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Endocrine System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Disparities in Diabetes Deaths Among Children and Adolescents - United States, 2000-2014.

Diabetes is a common chronic disease of childhood affecting approximately 200,000 children and adolescents in the United States (1). Children and adolescents with diabetes are at increased risk for death from acute complications of diabetes, including hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (2,3); in 2012, CDC reported that during 1968-2009, diabetes mortality among U.S. persons aged ≤19 years declined by 61% (4). CDC observed disparities by race during 1979-2004, with black children and adolescents dying from diabetes at twice the rate of white children and adolescents (5). However, no previous study has examined Hispanic ethnicity. CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System for deaths among persons aged 1-19 years in the United States during 2000-2014, with diabetes listed as the underlying cause of death overall, and for Hispanic, non-Hispanic white (white), and non-Hispanic black (black) children and adolescents. During 2012-2014, black children and adolescents had the highest diabetes death rate (2.04 per 1 million population), followed by whites (0.92) and Hispanics (0.61). There were no statistically significant changes in diabetes death rates over the study period, but disparities persisted among racial/ethnic groups. Death from diabetes in children and adolescents is potentially preventable through increased awareness of diabetes symptoms (including symptoms of low blood sugar), earlier treatment and education related to diabetes, and management of diabetes ketoacidosis. Continued measures are needed to reduce diabetes mortality in children and understand the cause of racial and ethnic disparities.

Bariatric Surgery or Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes after 5 Years.

Influence of environmental temperature on risk of gestational diabetes.

Cold-induced thermogenesis is known to improve insulin sensitivity, which may become increasingly relevant in the face of global warming. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between outdoor air temperature and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

A case of confirmed primary hyperaldosteronism diagnosed despite normal screening investigations.

Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of hypertension in the adult population. We report a case of histologically and biochemically confirmed hyperaldosteronism related to an adrenal adenoma, where initial screening and biochemical tests were potentially misleading. The case highlights the importance of clinical suspicion in the current diagnostic approach to primary hyperaldosteronism.

Adherence to diabetic eye examination guidelines in Australia: the National Eye Health Survey.

To determine adherence to NHMRC eye examination guidelines for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian people with diabetes.

Long term risk of severe retinopathy in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a data linkage study.

To determine the relationship between glycaemic control trajectory and the long term risk of severe complications in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, as well as the effects of paediatric and adult HbA1c levels.

Teprotumumab for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, a condition commonly associated with Graves' disease, remains inadequately treated. Current medical therapies, which primarily consist of glucocorticoids, have limited efficacy and present safety concerns. Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate the underlying autoimmune pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy.

Diabetes Self-Management Education Programs in Nonmetropolitan Counties - United States, 2016.

Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a clinical practice intended to improve preventive practices and behaviors with a focus on decision-making, problem-solving, and self-care. The distribution and correlates of established DSME programs in nonmetropolitan counties across the United States have not been previously described, nor have the characteristics of the nonmetropolitan counties with DSME programs.

Urban-Rural Differences in Diabetes-Associated Mortality in China-Reply.

Urban-Rural Differences in Diabetes in China.

Committee Opinion No. 698: Hormone Therapy in Primary Ovarian Insufficiency.

Primary ovarian insufficiency describes a spectrum of declining ovarian function and reduced fecundity due to a premature decrease in initial follicle number, an increase in follicle destruction, or poor follicular response to gonadotropins. The sequelae of primary ovarian insufficiency include vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, and increased all-cause mortality. In women with primary ovarian insufficiency, systemic hormone therapy (HT) is an effective approach to treat the symptoms of hypoestrogenism and mitigate long-term health risks if there are no contraindications to treatment. Hormone therapy is indicated to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and urogenital atrophy and to improve the quality of life of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Although exogenous estrogen replacement is recommended for women with primary ovarian insufficiency, data comparing various hormonal regimens for disease prevention, symptom amelioration, and safety are lacking in this population. As a first-line approach, HT (either orally or transdermally) that achieves replacement levels of estrogen is recommended. Combined hormonal contraceptives prevent ovulation and pregnancy more reliably than HT; despite only modest odds of spontaneous pregnancy in women with primary ovarian insufficiency, this is a critical consideration for those who deem pregnancy prevention a priority. Treatment for all women with primary ovarian insufficiency should continue until the average age of natural menopause is reached (age 50-51 years). Finally, considering the challenges that adolescents and young women may face in coping with the physical, reproductive, and social effects of primary ovarian insufficiency, comprehensive longitudinal management of this condition is essential.

Committee Opinion No. 698 Summary: Hormone Therapy in Primary Ovarian Insufficiency.

