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Digestive System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Occult hepatitis B reactivation in a patient with homozygous sickle cell disease: clinical case and literature review.

Occult Hepatitis B corresponds to the presence of hepatitis B virus-deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) in serum and/or in liver of a patient despite HBsAg negativity. Clinically, it is usually asymptomatic. Its reactivation is rare and commonly occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. We report the case of a 21-year old patient from Senegal, with homozygous sickle cell disease, presenting with cholestatic jaundice. Laboratory tests showed reactivation of occult Hepatitis B. This study emphasizes the need to systematically investigate the presence of occult Hepatitis B in patients with sickle cell disease suffering from acute liver disease.

Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye teaching hospital Kumasi, Ghana.

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana.

Factors leading to dyspepsia in renal transplant recipients.

Renal transplantation is the definitive treatment for end stage renal disease. Patients subjected to transplantation require lifelong immunosuppression and are prone to several gastrointestinal disorders. Dyspepsia is a common disorder in these patients. The objective of this study was to determine factors leading to dyspepsia in renal (kidney) transplant recipients.

Estimation of seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis among blood donors in the hospital of Aïoun, Mauritania.

To estimating the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis among blood donors in the Aïoun hospital.

Rare hereditary cause of chronic pancreatitis in a young male: SPINK1 mutation.

Hereditary chronic pancreatitis associated with a mutation in the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal Type-1 (SPINK-1 gene) is extremely rare. The SPINK1 mutation results in trypsinogen activation which predisposes to chronic pancreatitis predominately when combined with CFTR gene mutations. It presents as either chronic or recurrent acute pancreatitis. Symptom control and management of complications is important. Active surveillance with cross-sectional imaging for pancreatic malignancy in individuals with hereditary pancreatitis is advocated due to individuals being high risk. We present an unusual case of a young male who initially presented with renal colic and was incidentally diagnosed with severe chronic pancreatitis on abdominal imaging, with genetic testing confirming a homozygous SPINK1 mutation.

A case report of a giant appendiceal mucocele and literature review.

A 43-year-old female presented at the accident and emergency department of Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana. She reported a deep dull aching pain of two years duration in the right iliac fossa that has been progressively becoming worse. Ultrasound revealed a large sausage like cystic mass extending from the pelvis up to the medial aspect of the ascending colon. CT scan showed a large sausage like cystic mass extending from the pelvis up to the hepatic flexure of the colon with the cecum displaced. No metastatic features were seen. We made an impression of appendiceal mucocele. A semi-elective laparotomy was scheduled. Intraoperative findings: a giant intact cystic distended appendix with involved base, displacing the cecum cranially. A right hemicolectomy was performed. The histopathological results revealed a low-grade appendicular mucinous neoplasm with no lymph node involvement. The surgical margins were free. The patient recovered uneventfully.

Celiac disease in adult patients revealed by polyserositis: about a case.

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs. It often presents as gastrointestinal manifestations associated with malabsorption. However, serosa involvement uncommonly reveals this enteropathy, making the diagnosis difficult. We here report the case of JA, aged 63 years, admitted to hospital to detect the cause of malabsorption syndrome associated with polyserositis signs including pleurisy, pericarditis, ascites and hydrocephalus. The diagnosis of CD was based on endoscopic signs without serology tests. Patient's evolution was partially favorable, due to lack of compliance with a gluten-free diet. Our study reports the first case of CD revealed by polyserositis. CD should be suspected in patients with malabsorption syndrome, in the absence of evocative signs.

Bean's syndrome in children: about two cases.

Diffuse angiomatosis or Bean's syndrome is a rare disease characterized by venous malformations mainly involving the skin and the digestive tract which can result in hemorrhage of variable severity. This study reports the case of two children aged 5 and 9 and a half years respectively with diffuse angiomatosis who had been treated in the Department of Emergency Paediatric Surgery over the years. The diagnosis was based on rectal bleeding and/or melenas causing severe anemia requiring regular transfusions in both patients as well as skin angiomas occurrence at the level of the limbs. Radiological evaluation showed the presence of multiple lesions at the level of the jejunum and ileum consistent with small intestinal angiomatosis in the child aged 9 and a half years. It didn't show abdominal lesions in the child aged 5 years. The two patients were admitted to the operating block. Angiomas were surgically individualized. Some of them were actively bleeding. Enterotomy was performed. Postoperative sequelae was marked by the stop of the bleedings. This study aims to update the current understanding of this rare pathology as well as the benefit of surgical treatment in controlling the complications caused by this pathology and in reducing the frequency of transfusions.

