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Endocrine System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Modifications in Retinal Mitochondrial Respiration Precede Type 2 Diabetes and Protracted Microvascular Retinopathy.

To characterize retinal mitochondrial respiration associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression in a cone-rich diurnal rodent, the Nile rat (genus Arvicanthis, species niloticus).

Retinal Vessel Geometry and the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

To analyze the associations between retinal vessel geometry and the 1-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a Chinese population.

Vitamin D insufficiency correlates with peripheral B10 cells in patients with pituitary tumours.

The mechanism of pituitary gland tumour (PGT) is unclear. Aberrant immune tolerance is associated with the pathogenesis of tumour. Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are involved in the immune regulation. Interleukin (IL)-10 is one of the important immune regulatory molecules. This study aims to elucidate the role of VDR in the regulation of IL-10 in peripheral B cells of PGT patients. In this study, the peripheral blood samples were collected from PGT patients and healthy subjects. B cells were purified from the blood samples and analysed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The correlation between the expression of IL-10 and VDR in the B cells was assessed. We observed that the serum VitD levels were negatively correlated with IL-10 expression in peripheral B cells of patients with PGT. Low levels of VDR expression were found in peripheral B cells of PGT patients. Exposure to VitD suppressed the expression of IL-10 in B cells. The VDR bounds the transcription factor of IL-10 to interfere with the expression of IL-10 in B cells. The VDR agonists inhibited IL-10 expression in B cells from PGT patients. In conclusion, modulation of the expression of VDR can regulate the expression of IL-10 in peripheral B cells of PGT patients, which may contribute to the treatment of PGT.

More on Intralymphatic Injection of Autoantigen in Type 1 Diabetes.

Association between Williams syndrome and adrenal insufficiency.

Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder including dysmorphia, cardiovascular malformations and a specific neuropsychological profile together with other associated disorders. We report the case of a 17-year old girl, born of a non-inbred marriage, with Williams syndrome discovered during an assessment of degree of failure to thrive. Its association with primary adrenal insufficiency makes it unique. Diagnosis is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Its management consists of the implementation of treatment for adrenal insufficiency associated with a clinico-biological monitoring.

Copy number variations of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (NTRK3) may predict prognosis of ovarian cancer.

Platinum resistance is a critical barrier for clinicians to improve the survival of ovarian cancer. Our study evaluated the correlation between copy number variations (CNVs) of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (NTRK3) and the prognosis of ovarian cancer, which might predict platinum resistance in ovarian cancer patients.Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to test gene backgrounds between platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant relapsed populations and CNVs of NTRK3 were indicated by cluster analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was adopted in 41 cases for further verification, which confirmed the results of array CGH. Spearman's rank correlation analysis and χ test were used to evaluate the accuracy of CNVs of NTRK3 which predicted platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant recurrence.We detected CNVs of NTRK3 between 2 groups by array CGH, and amplification of NTRK3 was confirmed by FISH in the platinum-sensitive recurrence group with enlarged samples. The test concordance of 2 methods was 78.6%. Among 41 cases with satisfied FISH results, the median time to recurrence (TTR) of patients with amplified and nonamplified NTRK3 were respectively 18 and 5 months (P <.01). The cut-off value of TTR to differentiate platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant recurrence was 6 months in accordance with clinical practice. According to the above standard, 15 cases with NTRK3 amplification were platinum-sensitive and 12 cases without NTRK3 amplification were platinum-resistant recurrences which demonstrated that the accuracy of NTRK3 amplification/nonamplification to predict recurrent types was 65.9% (27/41).CNVs of NTRK3 were associated with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrences. Amplification of NTRK3 perfectly predicted platinum-sensitive relapse of ovarian cancer.

S-1 monotherapy versus S-1 combination therapy in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis (PRISMA) of randomized control trials.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal digestive system tumors. Most new cases are diagnosed based on metastasis or local aggression and are known as "advanced PC." Recently, studies investigating S-1 have indicated that it has a better clinical curative effect on PC. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1 monotherapy compared with S-1 combination regimens in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory PC.

Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone: A case report.

Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported.

Nomograms predicting disease-specific regional recurrence and distant recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma following partial or total thyroidectomy.

