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Endocrine System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Metformin for Prediabetes.

Cooperative Synthesis of Dopamine in Rat Mediobasal Hypothalamus as a Compensatory Mechanism in Hyperprolactinemia.

Dopamine (DA), synthesized in the mediobasal hypothalamus by dopaminergic neurons containing two enzymes of DA synthesis - tyrosine hydroxylase and decarboxylase of aromatic L-amino acids, or by monoenzymatic non-dopaminergic neurons containing one DA synthesis enzyme in cooperation, is known to have an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion. Deterioration of this inhibitory control leads to an increase in prolactin concentration in the blood and to the development of hyperprolactinemia syndrome. In a rat model of hyperprolactinemia induced by administration of a neurotoxin causing degeneration of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons, the level of DA first decreases, leading to an increase in prolactin level (decompensation stage), while later both levels are restored to normal (compensation stage). However, the mechanism of such compensation is still not clear. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the increase in cooperative synthesis of DA by monoenzymatic neurons during hyperprolactinemia is a manifestation of a compensatory mechanism representing a particular case of neuroplasticity. The level of cooperative synthesis in the hyperprolactinemia model and in the control was estimated as the level of synthesis of DA and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) - an intermediate product of DA synthesis, when L-DOPA transfer from neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase into neurons containing aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase is inhibited. The level of DA synthesis during the decompensation stage was not changed, while during the compensation stage it was lower than the control. Along with a reduction in DA level, during the compensation stage an increase in the extracellular L-DOPA level in the medium was detected. Thus, the compensation of DA deficiency after degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus is due to the increase in cooperative synthesis of DA by monoenzymatic neurons containing one of the complementary enzymes of the DA synthesis pathway.

Insights for Oxidative Stress and mTOR Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury under Diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) displays a high morbidity. The diabetic heart is susceptible to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Impaired activation of prosurvival pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased basal oxidative state, and decreased antioxidant defense and autophagy may render diabetic hearts more vulnerable to MI/R injury. Oxidative stress and mTOR signaling crucially regulate cardiometabolism, affecting MI/R injury under diabetes. Producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), uncoupling nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and disturbing the mitochondrial quality control may be three major mechanisms of oxidative stress. mTOR signaling presents both cardioprotective and cardiotoxic effects on the diabetic heart, which interplays with oxidative stress directly or indirectly. Antihyperglycemic agent metformin and newly found free radicals scavengers, Sirt1 and CTRP9, may serve as promising pharmacological therapeutic targets. In this review, we will focus on the role of oxidative stress and mTOR signaling in the pathophysiology of MI/R injury in diabetes and discuss potential mechanisms and their interactions in an effort to provide some evidence for cardiometabolic targeted therapies for ischemic heart disease (IHD).

Herbal medicines for diabetes control among Indian and Pakistani migrants with diabetes.

Drawing on data collected during a 16-month ethnographic investigation, this paper explores practices around Indians' and Pakistanis' use of herbal medications for diabetes control. The ethnographic study was conducted among Indian and Pakistani migrants in Edinburgh, Scotland and included extended participant observation, six group discussions and 21 semi-structured interviews. Respondents showed great resistance in adhering to medication prescriptions for diabetes control due to their various side effects, especially within the stomach. In order to avoid such side effects, respondents decreased medication dosage and turned to non-allopathic remedies that usually consisted of herbal medications that, according to Indians and Pakistanis, did not cause side effects as medications did and tackled the cause of the disease rather than its symptoms. Such remedies however, were not only combined with allopathic ones but also eventually replaced without the doctor's consultation.

All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality following Treatment with Metformin or Glyburide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Both metformin and sulfonylurea (SU) drugs are among the most widely-used anti-hyperglycemic medications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies have shown that treatment with SUs might be associated with decreased survival compared with metformin. This study aimed to evaluate all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates between glyburide and metformin in patients diagnosed with T2DM.

The prospective of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer management.

Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is an extremely challenging surgery. First described in 1994, LPD has been gaining a favorable position in the majority of pancreatic surgery. Now, LPD is worldwide accepted. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, and only papers written in English containing more than 26 publications of LPD were selected. Papers in distal and robotic pancreatic procedure were not included in the review of a total of 222 LPD publications. The total number of patients analyzed was 1,082 from 25 articles and the largest series. Six of these studies came from the United States, 1 from France, 5 from South Korea, and 1 from India, 2 from Japan, 5 from China, 1 from Italy, 1 Germany, 2 from UK. The overall pancreatic fistula rate was 20.5%. The overall conversion rate was 10.4%. LPD seems to be a valid alternative to the standard open approach with similar technical and oncological results. LPD is a safe procedure, providing many of the advantages typically associated with laparoscopic procedures. We expect this operation to continue to gain in popularity as well as be offered in increasingly more complex cases. In future studies, it will be beneficial to look further at the oncologic outcome data of LPD including survival.