Tenofovir versus Placebo to Prevent Perinatal Transmission of Hepatitis B.

Pregnant women with an elevated viral load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a risk of transmitting infection to their infants, despite the infants' receiving hepatitis B immune globulin.

The clinical manifestation, survival outcome and predictive prognostic factors of 137 patients with primary gastrointestinal lymphoma (PGIL): Strobe compliant.

This retrospective study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in patients with primary gastrointestinal lymphoma (PGIL) of Chinese population.From January 2001 to December 2015, 137 patients diagnosed with PGIL were recruited. The clinical features, treatment, and follow-up information were analysed.The median patient age was 62.3 years. With 18.47 months follow-up, the 2-year progress-free survival and overall survival rate was 74.9% and 75.5%, respectively. The overall response rate was 33.6%. Age≥60 years, advanced Lugano staging (≥stage IIE), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, ≥2 extra-nodal involved sites, National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI)≥4, Ki-67≥50% were associated with worse prognosis in univariate analysis (P < .05). By multivariate analyses, we determined that the involvement of extra-nodal involved sites was the only statistically significant poor prognostic factor in PGIL.Age, staging, LDH levels, NCCN-IPI, Ki-67 especially involvement of multiple extra-nodal sites were associated with poor overall survival of PGIL.

Bone mineral density after treatment for gastric cancer: Endoscopic treatment versus gastrectomy.

Changes in bone metabolism among gastric cancer survivors have long been recognized. The aim of our study was to clarify the changes of bone mineral density (BMD) among gastric cancer survivors who underwent endoscopic resection or gastrectomy. Forty-nine patients diagnosed with tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) stage 1 gastric cancer with pathologic confirmation, who underwent BMD measurement just before the procedure, and had no prior osteoporosis treatment, were studied. BMD was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after treatment. Laboratory tests were performed using fresh serum, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus were measured. We used a nested case-control design to compare groups. Of the 49 patients, 34 underwent gastrectomy and 15 underwent endoscopic treatment. There were no differences in baseline clinical characteristics, including BMD, and biochemical data between groups. The mean and median follow-up intervals for BMD measurement were 32.6 months (standard deviation, 16.5) and 31.0 months (interquartile range: 21.5, 41.0), respectively. The follow-up BMDs of the femoral neck and total hip were lower in the gastrectomy group (P = .010 and .011, respectively). The percentage changes in BMD for the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip were -3.30%, -1.52%, and 0.40%, respectively, in the endoscopic treatment group, and -7.17%, -6.30%, and -3.49%, respectively, in the gastrectomy group. Bone loss of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were greater in the gastrectomy group (P = .028 and .022, respectively). BMD is lower after gastrectomy than after endoscopic treatment among early stage gastric cancer survivors.

Familial Mediterranean fever mimicking Crohn disease: A case report.

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common form of autoinflammatory disease. We report a rare case of FMF with gastrointestinal lesions mimicking Crohn disease.

The effects of one-lung ventilation mode on lung function in elderly patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery.

The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of different one-lung ventilation (OLV) modes on lung function in elderly patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery. A total of 180 consecutive elderly patients (ASA Grades I-II, with OLV indications) undergoing elective surgery were recruited in the study. Patients were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 45). In Group A, patients received low tidal volume (VT < 8 mL/kg) + pressure controlled ventilation (PCV), low tidal volume (VT < 8 mL/kg) + volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in Group B, high tidal volume (VT ≥ 8 mL/kg) + PCV in Group C and high tidal volume (VT ≥ 8 mL/kg) + VCV in Group D. Two-lung ventilation involved routine tidal volume (8-10 mL/kg) at a frequency of 12 to 18 times/min, and VCV mode. Clinical efficacy among 4 groups was compared. The partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) did not significantly differ among 4 groups (all P > .05), and the oxygenation index and SO2 in Group A were significantly higher than in the other groups (P < .05). The PetCO2, peak airway pressure (Ppeak), platform airway pressure (Pplat), and mean airway pressure (Pmean) in Group A were significantly lower than those in the other groups (all P < .05). However, airway resistance (Raw) among 4 groups did not significantly differ (all P > .05). The incidence of pulmonary infection, anastomotic fistula, ventilator-induced lung injury, lung dysfunction, difficulty weaning from mechanical ventilation, and multiple organ dysfunction in Groups A and B were lower than that in Groups C and D (all P < .05). The expression levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein in lavage fluid in Group A were significantly lower than those in the other groups (all P < .05). OLV with low tidal volume (VT < 8 mL/kg) + PCV (5 cmH2O PEEP) improved lung function and mitigated inflammatory responses in elderly patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery.

