except cases with single lesions that are treated aggressively, have a poor prognosis. SRT (plus or minus surgery and whole brain radiotherapy) seems to give better results in terms of longer OS after brain relapse.

New concepts in embolotherapy of HCC.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with rapidly growing incidence rates in the USA and Europe. Despite improving surveillance programs, most patients are diagnosed at intermediate to advanced stages and are no longer amenable to curative therapies, such as ablation, surgical resection and liver transplantation. For such patients, catheter-based image-guided embolotherapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) represent the standard of care and mainstay therapy, as recommended and endorsed by a variety of national guidelines and staging systems. The main benefit of these therapies is explained by the preferentially arterial blood supply of liver tumors, which allows to deliver the anticancer therapy directly to the tumor-feeding artery while sparing the healthy hepatic tissue mainly supplied by the portal vein. The tool box of an interventional oncologist contains several different variants of transarterial treatment modalities. Ever since the first TACE more than 30 years ago, these techniques have been progressively refined, both with respect to drug delivery materials and with respect to angiographic micro-catheter and image-guidance technology, thus substantially improving therapeutic outcomes of HCC. This review will summarize the fundamental principles, technical and clinical data on the application of different embolotherapies, such as bland transarterial embolization, Lipiodol-based conventional transarterial chemoembolization as well as TACE with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE). Clinical data on (90)Yttrium radioembolization as an emerging alternative, mostly applied for niche indications such as HCC with portal vein invasion, will be discussed. Furthermore, we will summarize the principle of HCC staging, patient allocation and response assessment in the setting of HCC embolotherapy. In addition, we will evaluate the role of cone-beam computed tomography as a novel intra-procedural image-guidance technology. Finally, this review will touch on new technical developments such as radiopaque, imageable DEBs and the rationale and role of combined systemic and locoregional therapies, mostly in combination with Sorafenib.

How to select patients and timing for rectal indomethacin to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acute pancreatitis is a severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Previous meta-analyses have shown that indomethacin effectively prevents this complication; however, the data are limited. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the applications for rectal indomethacin.

A preliminary investigation on single nucleotide polymorphism rs2287622 of bile salt export pump gene in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Hunan, China.

European researchers have underscored associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2287622 of the hepatobiliary bile salt export pump (BSEP) gene and the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The distributions of SNP rs2287622 are racially specific. This study was aimed to preliminarily investigate the distribution of BSEP gene SNP rs2287622 in the Han patients with chronic HCV-infection (CHC) in Hunan, China.

Comparison of five tumor regression grading systems for gastric adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a retrospective study of 192 cases from National Cancer Center in China.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly practiced on gastric cancer (GC), and histological evaluation to predict outcome is urgent in clinical practice. There are five classic tumor regression grading (TRG) systems, including Mandard-TRG system, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA)-TRG system, College of American Pathologists (CAP)-TRG system, China-TRG system and Becker-TRG system.

Adherence and Recursive Perception Among Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis.

Adherence to prescribed treatment is a pressing issue for adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This paper presents two narratives from the thematic analysis of unstructured interviews with 14 adolescents, young adults, and older adults living with CF. Through a new identity-based framework termed recursive perception that draws focus on how an individual perceives how others view them, it explores the social context of adherence and self-care among young adults with CF. It demonstrates that an individual's understanding of self and desire to maintain a certain image for peers can be deeply embedded in adherence and self-care patterns, leading individuals to feel they need to choose between tending to their health needs and living their lives. This suggests that current biomedical innovation in CF care must be complemented with renewed efforts to find effective means to empower young adults with CF to successfully navigate the social challenges of their illness and avoid the pitfalls of nonadherence that can lead to a permanent worsening of their health condition.

Diagnosis of Swallowing Disorders: How We Interpret Pharyngeal Manometry.

We provide an overview of the clinical application of novel pharyngeal high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) with pressure flow analysis (PFA) in our hands with example cases.

Palliative gastrectomy is beneficial in selected cases of metastatic gastric cancer.

Salvage chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). This study aimed to clarify the effects of palliative gastrectomy (PG) and identify prognostic factors in mGC patients undergoing PG.

Two Triacylglycerol Pathway Genes, CTDNEP1 and LPIN1, are Down-Regulated by hsa-miR-122-5p in Hepatocytes.