Inhibition of Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion by Knockdown of Pyruvate Kinase-M2 (PKM2) in Ovarian Cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 Cells.

Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a key enzyme in the process of glycolysis, catalyzing phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate. Currently, PK isozyme type M2 (PKM2), one subtype of PK, has been proposed as a new tumor marker with high expression in various tumor tissues. Here we aimed to explore the effects of siRNA-PKM2 on ovarian carcinoma (OC) cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3, in which PKM2 was notably expressed. PKM2 gene interference lentivirus vectors were built by miRNA transfection assay. siRNA-PKM2-transfected SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells were evaluated for cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, cell migration, and invasion in this study. In addition, the expression levels of several tumor-related genes were measured using real-time PCR and Western blot. Results showed that siRNA-PKM2 markedly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Cell migration and invasion were significantly suppressed by siRNA-PKM2. Furthermore, the tumor-related genes caspase 7, Bad, and E-cadherin were upregulated, while MMP2, HIF1α, VEGF, and MMP9 were depressed by siRNA-PKM2. The function of siRNA-PKM2 on the biological behavior of OC cells indicated that PKM2 may also be a target for treatment of OC.

MicroRNA-1284 Inhibits Cell Viability and Induces Apoptosis of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line OVCAR3.

Ovarian cancer is a malignancy with high mortality among women. Multiple reports show that microRNAs (miRs) act as regulators in ovarian cancer inhibition, while the role of miR-1284 in ovarian cancer is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of miR-1284 on ovarian cancer cells. Human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 was cultured and transfected with miR-1284 mimics, inhibitors, or control. Viability and apoptosis of transfected cells were then determined by MTT assay, BrdU assay, and flow cytometry. Expression changes of p27, p21, and PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were measured by Western blot. Results showed that miR-1284 overexpression suppressed cell viability while increasing the apoptosis in OVCAR3 cells. Moreover, the expression level of p27 was upregulated by miR-1284 overexpression. Furthermore, miR-1284 overexpression and Akt inhibitor GSK690693 downregulated the levels of p-Akt and Bcl-2 while upregulating the levels of Bax and caspase 3. However, miR-1284 suppression attenuated the regulatory effects of GSK690693 on these proteins. In conclusion, miR-1284 could inhibit cell viability via regulating the expression of p27 and induce apoptosis via regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in OVCAR3 cells.

Myxoedema in a patient with achondroplasia in rural area of Guatemala.

A 43-year-old indigenous Guatemalan woman with achondroplasia presented to our clinic with chronic fatigue and generalised oedema. She had limited contact with the formal healthcare system. However, 1 year prior, she had sought medical evaluation from a private physician. Her symptoms had been attributed to a combination of heart failure and physical disability due to the musculoskeletal complications of her achondroplasia. She was lost to follow-up due to inability to pay for further testing or treatment. On initial laboratory evaluation in our clinic, she was found to have a thyrotropin level greater than assay. With initiation of oral levothyroxine supplementation, her dyspnoea and oedema completely resolved. The case illustrates how indigenous patients in rural Guatemala experience many barriers to accessing high-quality medical care. As a result, presentations of common illnesses are often very advanced and definitive diagnoses and treatments are frequently delayed.

The association between biochemical control and cardiovascular risk factors in acromegaly.

The study aim was to estimate the proportion of acromegaly patients with various comorbidities and to determine if biochemical control was associated with reduced proportion of cardiovascular risk factors.

Knockdown of SOX9 Inhibits the Proliferation, Invasion, and EMT in Thyroid Cancer Cells.

Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 9 (SOX9) is a member of the SOX transcription factor family. Increasing evidence has reported that SOX9 plays different roles in various types of malignancies. However, the role of SOX9 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX9 in PTC. Our results showed that SOX9 was upregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. In addition, knockdown of SOX9 significantly inhibited PTC proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in TPC-1 and BCPAP cells. Moreover, knockdown of SOX9 significantly inhibited the expression levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc in PTC cells. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that knockdown of SOX9 inhibited PTC cell proliferation, invasion, and the EMT process via suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Thus, SOX9 may act as a novel molecular target for the prevention and treatment of PTC.