Evaluation of HVHF for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis accompanying MODS.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) prevention is key to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) treatment and the assessment of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) for treating SAP accompanying multiple organ dysfunction syndromes.In this prospective controlled study, 40 SAP patients were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 22, treated with fasting, decompression, and intravenous somatostatin) and HVHF (n = 18, HVHF administration in addition to the treatment in the control group) groups; and were assessed for serum and urine amylase, WBC, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hepatic and renal functions. Vital signs and abdominal symptoms were recorded, and complications and mortality were analyzed.APACHE II scores in the HVHF group were significantly lower than in the control group at 3 and 7 days (6.3 ± 1.7 vs 9.2 ± 2.1 and 3.3 ± 0.8 vs 6.2 ± 1.7, respectively). Compared with controls, serum, and urine amylase, WBC, CRP, and organ functions significantly improved after HVHF treatment. Meanwhile, mortality (16.7% vs 31.8%) and complication (11.1% vs 40.9%) rates were significantly reduced.The other clinical parameters were significantly ameliorated by HVHF. HVHF rapidly reduces abdominal symptoms and improves prognosis, reducing mortality in SAP patients; and is likely through systemic inflammatory response syndrome attenuation in the early disease stage.

Heterotopic pancreatic cyst in the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature.

The incidence of heterotopic pancreas (HP) is relatively rare and mainly found in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no case of HP cyst in the adrenal gland has been reported. Informed consent has been obtained from the patient for the publication of the case details.

Efficacy and Safety of apatinib in patients with intermediate/advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A prospective observation study.

This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with intermediate/advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The patients with intermediate/advanced HCC, who met predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, underwent oral treatment of apatinib 500 mg daily. The drug-related adverse effects were monitored by regular follow-up and workup including laboratory tests and imaging examinations. Tumor response was assessed by response evaluation criteria in solid tumor criteria. The time to tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival rate (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.A total of 31 patients were enrolled in the study from October 28, 2015 to December 28, 2016. The number of patients with intermediate and advanced HCC was 4 (12.90%) and 27 (87.10%), respectively. The mean tumor size was 9.47 ± 5.48 cm (range: 1.2-19 cm). Vascular invasion was seen in 14 patients (45.16%). A total of 21 (67.74%) patients exhibited extrahepatic metastases. On the basis of first follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at 6 weeks after treatment, 10 (32.26%), 15 (48.39%), and 6 (19.35%) of 31 patients achieved a partial response, stable disease, and progression of disease, respectively. Response rate and disease control rate were 32.26% and 80.65%, respectively. The median TTP was 4.8 months (95% confidence interval: 3.75-5.86 months). Furthermore, 6- and 12-month OS rates were 73.8% and 55.4%, respectively. Grade 3 thrombocytopenia (6.45%) and hypertension (48.39%) were the most common hematologic and nonhematologic toxicities. Grade 3 elevation of either serum total bilirubin or aminotransferase (6.45%) was observed as the top incidence among important indexes of liver function.Our preliminary findings suggest apatinib is a safe and effective therapy in intermediate/advanced HCC patients with high tumor response and survival rates.

Prognostic value of fibrosis ratio in metastatic lymph nodes of node-positive advanced gastric cancer.