The study aimed to establish effective nomograms for prediction of tumor regional recurrence and distant recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients after partial or total thyroidectomy.These nomograms were based on a retrospective study on 1034 patients who underwent partial or total thyroidectomy for PTC. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of the nomograms were evaluated by the concordance index (C-index) and calibration curve. In addition, a validation cohort was included at the same institution.Multivariate analysis demonstrated that family history, maximal tumor diameter, capsular invasion, and lymph node staging were independent risk factors for regional recurrence-free survival; and family history, histological variants, capsular invasion, perineuronal invasion, and vascular invasion were independent risk factors for distant recurrence-free survival. They were selected into the 2 nomograms, respectively, and the C-index for regional recurrence-free survival and distant recurrence-free survival prediction were 0.72 and 0.83, respectively. In the validation cohort, the 2 nomograms displayed a C-index of 0.72 and 0.89, respectively.The nomograms developed in this study demonstrated their discrimination capability for predicting 3 and 5-year regional recurrence and distant recurrence after partial or total thyroidectomy, and can be used to identify high-risk patients.

18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of atypical subacute thyroiditis in thyrotoxicosis: A case report.

In addition to its established role in oncologic imaging, F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) is useful for the assessment of inflammatory activity. However, subacute thyroiditis (SAT) in thyrotoxicosis is rarely detected during these scans.

Laparoscopic-based score assessment combined with a multiple disciplinary team in management of recurrent ovarian cancer: A single-center prospective study for personalized surgical therapy.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic-based score combined with a multiple disciplinary team (MDT) for predicting optimal cytoreduction and perform personalized surgical treatment in recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC).The study is a single-center, prospective investigation. From March 2013 to May 2015, the consecutive treated patients with platinum-sensitive ROC were collected in Yangpu Hospital. The appropriated patients were enrolled into the study to perform the laparoscopic-based PIV (predictive index value) score assessment with an MDT for predicting optimal cytoreduction. The PIV cutoff value was confirmed to be 8. Patients of PIV <8 received laparoscopic/laparotomy secondary surgery following chemotherapy, and the ones with PIV ≥8 did chemotherapy alone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV), negative predicted value (NPV), and overall accuracy for each range of PIV score were calculated. All recruited patients participated in follow-up observation. Overall survival was recorded.In total, 58 eligible ROC patients received laparoscopy assessment. Forty-one patients of PIV <8 received secondary cytoreductive surgeries. Twenty-three (23/41 56.1%) attained optimal cytoreduction. However, 8 of 23 achieved completed cytoreduction. Also, 17 patients of PIV ≥8 underwent chemotherapy alone. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and overall accuracy for PIV ≥8 were 60%, 100%, 100%, 25%, and 64.7%, respectively. Overall survival in patients performing optimal cytoreduction was significantly higher than in those undergoing suboptimal cytoreduction or chemotherapy alone (45.9 ± 2.5 vs 36.7 ± 4.3 months, P = .047; 45.9 ± 2.5 vs 35.8 ± 3.4 months, P = .027).Laparoscopic-based score assessment plus MDT helps to identify the appropriate patients to perform optimal secondary cytoreduction and provide a personalized surgical approach in management of ROC.

Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas in the pancreas: A case report.

Ectopic liver tissue can develop at various sites near the liver. Ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arising from ectopic liver tissue have a rare clinical incidence. A very rare case has been observed to have metastasis after operation.

More on Intralymphatic Injection of Autoantigen in Type 1 Diabetes.

Macular Vascular Fractal Dimension in the Deep Capillary Layer as an Early Indicator of Microvascular Loss for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

To determine the ability of fractal dimension to detect early changes in the retinal microvascular network imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in type 2 diabetic patients.

Z-360 Suppresses Tumor Growth in MIA PaCa-2-bearing Mice via Inhibition of Gastrin-induced Anti-Apoptotic Effects.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-tumor mechanism of Z-360, a gastrin/cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) antagonist, in MIA PaCa-2 cells and in a subcutaneous xenograft mice model.

Association between 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kazakh population: a case-control study.

We evaluated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and different clinical parameters related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity risk, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a Kazakh cohort.