Expression of miR-122 is highly specific to hepatocytes of the liver.  This miRNA is involved in lipid hemostasis of the tissue; however, there is no comprehensive understanding of its function in lipid hemostasis.

The prospective of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer management.

Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is an extremely challenging surgery. First described in 1994, LPD has been gaining a favorable position in the majority of pancreatic surgery. Now, LPD is worldwide accepted. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, and only papers written in English containing more than 26 publications of LPD were selected. Papers in distal and robotic pancreatic procedure were not included in the review of a total of 222 LPD publications. The total number of patients analyzed was 1,082 from 25 articles and the largest series. Six of these studies came from the United States, 1 from France, 5 from South Korea, and 1 from India, 2 from Japan, 5 from China, 1 from Italy, 1 Germany, 2 from UK. The overall pancreatic fistula rate was 20.5%. The overall conversion rate was 10.4%. LPD seems to be a valid alternative to the standard open approach with similar technical and oncological results. LPD is a safe procedure, providing many of the advantages typically associated with laparoscopic procedures. We expect this operation to continue to gain in popularity as well as be offered in increasingly more complex cases. In future studies, it will be beneficial to look further at the oncologic outcome data of LPD including survival.

Comparison of short-term outcomes between laparoscopic-assisted and open complete mesocolic excision (CME) for the treatment of transverse colon cancer.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Although laparoscopic-assisted complete mesocolic excision (LCME) is a superior treatment, there are few studies available on it owe to the low incidence and technical difficulty of LCME in transverse colon cancer.

Diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose as a screening test for equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in adult horses.

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common in adult horses, particularly those involved in performance disciplines. Currently, detection of EGUS by gastroscopy is the only reliable ante mortem method for definitive diagnosis; however it is unsuitable as a screening test because it is expensive, time consuming, and is not readily available to most veterinarians. Sucrose permeability testing represents a simple, economical alternative to gastroscopy for screening purposes, and the feasibility of this approach in the horse has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose as a screening test for EGUS in a large group of adult horses with and without naturally occurring gastric disease.

The utility of apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages as a possible diagnostic marker in patients with Crohn's disease.

Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM) was initially identified as an apoptosis inhibitor that supports the survival of macrophages against various apoptosis-inducing stimuli, and AIM produced by macrophages may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However, there have been no reports on the kinetics of AIM in IBD and the impact of AIM on the pathogenesis of IBD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of levels of AIM and their correlation with the activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and IBD.

Thermosensitive porphyrin-incorporated hydrogel with four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer (II): doxorubicin loaded hydrogel as a dual fluorescent drug delivery system for simultaneous imaging tracking in vivo.

Visualization of a drug delivery system could reveal the pharmacokinetic properties, which is essential for the design of a novel drug delivery system. In vivo optical imaging offers an advanced tool to monitor the drug release process and the therapeutic effect by the combination of fluorescence imaging and bioluminescence imaging. Multispectral fluorescence imaging can separate the drug and the carrier without interference. Herein, a dual fluorescent anti-tumor drug delivery system was monitored with the doxorubicin-loaded hydrogel to further explore the application of the porphyrin-incorporated hydrogel with four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer as a drug carrier, based on the beneficial fluorescence and good biocompatibility of the porphyrin incorporated hydrogel. Using nude mice bearing luciferase expressed hepatic tumor as models, the whole process from the drug delivery to the tumor therapeutic effects were real time visualized simultaneously after administration at interval from 0 to 18 d. The imaging results suggest that the fluorescence signals of the drug and the carrier can be separated and unmixed from the drug-loaded hydrogel successfully, avoiding the interference of the fluorescence signals. The tumor growth or inhibition can be real time tracked and analyzed quantitatively by bioluminescence imaging. Noninvasive continuous tracking the in vivo drug delivery process simultaneously is a potential trend for the precise drug delivery and treatment.