Lymph node metastasis plays a crucial role in predicting prognosis in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). In the present study, we formulated a fibrosis ratio (FR), defined as the number of metastatic lymph nodes with fibrosis divided by the total number of lymph nodes, and sought to determine whether it can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with AGC and improve on existing node staging. We retrospectively analyzed 161 patients who underwent curative resection for node-positive AGC between 2001 and 2010, evaluating the association between FR, lymph node ratio (LNR), and micrometastasis, and the relationship between FR and clinicopathologic findings, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A high FR was significantly related to T stage (P < .001), N stage (P < .001), tumor stage (P < .001), lymphatic invasion (P < .001), and venous invasion (P = .007). FR was significantly correlated with an increased number of metastatic lymph nodes (P = .001, R = 0.869) and LNR (P = .001, R = 0.943), but not with total harvested lymph nodes. Patients with micrometastases had a lower FR, compared with those without micrometastases (P < .001). A survival analysis showed poor OS for patients in the entire cohort (P < .001); N1 (P = .002), N2 (P = .004), N3a (P = .010), and N3b (P = .003) stages; and groups with high LNR (P = .013) and low LNR (P = .001). DFS was also poor for the entire cohort (P < .001) and the N2 (P = .013), N3b (P = .002), high-LNR (P = .036), and low-LNR (P = .001) groups, but not the N1 or N3a group. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that high FR was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.780; CI, 1.655-4.670; P < .001) and DFS (HR, 2.051; CI, 1.199-3.508; P = .009) in AGC. Collectively, our findings indicate that high FR is associated with adverse clinicopathologic parameters in AGC, clearly establishing nodal fibrosis as a pathological finding with value in predicting poor prognosis of patients with AGC. Thus, combining current N stage and LNR diagnostics with FR could improve prognostic prediction in AGC.

Clinical significance of ubiquilin 1 in gastric cancer.

Ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) plays an essential role in the regulation of protein degradations which is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. This study aimed to investigate the expression level of UBQLN1 in gastric cancer and evaluated the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological characteristics, as well as prognostic of patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression levels of UBQLN1 in 179 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. The UBQLN1 was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissue. High UBQLN1 expression was associated with high histological grade, invasion, lymph node metastasis, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage III (P < .001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that larger tumor size (HR = 3.125, 95%CI: 2.031-4.808, P < .001), histological grade 3 (HR = 15.313, 95%,CI: 8.075-29.041, P < .001), pT3 + pT4 (HR = 3.224, 95%CI: 1.389-7.483, P = .006), LNM (HR = 4.467, 95%CI: 2.404-8.302, P < .001), TNM stage III (HR = 2.152, 95%CI: 1.289-3.594, P = .003), and high UBQLN1 expression (HR = 2.547, 95%CI: 1.511-4.292, P < .001) were significantly associated with worse prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, high UBQLN1 expression was an independent worse prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer.

Anti epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in small bowel adenocarcinoma: Case report and literature review.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is an uncommon gastrointestinal cancer, thus limited data about treatment for advanced disease are available. The lack of specific guidelines has justified the use of therapeutic protocols usually applied in advanced colorectal cancer. Few and preliminary data have suggested possible clinical benefit from the use of target therapy such as bevacizumab and cetuximab.

Laparoscopic surgery for primary ovarian and retroperitoneal hydatid disease: A case report.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by echinococcus larvae. Manifestations of the disease include a severe damage to the liver and lung. Damages to the mesentery, omentum, spleen, brain, heart, bone, thyroid, kidney, and uterus are rarely observed. Moreover, primary ovarian and retroperitoneal hydatid disease is extremely rare, and is easily ignored or misdiagnosed.

Biliary exploration via the left hepatic duct orifice versus the common bile duct in left-sided hepatolithiasis patients with a history of biliary tract surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

Hepatectomy and additional common bile duct exploration are required for the treatment of left-sided hepatolithiasis (LSH).

Elevated red blood cell distribution width contributes to poor prognosis in patients undergoing resection for nonmetastatic rectal cancer.

Several studies have reported that elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was associated with the poor prognosis of different kinds of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of RDW in patients undergoing resection for nonmetastatic rectal cancer.We retrospectively reviewed a database of 625 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for nonmetastatic rectal cancer at our institution from January 2009 to December 2014. The cutoff value of RDW was calculated by receiver-operating characteristic curve.The results demonstrated that patients in high RDW-cv group had a lower overall survival (OS) (P = .018) and disease-free survival (P = .004). We also observed that patients in high RDW-sd group were associated with significantly lower OS (P = .033), whereas the disease-free survival (DFS) was not significantly different (P = .179).In multivariate analysis, we found elevated RDW-cv was associated poor DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56, P = .010) and RDW-sd can predict a worse OS (HR = 1.70, P = .009).We confirmed that elevated RDW can be an independently prognostic factor in patients undergoing resection for nonmetastatic rectal cancer. So more intervention or surveillance might be paid to the patients with nonmetastatic rectal cancer and elevated RDW values in the future.