Interventions for Neuropathic Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Numerous interventions for neuropathic pain (NeuP) are available, but its treatment remains unsatisfactory. We systematically summarized evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials on interventions for NeuP. Five electronic databases were searched up to March 2015. Study quality was analyzed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The most common interventions in 97 included SRs were pharmacologic (59%) and surgical (15%). The majority of analyzed SRs were of medium quality. More than 50% of conclusions from abstracts on efficacy and approximately 80% on safety were inconclusive. Effective interventions were described for painful diabetic neuropathy (pregabalin, gabapentin, certain tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs], opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants), postherpetic neuralgia (gabapentin, pregabalin, certain TCAs, antidepressants and anticonvulsants, opioids, sodium valproate, topical capsaicin, and lidocaine), lumbar radicular pain (epidural corticosteroids, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation [rTMS], and discectomy), cervical radicular pain (rTMS), carpal tunnel syndrome (carpal tunnel release), cubital tunnel syndrome (simple decompression and ulnar nerve transposition), trigeminal neuralgia (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and pimozide for refractory cases, rTMS), HIV-related neuropathy (topical capsaicin), and central NeuP (certain TCAs, pregabalin, cannabinoids, and rTMS). Evidence about interventions for NeuP is frequently inconclusive or completely lacking. New randomized controlled trials about interventions for NeuP are necessary; they should address safety and use clear diagnostic criteria.

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Continuous use of metformin can improve survival in type 2 diabetic patients with ovarian cancer: A retrospective study.

Evidence indicates that type 2 diabetes may stimulate the initiation and progression of several types of cancer. Metformin, a drug most commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, may inhibit cancer cell growth and reduce the risk of cancer. However, evidence of the antitumor effects of metformin on ovarian cancer is still limited.In this study, we retrospectively examined the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer patients with diabetes at our institution.We identified 568 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer and treated between January 2011 and March 2014. Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I to IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian, or peritoneal cancer were included. Patients with type 1 diabetes, incomplete records (including medication records) and any other cancer before their ovarian cancer diagnosis, as well as those diagnosed with diabetes more than 6 months after their ovarian cancer diagnosis, were excluded. Out of 568 patients, 48 (8.5%) patients with type 2 diabetes continuously used metformin, 34 (5.9%) patients with type 2 diabetes did not take metformin, 22 (3.9%) patients with type 2 diabetes discontinued metformin, and 464 (81.7%) ovarian cancer patients were nondiabetic controls. Longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed in ovarian cancer patients with diabetes who were taking metformin than in diabetic patients not taking metformin, diabetic patients who discontinued metformin, and nondiabetic ovarian cancer patients (P = .001). After adjusting for possible confounders, metformin use was associated with a lower risk for disease relapse [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.67; P < .01] and disease-related death (HR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.58, P = .03) among ovarian cancer patients with diabetes.Metformin use may decrease the risk for disease recurrence and death in patients with ovarian cancer, but the drug treatment must be continuous.

Assessment of optic disc and ganglion cell layer in diabetes mellitus type 2.

The purpose of this study was to compare the optic disc parameters, retinal nerve fiber (RNFL), and macular ganglion cell layers between patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and healthy controls.In this cross-sectional study, 69 eyes of 69 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 47 eyes of 47 healthy controls were included. Optic disc parameters (i.e., rim area, disc area, cup to disc ratio, cup volume), RNFL, and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers (GCL + IPL) thickness were measured by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography.There were not statistically significant differences between the diabetic patients and healthy controls in terms of RNFL thickness (P = .32), rim area (P = .20), disc area (P = .16), cup volume (P = .12), and average macular GCL + IPL thickness (P = .11). Nevertheless, binocular RNFL thickness symmetry percentage (P =.03), average cup to disc ratio (P = .02), and superior-nasal macular GCL + IPL thickness (P = .04) were statistically significantly different in the diabetic and control groups.Diabetic patients without retinopathy have more binocular RNFL thickness asymmetry, higher cup to disc ratio, and thinner sectoral macular GCL + IPL when compared to healthy controls. Our results may support the statement that DM causes inner retinal neurodegenerative changes.

Malignant melanoma misdiagnosed as diabetic foot ulcer: A case report.

Acral lentiginous melanoma (AML) does not exhibit the classic signs of malignant melanoma. ALM is frequently misdiagnosed because of its unusual sites and atypical clinical morphologies, which lead to poor prognosis.

