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Disease Management - Top 30 Publications

mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

Case Report of Serratus Plane Catheter for Pain Management in a Patient With Multiple Rib Fractures and an Inferior Scapular Fracture.

We placed a superficial serratus anterior plane catheter in an elderly woman with dementia and elevated clotting times who presented with multiple rib fractures after a mechanical fall. She was not a surgical candidate, and treatment consisted of conservative management with physical therapy and pain control. She was not a candidate for a patient-controlled analgesia regimen because of her dementia. Given her elevated international normalized ratio, thoracic epidural and paravertebral analgesia was also contraindicated. We placed an ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane catheter, allowing titratable continuous infusion in a trauma patient, resulting in excellent analgesia without adverse effects.

Endometriosis after menopause: physiopathology and management of an uncommon condition.

Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent inflammatory disease that is usually characterized by infertility and pain symptoms. This disease mainly occurs during the reproductive years and is rarely diagnosed after menopause. We discuss the physiopathology of this condition after menopause as well as treatment options and the risk of malignant transformation. Occurrence or progression of postmenopausal endometriosis lesions could be related to extra-ovarian production of estrogen by endometriosis lesions and adipose tissue, which becomes the major estrogen-producing tissue after menopause. Postmenopausal women with symptomatic endometriosis should be managed surgically because of the risk of malignancy; medical treatments can be used in cases of pain recurrence after surgery. Aromatase inhibitors act by decreasing extra-ovarian estrogen production and by blocking the feed-forward stimulation loop between inflammation and aromatase within endometriosis lesions. The evidence is currently insufficient to support a conclusion about the optimal hormone replacement therapy for women with endometriosis. The question of malignant transformation of endometriosis in response to hormone replacement therapy in women with a history of endometriosis remains unanswered and needs a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the risk of an adverse outcome. Further studies should be performed to determine the optimal management of menopausal women with endometriosis.

Techniques to Optimize Multimodal Analgesia in Ambulatory Surgery.

Ambulatory surgery has grown in popularity in recent decades due to the advancement in both surgical and anesthetic techniques resulting in quicker recovery times, fewer complications, higher patient satisfaction, and reduced costs of care. We review common approaches to multimodal analgesia.

Anesthetic and Analgesic Management for Outpatient Knee Arthroplasty.

Total knee arthroplasty traditionally has been associated with significant postoperative pain that can limit recovery and prolong hospital length of stay. Recently, however, due to financial pressures and an emphasis on improving patient satisfaction, many institutions are implementing outpatient and short-stay programs for patients undergoing this procedure. An effective perioperative anesthetic plan is an essential quality of a successful outpatient joint replacement program.

Cannabis for Pain and Headaches: Primer.

Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research.

Knowledge and factors associated with pain management for hospitalized children among nurses working in public hospitals in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

American Nurses Association reflects, the role of the nurse in pain management encompasses the entire nursing process, assessment of pain, plans pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management strategies, implements the plan, and evaluates the response of the patient to the interventions. Pediatric pain management has been left largely unaddressed due to factors like limited resources, inadequate training, as well as cultural diversity and language barriers which made sick and injured children not to receive basic pain care. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and factors associated with pain management for hospitalized children among nurses.

Topical Treatments for Localized Neuropathic Pain.

Topical therapeutic approaches in localized neuropathic pain (LNP) syndromes are increasingly used by both specialists and general practitioners, with a potentially promising effect on pain reduction. In this narrative review, we describe the available compounds for topical use in LNP syndromes and address their potential efficacy according to the literature.

Exparel/Peripheral Catheter Use in the Ambulatory Setting and Use of Peripheral Catheters Postoperatively in the Home Setting.

With the increasing number of ambulatory surgeries being performed, regional anesthesia has become an increasingly popular anesthetic modality, and many choices exist to provide efficient, effective quality perioperative analgesia. In this paper, we will review the various regional anesthesia options in addition to the advantages and disadvantages of each. Lastly, we will discuss liposomal bupivicaine, a long acting local anesthetic, and its future role in the anesthesiologist's armamentarium. The aim of the publication is to provide a general overview of regional anesthesia as well as to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this modality. Additionally, we sought to review the basics of liposomal bupivicaine as well as the relevant literature.

New Cancer Pain Treatment Options.

Cancer pain is often incapacitating and discouraging to patients; is demoralizing to family members and care takers; and is taxing and difficult to subdue for the pain specialists. The consequences of implementing suboptimal treatment are far-reaching; therefore, effective treatment methods are in a great demand. The face of cancer pain management has changed in considerable ways, and interventional procedures have become an integral part of providing multimodal analgesia in cancer pain treatment. The goals of this review are to draw attention to the critical role that regional anesthetic nerve blocks and interventional pain management techniques play in treating malignancy-related pain and emphasize the benefits provided by the aforementioned treatment strategies.

Auricular Acupuncture Analgesia in Thoracic Trauma: A Case Report.