Silencing of ATP4B of ATPase H(+)/K(+) Transporting Beta Subunit by Intragenic Epigenetic Alteration in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

The ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Beta Subunit (ATP4B) encodes the β subunit of the gastric H+, K+-ATPase, which controls gastric acid secretion and is therefore a target for acid reduction. Downregulation of ATP4B was recently observed in human gastric cancer (GC) without known mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrated that ATP4B expression was decreased in human GC tissues and cell lines associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 at its intragenic region close to the transcriptional start site. The expression of ATP4B was restored in GC cell lines by treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), or histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), with further enhancement by combined treatment with both drugs. In contrast, 5-AZA had no effect on ATP4B expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic cancer cell lines, in which ATP4B was silenced and accompanied by intragenic methylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that, in BGC823 GC cells, histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) was enhanced in the intragenic region of ATP4B upon TSA treatment, whereas 5-AZA showed a minimal effect. Additionally, ATP4B expression enhanced the inhibitory effects of chemotherapeutic mediation docetaxel on GC cell growth. Thus, as opposed to HCC and pancreatic cancer cells, the silencing of ATP4B in GC cells is attributable to the interplay between intragenic DNA methylation and histone acetylation of ATP4B, the restoration of which is associated with a favorable anticancer effect of docetaxel. These results have implications for targeting epigenetic alteration at the intragenic region of ATP4B in GC cells to benefit diagnosis and treatment of GC.

Knockdown of SLC34A2 Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion.

The gene solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2 (SLC34A2), is a member of the SLC34 family. Increasing evidence suggests that SLC34A2 is involved in the development of many human carcinomas. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. Therefore, in this study we investigated the role of SLC34A2 in HCC and explored the underlying mechanism. We found that the expression of SLC34A2 is upregulated in HCC cell lines. Knockdown of SLC34A2 obviously inhibited HCC cell proliferation, migration/invasion, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Furthermore, knockdown of SLC34A2 significantly inhibited the expression of phosphorylated PI3K and AKT in HCC cells. Taken together, these results suggest that knockdown of SLC34A2 inhibits proliferation and migration by suppressing activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in HCC cells, and SLC34A2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

Potential Role of CD133 Expression in the Susceptibility of Human Liver Cancer Stem-Like Cells to TRAIL.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, with a poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. In the present study, we identified CD133, one of the markers of cancer stem cells, as a novel molecular target of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In four human HCC cell lines established from primary HCC tumors, we found that CD133-high human liver cancer stem-like cells (CD133hi) derived from the SNU-475 cell line were highly susceptible to TRAIL compared to other HCC cell lines with a small population of CD133. CD133hi SNU-475 cells showed upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5 and stemness-related genes such as c-Myc and ABC transporters compared to their CD133-low (CD133lo) cells. Hypersensitivity of CD133hi cells to TRAIL was associated with c-Myc-mediated upregulation of DR5 and downregulation of c-FLIPL in the cells. Knockdown of CD133 expression in CD133hi cells resulted in the downregulation of c-Myc, and depletion of c-Myc caused a decrease in the cell surface expression of DR5 and an increase in the expression of c-FLIPL and, consequently, attenuated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of CD133hi cells. These results suggest that TRAIL may provide a new strategy for CD133hi CSCs of HCC-targeted therapies and, potentially, for therapies of other CD133-expressing types of cancer.

CSTB Downregulation Promotes Cell Proliferation and Migration and Suppresses Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cell Line.

This study aimed to investigate the pivotal role of cystatin B (CSTB) in the development of gastric cancer and to explore its possible regulatory mechanism. Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells as a model in vitro were transfected with plasmid PCDNA3.1-CSTB and siRNA-CSTB using Lipofectamine 2000. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the relative expression of CSTB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway-related protein. Moreover, MTT assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry were used to assess cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, respectively. The results showed that CSTB was significantly downregulated in SGC-7901 cells compared with gastric epithelial cells. CSTB was successfully overexpressed and suppressed after cells were transfected with pc-CSTB and si-CSTB, respectively. Moreover, cell viability and migration were significantly decreased after being transfected with pc-CSTB when compared with the control group, while being obviously increased after transfection with si-CSTB. However, cell apoptosis was significantly induced after being transfected with pc-CSTB, while being obviously suppressed after transfection with si-CSTB. Besides, the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR proteins were all significantly decreased in the pc-CSTB transfection group when compared with the control group, while being increased in the si-CSTB transfection group. Our findings suggest that CSTB downregulation may promote the development of gastric cancer by affecting cell proliferation and migration, and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was activated in this process. CSTB may serve as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Astragaloside IV Enhances Cisplatin Chemosensitivity in Human Colorectal Cancer via Regulating NOTCH3.