Effect of Spirulina platensis ingestion on the abnormal biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the pancreas and liver of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Previous studies have shown that Spirulina platensis Gomont (Phormidiaceae) (SP) extract has beneficial effects on many disease conditions. The putative protective effects of SP were investigated in diabetic rats.

Hypofibrinolytic State in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Aggravated by the Metabolic Syndrome before Clinical Manifestations of Atherothrombotic Disease.

Background. Metabolic and genetic factors induce plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) overexpression; higher PAI-1 levels decrease fibrinolysis and promote atherothrombosis. Aim. To assess PAI-1 antigen levels among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) plus Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) before clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis and the contribution of metabolic factors and 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene on the variability of PAI-1. Methods. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional assay in a hospital in Mexico City from May 2010 to September 2011. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. PAI-1 levels and 4G/5G polymorphism were determined by ELISA and PCR-RFLP analysis. Results. We enrolled 215 subjects with T2DM plus MetS and 307 controls. Subjects with T2DM plus MetS had higher PAI-1 levels than the reference group (58.4 ± 21 versus 49.9 ± 16 ng/mL, p = 0.026). A model with components of MetS explained only 12% of variability on PAI-1 levels (R(2) = 0.12; p = 0.001), with β = 0.18 (p = 0.03) for hypertension, β = -0.16 (p = 0.05) for NL HDL-c, and β = 0.15 (p = 0.05) for NL triglycerides. Conclusion. Subjects with T2DM plus MetS have elevated PAI-1 levels before clinical manifestations of atherothrombotic disease. Metabolic factors have a more important contribution than 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1 plasma variability.

Macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and elongation of the brachial plexus: what is the role of caesarean section?

The delivery of a macrosomic infant is associated with a higher risk for maternofoetal complications. Shoulder dystocia is the most feared fetal complication, leading sometimes to a disproportionate use of caesarean section. This study aims to evaluate the interest of preventive caesarean section. We conducted a retrospective study of 400 macrosomic births between February 2010 and December 2012. We also identified cases of infants with shoulder dystocia occurred in 2012 as well as their respective birthweight. Macrosomic infants weighed between 4000g and 4500g in 86.25% of cases and between 4500 and 5000 in 12.25% of cases. Vaginal delivery was performed in 68% of cases. Out of 400 macrosomic births, 9 cases with shoulder dystocia were recorded (2.25%). All of these cases occurred during vaginal delivery. The risk for shoulder dystocia invaginal delivery has increased significantly with the increase in birth weight (p <10-4). The risk for elongation of the brachial plexus was 11 per thousand vaginal deliveries of macrosomic infants. This risk was not correlated with birthweight (p = 0.38). The risk for post-traumatic sequelae was 0.71%. Shoulder dystocia affectd macrosoic infants in 58% of cases. Shoulder dystocia is not a complication exclusively associated with macrosomia. Screening for risky deliveries and increasing training of obstetricians on maneuvers in shoulder dystocia seem to be the best way to avoid complications.

Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of supposed benign ovarian tumors at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé.

Supposed benign ovarian tumors (SBOT) are considered one of the most frequent reasons for gynecological consultation and one of the most common indications for gynecological surgery.

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or testicular feminization: review of literature based on a case report.

Testicular feminization, or the androgen insensitivity syndrome, is a rare disease. Because of various abnormalities of the X chromosome, a male, genetically XY, has some physical characteristics of a woman or a full female phenotype. Indeed the androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs because of a resistance to the actions of the androgen hormones, which in turn switches the development towards the aspect of a woman. We report a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in a 30 years old woman who presented primary amenorrhea. We aim to improve our knowledge of this illness from the data that provides us this study, and a review of the literature.

A case of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia with esophageal stricture successfully treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and local steroid injection combined with surgical resection of gastrinomas.

In type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1), esophageal diseases association with excessive gastrin secretion in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) sometimes develop. Here, we reported a case of MEN1/ZES, who developed dysphagia due to reflux esophagitis with severe esophageal stricture. Treatment for his esophageal stricture and ZES was discussed.