We report a case of thoracic trauma (rib fractures with pneumothorax and pulmonary contusions) with severe chest pain leading to ineffective ventilation and oxygenation. The patient presented to our emergency department. The patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was completely unable to take deep breaths and clear secretions from his bronchial tree. After obtaining informed consent, we applied auricular acupuncture to ameliorate pain and hopefully improve his functional ability to cough and breathe deeply. Within a few minutes, his pain scores diminished considerably, and his ventilation and oxygenation indices improved to safe limits. Auricular acupuncture analgesia lasted for several hours. Parallel to pain reduction, hemodynamic disturbances and anxiety significantly resolved. A second treatment nearly a day later resulted in almost complete resolution of pain that lasted at least 5 days and permitted adequate ventilation, restored oxygenation, and some degree of mobilization (although restricted due to a compression fracture of a lumbar vertebra). Nonopioid and opioid analgesics were sparsely used in low doses during the entire hospitalization period. Hemodynamic alterations and anxiety also decreased, and the patient was soon ready to be discharged.

Updates in Pediatric Regional Anesthesia and Its Role in the Treatment of Acute Pain in the Ambulatory Setting.

The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest advances in pediatric regional anesthesia with special emphasis on its role in the ambulatory surgical setting.

Pain Management of Patients with Substance Abuse in the Ambulatory Setting.

Abuse of illicit substances and prescription opioids is a growing problem that presents challenges for pain management in the inpatient and outpatient setting. With future patient care models shifting toward shorter hospital stays and more same-day surgeries, it is crucial that clinicians learn to manage this patient population and strike a balance between the overtreatment of pain that can subsequently worsen tolerance and addiction, and the undertreatment of pain that can lead to pseudoaddiction.

Evaluation of Borama tuberculosis control program in Somaliland, Somalia.

The Borama TB program in Somalia lost resources for TB operations in 2003. We evaluated the impact of the loss on the program.

Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function.

Minimally invasive treatments of painful bone lesions: state of the art.

The role of the interventional radiology (IR) in the musculoskeletal system, and in particular in the bone, is a field of knowledge that is growing significantly in the last years with indications for treatment of both benign and malign lesions. In this paper, we review the state of the art of this application of the IR in the bone (bone metastasis and benign bone lesions) with discussion about all the techniques today used.

Music Therapy Increases Comfort and Reduces Pain in Patients Recovering From Spine Surgery.

The treatment of pain continues to gain in saliency as a component of defining best practice in medical care. Music therapy is an integrative treatment modality that impacts patient outcomes in the treatment of spinal pain. At Mount Sinai Beth Israel, we conducted a mixed-methods study addressing the effects of music therapy interventions on the recovery of patients after spine surgery. The study combined standard medical approaches and integrative music therapy. Sixty patients (35 female, 25 male) ranging in age from 40 to 55 years underwent anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior spinal fusion and were randomly assigned to either music therapy plus standard care (medical and nursing care with scheduled pharmacologic pain intervention) or standard care only. Measurements for both groups were completed before and after the intervention. Music therapy involved the use of patient-preferred live music that supported tension release/relaxation through incentive-based clinical improvisation, singing, and/or rhythmic drumming or through active visualization supported by live music that encompasses tension resolution. The control and music groups showed significant differences in degree and direction of change in the visual analog scale (VAS) pain ratings from before to after intervention (P = .01). VAS pain levels increased slightly in the control group (to 5.87 from 5.20) but decreased by more than 1 point in the music group (to 5.09 from 6.20). The control and music therapy groups did not differ in the rate of change in scores on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) Anxiety (P = .62), HADS Depression (P = .85), or Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (P = .93). Both groups had slight increases in HADS Anxiety, comparable decreases in HADS Depression, and minimal changes in fear-related movement (Tampa scale).

Concept of the Ambulatory Pain Physician.

Given the growing number of ambulatory surgeries being performed and the variability in postoperative pain requirements, early discharge, and inconsistent follow-up, ambulatory surgery presents a unique challenge for this patient population and warrants the presence of an ambulatory pain specialist to evaluate a patient preoperatively and postoperatively to optimize patient safety and satisfaction. This article explores the crucial role that a dedicated pain physician would have in the ambulatory surgery setting.

Pain is generally undertreated and there is a need to differentiate and improve access to appropriate pain care. The growing Field of telehealth offers a novel opportunity for pain care, exploiting mainly communicative and pharmacological therapeutic principles. Rationale for telemedicine for the management of chronic pain are the potential to overcome timely, economical, and structural barriers for the access to specialized pain care as well as the general open mindedness of physicians and patients towards this technology. The general usability and effectiveness of telemedicine in pain care has been described. The most prominent applications of telemedicine in pain care are store-and-forward applications and direct consultations. Smartphone applications are easily accessible and inexpensive. The quality and effectiveness of smartphone applications has not been evaluated thoroughly due to a lack of regulatory objectives. Estimations of the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine in pain care are limited due to a lack of data regarding long-term outcome and healthcare utilization after treatment. Telemedicine offers new approaches to improve pain care for the treatment of acute postoperative pain as well. Future challenges will be to start a collaborative effort between developers and health-care professionals to implement evidence-based clinical protocols into telemedicine applications and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of existing telemedicine programmes.