Although astragaloside IV exhibits anti-inflammation, immunoregulatory, and anticancer properties, the chemosensitization effects of astragaloside IV in colorectal cancer have never been reported. Our study tested whether astragaloside could increase cisplatin sensitivity in colorectal cancer. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the cell viability of colorectal cancer cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Our data revealed that astragaloside IV administration significantly suppressed the cell growth of colorectal cancer cells, whereas no obvious cytotoxicity of astragaloside IV was observed in nonmalignant colonic cells. In addition, combined treatment with astragaloside IV dramatically elevated the chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to cisplatin. Mechanical investigation revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of NOTCH3 was significantly lower in cisplatin and astragaloside IV-treated cells compared with cells treated with cisplatin alone. On the contrary, no obvious changes in tumor cell growth were shown after upregulation of NOTCH3 whether in the presence or absence of astragaloside IV. Thus, our data demonstrate that astragaloside IV increases the chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to cisplatin, at least partly, through inhibition of NOTCH3. This study suggests that combined therapy with astragaloside IV might be a novel therapeutic approach for colorectal cancer.

Knockdown of SPOCK1 Inhibits the Proliferation and Invasion in Colorectal Cancer Cells by Suppressing the PI3K/Akt Pathway.

Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (testican) 1 (SPOCK1), known as testican-1, were found to be involved in the development and progression of tumors. However, in colorectal cancer (CRC), the expression pattern of SPOCK1 and its functional role remain poorly investigated. In the present study, we explored the role of SPOCK1 in CRC. Our results demonstrated that SPOCK1 is overexpressed in CRC cell lines. SPOCK1 silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation in vitro and the tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, SPOCK1 silencing significantly attenuated the migration/invasion by reversing the EMT process in CRC cells. Finally, knockdown of SPOCK1 obviously decreased the protein expression levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt in HCT116 cells. In total, our study demonstrated for the first time that knockdown of SPOCK1 inhibits the proliferation and invasion in CRC cells, possibly through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, SPOCK1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC.

Early hybrid approach and enteral feeding algorithm could reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation.

The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure.

Recent Advances in Non-invasive Esophageal Tissue Sampling.

The costs to society and accuracy of screening for esophageal cancer and other esophageal diseases with standard endoscopy are formidable. As a result, the applicability of endoscopy as a general screening tool has been challenged.

Oxidative stress indicated by elevated expression of Nrf2 and 8-OHdG promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is excessively generated in tumors creating an oxidative stress in tumor microenvironment. We investigated hepatic expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and asked if ROS epigenetically upregulated Nrf2 and enhanced aggressiveness in HCC cells. Expression of Nrf2 (n = 100) and 8-OHdG (n = 53) was remarkably increased in HCC tissues compared with the noncancerous hepatic tissues. Elevated expression of 8-OHdG was associated with poor survival in HCC patients. H2O2, as ROS representative, provoked oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, indicated by increased protein carbonyl content and decreased total antioxidant capacity. Nrf2 expression and 8-OHdG formation were markedly increased in the H2O2-treated cells compared with the untreated control. Co-treatment with antioxidants, tocopheryl acetate (TA) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) effectively attenuated expression of Nrf2 and 8-OHdG in H2O2-treated cells. HepG2 cells treated with H2O2 had significantly higher migration and invasion capabilities than the untreated control cells, and this aggressiveness was significantly inhibited by TA and SAM. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that CpG dinucleotides in Nrf2 promoter were unmethylated in the H2O2-treated cells similar to the untreated control. In conclusion, robust histological evidence of increased antioxidative response and oxidative DNA damage in human HCC tissues was demonstrated. Elevated oxidative DNA lesion 8-OHdG was associated with shorter survival. Experimentally, ROS enhanced Nrf2 expression, 8-OHdG formation and tumor progression in HCC cells. These effects were inhibited by antioxidants. Therefore, oxidative stress-reducing regimens might be beneficial to diminish the ROS-induced HCC progression.

Comparison of the long-term efficacy between entecavir and tenofovir in treatment- naïve chronic hepatitis B patients.

There have been limited studies directly comparing the long-term efficacy between entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). This study was aimed to compare the long-term efficacy between them in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014.