Clinicopathological features of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma with sarcomatous change: Case report and literature review.

Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) is a rare subtype of primary liver malignancy comprising <1.5% of all primary liver tumors. Sarcomatoid changes in cHCC-CC are even rarer. Due to the rarity of this subtype, its clinicopathological feature is poorly understood. Therefore, here we report 2 tumors.

The genetic diversity of hepatitis A genotype I in Bulgaria.

The purpose of this study was to analyze sequences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) Ia and Ib genotypes from Bulgarian patients to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HAV genotype I during the years 2012 to 2014. Around 105 serum samples were collected by the Department of Virology of the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria. The sequenced region encompassed the VP1/2A region of HAV genome. The sequences obtained from the samples were 103. For the phylogenetic analyses, 5 datasets were built to investigate the viral gene in/out flow among distinct HAV subpopulations in different geographic areas and to build a Bayesian dated tree, Bayesian phylogenetic and migration pattern analyses were performed. HAV Ib Bulgarian sequences mostly grouped into a single clade. This indicates that the Bulgarian epidemic is partially compartmentalized. It originated from a limited number of viruses and then spread through fecal-oral local transmission. HAV Ia Bulgarian sequences were intermixed with European sequences, suggesting that an Ia epidemic is not restricted to Bulgaria but can affect other European countries. The time-scaled phylogeny reconstruction showed the root of the tree dating in 2008 for genotype Ib and in 1999 for genotype Ia with a second epidemic entrance in 2003. The Bayesian skyline plot for genotype Ib showed a slow but continuous growth, sustained by fecal-oral route transmission. For genotype Ia, there was an exponential growth followed by a plateau, which suggests better infection control. Bidirectional viral flow for Ib genotype, involving different Bulgarian areas, was observed, whereas a unidirectional flow from Sofia to Ihtiman for genotype Ia was highlighted, suggesting the fecal-oral transmission route for Ia.

Overexpression of NEK3 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

The NIMA-related kinase 3 (NEK3) plays an important role in cell migration, cell proliferation, and cell viability. Recently, NEK3 was reported to enhance the malignancy of breast cancer. However, its role in gastric cancer has not been completely characterized. In this study, we explored the prognostic significance of NEK3 in human gastric cancer. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot were performed to detect the NEK3 mRNA and protein expression in 6 paired fresh human gastric cancer tissues and surrounding normal tissues. NEK3 levels in gastric cancer and its adjacent normal samples of 168 cases were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relationships between the NEK3 level and various clinicopathological features were analyzed. NEK3 mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining assay showed the percentage of high NEK3 expression in gastric cancer samples was higher than that in adjacent normal samples. NEK3 overexpression was significantly correlated with pT stage, pathologic TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Cox multivariate regression analyses suggested that NEK3 was an independent prognostic factor for survival of patients with gastric cancer. The data demonstrate that NEK3 is overexpressed in gastric cancer, which promotes the malignancy of gastric cancer. NEK3 may be as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Synchronous Hodgkin lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma: A rare case report and literature review.

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoproliferative disease arising in the lymphoid tissue, which is characterized by Reed-Sternberg cells. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent pathological type of stomach cancer. Improved survival in HL patients leads to the development of secondary malignancies. However, synchronous occurrence of these 2 malignancies is extremely rare. Here, we present a 45-year-old male complaining of a lymph node mass in the neck, without any abdominal symptoms, diagnosed as HL and gastric adenocarcinoma with hepatitis B carrier status. We treated the patient with 8 courses of pirarubicin bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine (modified ABVD), and 4 courses of capecitabine therapy concurrently along with oral entecavir, as the patient survived longer than 20 months.The prognosis of multiple primary malignancies is poor because therapy is difficult, without a standard treatment. The frequency of multiple primary malignancies is increasing in recent years, and second malignancies in patients with cancer should be taken into consideration.

Clinical analysis of 138 multiple primary cancers diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor initially.