Kinesio Taping for pain control during labor: Protocol of a randomized, controlled trial.

This study protocol will evaluate the effectiveness and safety during labor and delivery of the Kinesio Taping bandage for pain sensation, satisfaction of patients, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. A randomized controlled trial with 60 participants divided into two groups will be conducted. The intervention group will receive bandage application on the vertebral regions corresponding to uterine dermatomes - from T10 to L1 and from S2 to S4. The control group will receive bandage application away from uterine dermatomes, from T1 to T4. The primary endpoint is pain during labor. Secondary endpoints are perinatal outcomes and patient satisfaction with the bandage and with her labor. Pain levels will be evaluated on an hourly basis during labor, and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals will be calculated. Findings on effectiveness of pain control with no adverse effects to both the mother and neonate are the first step in evaluating the systematic use of Kinesio Taping during labor. Since self-control may affect birthing experience satisfaction, discovering new alternatives for pain control may allow for a better experience.


This special supplement examines and summarizes the current state of the science on acute pain management and its practice.

MicroRNA therapeutics: towards a new era for the management of cancer and other diseases.

In just over two decades since the discovery of the first microRNA (miRNA), the field of miRNA biology has expanded considerably. Insights into the roles of miRNAs in development and disease, particularly in cancer, have made miRNAs attractive tools and targets for novel therapeutic approaches. Functional studies have confirmed that miRNA dysregulation is causal in many cases of cancer, with miRNAs acting as tumour suppressors or oncogenes (oncomiRs), and miRNA mimics and molecules targeted at miRNAs (antimiRs) have shown promise in preclinical development. Several miRNA-targeted therapeutics have reached clinical development, including a mimic of the tumour suppressor miRNA miR-34, which reached phase I clinical trials for treating cancer, and antimiRs targeted at miR-122, which reached phase II trials for treating hepatitis. In this article, we describe recent advances in our understanding of miRNAs in cancer and in other diseases and provide an overview of current miRNA therapeutics in the clinic. We also discuss the challenge of identifying the most efficacious therapeutic candidates and provide a perspective on achieving safe and targeted delivery of miRNA therapeutics.

Diabetic macular oedema: what to fear? How to treat?

Absolute iron deficiency without anaemia in patients with chronic systolic heart failure is associated with poorer functional capacity.

Functional status is one of the main concerns in the management of heart failure (HF). Recently, the FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF trials showed that correcting anaemia using intravenous iron supplementation improved functional variables in patients with absolute or relative iron deficiency. Relative iron deficiency is supposed to be a marker of HF severity, as ferritin concentration increases with advanced stages of HF, but little is known about the impact of absolute iron deficiency (AID).

Effects of Reiki on Pain, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure in Patients Undergoing Knee Replacement: A Pilot Study.

This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.

Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for acute idiopathic epistaxis. Do anatomical variation and a limited evidence base raise questions regarding its place in management?

Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation is widely accepted as effective and safe for acute spontaneous epistaxis that is unresponsive to conservative management. As with many new procedures, it has been progressively adopted as common practice, despite a limited evidence base for its efficacy. Early reviews called for comparative trials to support its adoption, but subsequent literature largely consists of case series and narrative reviews. These have attempted to derive an algorithm to establish its place in management, but consensus is still lacking. Intuitively, although there are theoretical objections, an operation regarded as relatively simple, fast and safe hardly seems to demand high-level evidence of efficacy. Rhinologists may be influenced by years of personal experience and success with the technique. However, estimates of the effect size and the added contribution to traditional surgical management are lacking. If the procedure could be shown to dramatically influence outcome, it should be standard practice and indispensable for all patients requiring operative intervention.

Management of inverted papilloma: review.

Inverted papilloma is the most common benign tumour affecting the nose. There is a high rate of recurrence and a potential of malignant transformation. This review article aimed to identify the best available management of this pathology today.

Effects of combined oral sucrose and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) on procedural pain of NICU newborns, 2001 to 2016: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

Both oral sucrose (OS) and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) are effective nonpharmacological methods to alleviate procedures pain in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) newborns when they were used alone, but the combined effect of OS+NNS remains controversial. So, we conducted this study to evaluate the efficiency of NNS combined with oral sucrose on pain relief in NICU newborns undergoing painful procedures.

A case report of stellate ganglion block in the treatment of epileptic pain.

Stellate ganglion blocks have been shown to provide effective pain relief in a number of different conditions, but no one had reported stellate ganglion blocks for the treatment of epileptic pain. We describe a case report of the successful use of stellate ganglion block in the treatment of epileptic pain in the patient.

Pain in children is still under-recognized and undertreated in Scandinavia.