The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child.

Induction of Apoptosis by Berberine in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells via Downregulation of NF-κB.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapeutic approaches, which causes difficulty in the development of effective drugs for the treatment of HCC. Berberine, a major ingredient of Rhizoma coptidis, is a natural alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine. Berberine exhibits potent antitumor activity against HCC due to its high efficiency and low toxicity. In the present study, we found that berberine sensitized HepG cells to NF-κB-mediated apoptosis. Berberine exhibited a significant antiproliferation effect on the HepG2 cells and promoted apoptosis. Both qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining revealed that berberine reduced the NF-κB p65 levels in HepG2 cells. Moreover, p65 overexpression rescued berberine-induced cell proliferation and prevented HepG2 cells from undergoing apoptosis. These results suggest that berberine inhibits the growth of HepG2 cells by promoting apoptosis through the NF-κB p65 pathway.

miR-202 Promotes Cell Apoptosis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Targeting HSF2.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers with high mortality around the world. However, the regulatory mechanism of ESCC carcinogenesis is not completely known. Here we demonstrate the novel role of miR-202 in regulating ESCC cell apoptosis. The analysis of data obtained from the GEO database showed that the expression of miR-202 is aberrantly decreased in tumor tissue from ESCC patients and cultured ESCC cell lines. After transfection with miR-202 mimic or inhibitor, the apoptotic capacity of ESCC cells was significantly increased by miR-202 overexpression but reduced by miR-202 repression. We then identified HSF2 as a direct target of miR-202 with the binding site on the 3'-UTR of HSF2 mRNA in ESCC cells. The apoptosis of ESCC cells induced by the miR-202 mimic could be repressed by HSF2 overexpression. Further studies indicated that HSF2 overexpression strongly upregulated the expression of Hsp70 at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, HSF2/Hsp70 suppressed ESCC cell apoptosis by preventing caspase 3 activation. In conclusion, miR-202 is a potential tumor suppressor in human ESCC and acts by regulating the apoptosis of ESCC cells by targeting HSF2, in which caspase 3 activation is involved. This might provide a novel therapeutic target for human ESCC.

Hepatocolic fistula: a rare presentation of pyogenic liver abscess.

A 58-year-old man was admitted due to a 4-month history of colicky right upper quadrant pain, intermittent fever, anorexia and weight loss. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen showed an encapsulated, peripherally enhancing focus occupying the right liver lobe exhibiting capsular rupture and extension to the walls of the hepatic flexure. He immediately underwent emergency ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage and cultures of the purulent fluid later revealed Escherichia coli A colonoscopy was then performed which showed a pinpoint opening with draining pus at the hepatic flexure. A fistulogram confirmed a fistulous tract arising from the inferior aspect of the abscess cavity, draining into the posterosuperior aspect of the hepatic flexure. He was started on intravenous antibiotics and after 1 week of decreasing output, a repeat ultrasound showed very minimal residual fluid. The percutaneous catheter drain was then removed after 2 weeks and the patient was discharged improved.

Out of the blue finger ischaemia and occult colorectal cancer.

A woman aged 66 years with a history of unprovoked deep venous thrombosis (DVT) presented with persistent digital ischaemic changes of 2 of her right hand fingers. Physical examination was otherwise normal and extensive laboratory and imaging studies were unremarkable. A history of unprovoked DVT and the current episode of digital ischaemia prompted concern for underlying occult malignancy. Repeated history-taking revealed a strongly positive family history suggesting an occult colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma of the colon has rarely been associated with paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome. This report suggests that occult malignancy needs to be considered in patients with focal digital ischaemia as this association is poorly unrecognised.

Brunner's gland hamartoma: a rare cause of iron deficiency anaemia and report of an adapted colonic polyp resection technique.

A man aged 65 years presented with symptomatic anaemia without overt gastrointestinal bleeding. An oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed and he was found to have a large ulcerated pedunculated Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenal bulb. The polyp was resected using snare cautery in forward and retroflexed positions. Colonoscopy was also performed and a few diminutive polyps were resected. A year later, the patient returned for a surveillance EGD, and no residual polyp was noted. Haemoglobin and iron studies normalised within a few months after polypectomy, with resolution of symptoms.