Recombinant human TSH stimulated thyroglobulin levels at remnant ablation predict structural incomplete response to treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

In patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) at remnant ablation (RA) and at 6 to 12 months are known to have good prognostic value. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impacts and best cutoff values of sTg levels under recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) treatment at RA and at follow-up. A total of 151 patients were enrolled, of whom 77 were followed up with rhTSH-stimulated Tg (rhTSH-sTg) and 74 with THW-stimulated Tg (THW-sTg) at 6 to 12 months after rhTSH-aided RA. Risk stratification, response to treatment (excellent, indeterminate, biochemical incomplete, and structural incomplete response [SIR]), and clinical outcome were accessed by revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline criteria. Seven out of 151 (4.6%) patients were confirmed to have SIR during the median follow-up of 79.0 months; 3 in the rhTSH group and 4 in the THW group. One hundred thirty-two out of 151 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have excellent response; 68 (51.5%) in the rhTSH group and 64 (48.5%) in the THW group. The cutoff values of sTg for predicting SIR to treatment at rhTSH-aided RA, THW-sTg, and rhTSH-sTg were 4.64 ng/mL (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 76.4%, negative predictive value [NPV] 99.2%), 2.41 ng/mL (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94.3%, NPV 100%), and 1.02 ng/mL (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 94.6%, NPV 98.6%), respectively. sTg levels using rhTSH at both RA and follow-up has a high NPV and are as effective as using THW for predicting SIR. The risk classification according to the revised ATA guidelines can be used effectively to supplement rhTSH-aided sTg levels to predict better clinical outcomes.

Efficacy and safety of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

The efficacy and safety of bivalirudin (Biva) versus heparin in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain controversial. Our meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Biva compared with those of heparin in patients with diabetes undergoing PCI.

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Inter- and Intrafractional Variation in the 3-Dimensional Positions of Pancreatic Tumors Due to Respiration Under Real-Time Monitoring.

To quantify the 3-dimensional pancreatic tumor motion during the overall treatment course using real-time orthogonal kilovoltage X-ray imaging.

Branched-chain amino acid, meat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50-79 years at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.

Downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase inhibits tumor growth via G2/M arrest in human endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, about 80% of which is endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. Dysregulation of spindle assembly checkpoint plays a vital role in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to explore how tyrosine threonine kinase, a spindle assembly checkpoint-related protein, promotes the endometrial endometrioid carcinoma progression. We found that both messenger RNA and protein levels of tyrosine threonine kinase in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tissues are higher than those in normal endometrial tissues, and its expression is associated with tumor stages. Genetic depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase by RNA interference in two endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell lines significantly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Mechanistically, depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and triggers caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Collectively, tyrosine threonine kinase is significantly upregulated in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, and downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase can suppress endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via G2/M cell cycle arrest. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine threonine kinase can be a potential therapeutic target for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma treatment.

RIZ1 and histone methylation status in pituitary adenomas.

RIZ1 displays strong tumor-suppressive activities, which has a potential histone methyltransferase activity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level and the methylation status of RIZ1 and analyze its association with clinicopathological features and the histone in the pituitary adenomas. We found that RIZ1-positive cases were 11/50 and H-Scores 22.75 ± 11.83 in invasive pituitary adenomas and 26/53 and 66.3 ± 21.7 in non-invasive pituitary adenomas (χ(2) = 8.182, p = 0.004). RIZ1 and C-myc showed the opposite trend in these cases. The methylation levels of RIZ1 were more than 50% in 30.4% (7/23) CpG sites through MALDI-TOF Mass array. There was significant difference (p < 0.01) in 4 CpG sites between invasive pituitary adenoma group and non-invasive pituitary adenoma group; furthermore, the relieved methylation levels of H3K4/H3K9 and enhanced methylation levels of H3K27 in the patients' serum were found. Furthermore, there was statistic difference of H3K4 and H3K27 methylation between invasive pituitary adenoma and non-invasive pituitary adenoma group (p < 0.01). The average progression-free survival in high RIZ1 group was 52.63 ± 7.62 months and 26.06 ± 4.23 months in low RIZ1 group (p < 0.05). Promoter region methylation of RIZ1 may play an important role in the epigenetic silencing of RIZ1 expression in pituitary adenomas, which may translate into important diagnostic and therapeutic applications.