Diabetes Increases Morbidities of Colonic Diverticular Disease and Colonic Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Colonic diverticular disease (CDD) and colonic diverticular hemorrhage (CDH) are the most common disorders in hospital admissions and outpatient health clinic visits. However, risk factors of CDD and CDH are complicated and need to be discussed. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been related with CDD and CDH, but the associations remain ambiguous. Therefore, we performed a literature search for studies involving the associations among DM, morbidity of CDD, and incidence of CDH. Relative risks or odds ratios with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined and weighted to produce summary effect size. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were further performed. We selected 17 studies that involved a total of 8212 patients with diabetes, 381,579 controls without diabetes. We found that patients with DM had approximately 1.201 times higher CDD morbidity in prospective studies (95% CI, 1.135-1.270) with no significant heterogeneity (Q = 0.42, P = 0.519, I = 0%). DM was associated with a 52.8% increase in risk of CDH (95% CI, 14%-104%); we did not find significant heterogeneity among these studies (Q = 12.94, P = 0.114, I = 38.2%). This meta-analysis confirms that DM is an important risk factor for morbidities of CDD and CDH.

Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms and Antioxidant Therapy in Diabetic Retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of blindness in young adults. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a critical cause of DR. Metabolic abnormalities induced by high-glucose levels are involved in the development of DR and appear to be influenced by oxidative stress. The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidant defense system activates several oxidative stress-related mechanisms that promote the pathogenesis of DR. The damage caused by oxidative stress persists for a considerable time, even after the blood glucose concentration has returned to a normal level. Animal experiments have proved that the use of antioxidants is a beneficial therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DR, but more data are required from clinical trials. The aims of this review are to highlight the improvements to our understanding of the oxidative stress-related mechanisms underlying the development of DR and provide a summary of the main antioxidant therapy strategies used to treat the disease.

Life-threatening emphysematous liver abscess associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus: a case report.

Emphysematous liver abscesses are defined as liver abscesses accompanied by gas formation. The fatality rate is extremely high at 27%, necessitating prompt intensive care.

Glutamine dipeptide and cortisol change the liver glucose metabolism and reduce the severity of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in untreated T1DM Swiss mice.

Glutamine is conditionally essential in type 1 diabetes mellitus, and might be useful to counteract hypoglycaemia.

Effects of Selenium Yeast on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant Biomarkers in Cholesterol Fed Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Wistar Rats.

Selenium is an antioxidant that prevents oxygen radical from damaging cells from chronic diseases that can develop from cell injury and inflammation such as diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible protective effect of selenium yeast on cholesterol diet induced type-2 diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty male wistar rats were divided in to four groups of five animals each: Group 1: (Negative control) received standard animal feed only, Group 2:  received cholesterol diet (CD) only, Group 3: received CD and 0.1 mg/kg selenium yeast orally, Group 4: Received CD and 0.2 mg/kg selenium yeast orally for six weeks. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed and the serum samples were collected and evaluated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level in the groups  co-administered CD and selenium yeast when compared to CD group only. Antioxidant enzymes status recorded significant decrease in SOD, CAT and GPx activities in CD and selenium yeast administered when compared to CD group only. In Conclusion, Selenium yeast administrations prevent free radical formations which are potent inducer of diabetes mellitus.

Partial regimen replacement with aripiprazole reduces serum prolactin in patients with a long history of schizophrenia: A case series.

Aripiprazole (ARP) is a popular antipsychotic drug that has demonstrated ameliorative effects on hyperprolactinemia. However, no study to date has studied the utility of ARP in patients with a long history of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment. We therefore examined the effect of partial antipsychotic regimen replacement with ARP on hyperprolactinemia induced by chronic antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia.

Psychosis as a late manifestation of Sheehan's syndrome.

Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage. It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries. Characteristic manifestations include failure to lactate or to resume menses, genital and axillary hair loss, asthenia and weakness, fine wrinkles around the eyes and lips, signs of premature aging, dry skin, hypopigmentation and other evidence of hypopituitarism. Uncommonly it can present with psychosis. There are only few case reports of psychoses in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Our case report illustrates the relationship between psychosis and Sheehan's syndrome. The treatment challenges in managing Sheehan's syndrome and psychosis are discussed.

Chemotherapy-related acute respiratory distress syndrome in germ cell tumors: a literature review.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are one of the more curable solid cancers in men. Approximately 8500 men are diagnosed with GCTs in the USA. The majority of patients survive due to the availability of effective treatment. Fewer than 400 men are estimated to die from their disease. Among those, there is a subset of patients with metastatic GCTs receiving chemotherapy who rapidly develop progressive respiratory failure and die during the early phase of their treatment course. In this review, we searched the available literature for reported cases and retrospective series of chemotherapy-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome in GCTs. We aim to determine whether a different approach from current treatment guidelines could be considered to prevent this catastrophic chemotherapy-related event.

The cornerstone K-RAS mutation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: From cell signaling network, target genes, biological processes to therapeutic targeting.

RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence. In this review, we discuss the central role of K-RAS mutations and their tremendous diversity of biological properties by the interconnected regulation of signaling pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, PI3K, Ral…). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, transcriptome analysis and preclinical animal models showed that K-RAS mutation alters biological behavior of PDAC cells (promoting proliferation, migration and invasion, evading growth suppressors, regulating mucin pattern, and miRNA expression). K-RAS also impacts tumor microenvironment and PDAC metabolism reprogramming. Finally we discuss therapeutic targeting strategies of K-RAS that have been developed without significant clinical success so far. As K-RAS is considered as the undruggable target, targeting its multiple effectors and target genes should be considered as potential alternatives.

Multimodal treatment of resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

After a timing preoperative staging, treatment of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) includes surgery and adjuvant therapies, the former representing the initial therapeutic option and the latter aiming to reduce the incidence of both distant metastases (chemotherapy) and locoregional failures (chemoradiotherapy). Herein, we provide a critical overview on the role of multimodal treatment in PDAC and on new opportunities related to current more active poli-chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and the more recent immunotherapy approaches. Moreover, an analysis of pathological markers and clinical features able to help clinicians in the selection of the best therapeutic strategy will be discussed. Lastly, the role of neoadjuvant treatment of initially resectable disease will be considered mostly in patients whose malignancy shows morphological but not clinical or biological criteria of resectability. Depending on the results of these investigational studies, today a multidisciplinary approach can offer the best address therapy for these patients.

Expression of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Different Types of Thyroid Cancer.

Thyroid cancer is common type of malignant tumor in humans, and the autophagy status of such tumors may vary according to subtype. This study aimed to investigate the expression and implications of the major autophagy-related molecules light chain (LC) 3A, LC3B, p62, and BNIP-3 in human thyroid carcinoma. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 555 thyroid cancers (papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): 342; follicular carcinoma (FC): 112; medullary carcinoma (MC): 70; poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC): 23; and anaplastic carcinoma (AC): 8) and 152 follicular adenomas (FAs). Expression of autophagy-related molecules (LC3A, LC3B, p62, and BNIP-3) was detected immunohistochemically, and the results were analyzed via comparison with clinicopathologic parameters. Tumoral LC3A and LC3B expressions were the highest in MC (p < 0.001), whereas stromal LC3A expression was higher in AC and PTC (p < 0.001). BNIP-3 expression was absent in MC and AC (p = 0.013). Tumoral LC3A, LC3B, and p62 expressions were higher in conventional type PTC, compared with those in the follicular variant. PTC with the BRAF V600E mutation exhibited higher expression of all autophagy-related proteins relative to PTC without this mutation (p < 0.05). BNIP-3 negativity was associated with capsular invasion in FC (p = 0.001), and p62 negativity was associated with lymph node metastasis in MC (p = 0.006). In a univariate analysis, LC3B negativity was associated with shorter disease-free survival in PTC with the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.024). We conclude that the expression of autophagy-related proteins differs according to thyroid cancer subtype.

Elevated Concentrations of SERPINE2/Protease Nexin-1 and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in the Serum of Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Introduction. SERPINE2 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) are proteins with anticoagulant properties which could promote solid tumor growth. However, their role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer has not been determined. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to assess serum SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations in a group of 36 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and a group of 19 subjects with multinodular nontoxic goiter (MNG). The control group (CG) consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected one day before surgery. Serum SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations were measured using specific ELISA methods. Results. Significantly higher concentrations of SERPINE2 and SLPI were found in patients with PTC as compared with MNG and controls. Positive correlation was found between SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations in PTC patients. The levels of SERPINE2 and SLPI did not differ significantly between MNG and healthy controls. Conclusions. Our results indicate that SERPINE2 and SLPI play a significant role in the development of papillary thyroid cancer and imply that the evaluation of serum concentrations of both anticoagulant molecules may be considered as additional marker for the differentiation of malignancies during the preoperative diagnosis of patients with thyroid gland tumors.

Evaluation of the correlation of vasculogenic mimicry, ALDH1, KiSS-1, and MACC1 in the prediction of metastasis and prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.

Recurrence and metastasis are the usual manifestations of treatment failure of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Vasculogenic mimicry (VM; blood supply development often seen in highly aggressive cancers), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, cancer stem cell biomarker), KiSS-1 (suppressor of tumor metastasis), and metastasis associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) are all useful predictive factors for metastasis and prognosis in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed associations among VM, ALDH1, KiSS-1, and MACC1 in EOC, and their respective correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and survival in EOC.