Primary ovarian insufficiency describes a spectrum of declining ovarian function and reduced fecundity due to a premature decrease in initial follicle number, an increase in follicle destruction, or poor follicular response to gonadotropins. The sequelae of primary ovarian insufficiency include vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, and increased all-cause mortality. In women with primary ovarian insufficiency, systemic hormone therapy (HT) is an effective approach to treat the symptoms of hypoestrogenism and mitigate long-term health risks if there are no contraindications to treatment. Hormone therapy is indicated to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and urogenital atrophy and to improve the quality of life of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Although exogenous estrogen replacement is recommended for women with primary ovarian insufficiency, data comparing various hormonal regimens for disease prevention, symptom amelioration, and safety are lacking in this population. As a first-line approach, HT (either orally or transdermally) that achieves replacement levels of estrogen is recommended. Combined hormonal contraceptives prevent ovulation and pregnancy more reliably than HT; despite only modest odds of spontaneous pregnancy in women with primary ovarian insufficiency, this is a critical consideration for those who deem pregnancy prevention a priority. Treatment for all women with primary ovarian insufficiency should continue until the average age of natural menopause is reached (age 50-51 years). Finally, considering the challenges that adolescents and young women may face in coping with the physical, reproductive, and social effects of primary ovarian insufficiency, comprehensive longitudinal management of this condition is essential.

Sex differences in micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.

Vascular complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both men and women with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus, however the prevalence, progression and pathophysiology of both microvascular (nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) and macrovascular [coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stroke] disease are different in the two sexes. In general, men appear to be at a higher risk for diabetic microvascular complications, while the consequences of macrovascular complications may be greater in women. Interestingly, in the absence of diabetes, women have a far lower risk of either micro- or macro-vascular disease compared with men for much of their lifespan. Thus, the presence of diabetes confers greater risk for vascular complications in women compared with men and some of the potential reasons, including contribution of sex hormones and sex-specific risk factors are discussed in this review. There is a growing body of evidence that sex hormones play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. While estrogens are generally considered to be cardioprotective and androgens detrimental to cardiovascular health, recent findings challenge these assumptions and demonstrate diversity and complexity of sex hormone action on target tissues, especially in the setting of diabetes. While some progress has been made toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of sex differences in the pathophysiology of diabetic vascular complications, many questions and controversies remain. Future research leading to understanding of these mechanisms may contribute to personalized- and sex-specific treatment for diabetic micro- and macro-vascular disease.

Can Parathormon Levels after Ipsilateral Lobectomy Predict Postoperative Hypocalcemia in Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy?

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the serum parathormone (PTH) levels measured after completion of hemithyroidectomy on the first side during total thyroidectomy and the postoperative hypocalcemia. The patients were divided into two groups, as those who demonstrated a decrease in PTH levels measured after completion of hemithyroidectomy of the first side (Group 1, n = 43) and those who did not demonstrate a decrease in PTH levels (Group 2, n = 24). The serum PTH levels were measured just before the incision (PTHi), when the hemithyroidectomy stage had been completed (PTHht), at the end of the operation (PTHtt), and at the postoperative 24th hour (PTH24hr). The serum total calcium (Ca2+) levels were also measured. The median percentage differences in PTHtt levels based on basal PTHi levels of Groups 1 and 2 were -60.6 and -15.7 per cent, respectively, P = 0.001. The frequency of postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia was higher in Group 1, P < 0.05. It was determined that a 10 per cent or higher decrease in PTHht levels in Group 1 could predict biochemical hypocalcemia at the postoperative 24th hour. In conclusions, postoperative hypocalcemia is seen more frequent in patients with a decrease of PTHht during total thyroidectomy. A decrease of 10 per cent in PTHht levels measured after ipsilateral lobectomy and a 62 per cent or higher decrease in PTHtt levels measured in the end of the total thyroidectomy could be helpful for prediction of postoperative hypocalcemia in these patients.

Six-Year Experience of Outpatient Total and Completion Thyroidectomy at a Single Academic Institution.

Outpatient thyroidectomy has become slowly accepted with various published reports predominantly examining partial or subtotal thyroidectomy. Concerns regarding the safety of outpatient total and completion thyroidectomy remain, especially with regard to vocal fold paralysis, hypocalcemia, and catastrophic hematoma. We aimed to evaluate the safety of outpatient thyroid surgery in a large cohort by retrospectively comparing outcomes in those who underwent outpatient (n = 251) versus inpatient (n = 291) completion or total thyroidectomy between February 2009 and February 2015. Outpatient completion and total thyroidectomy had lower rates of temporary hypocalcemia (6% vs 24.4%; P < 0.001) and no significant difference in rates of return to emergency department (1.2% vs 1.4%), hematoma formation (0.8% vs 0.7%), temporary (2% vs 4.1%) or permanent (0.4% vs 0.7%) vocal fold paralysis, or permanent hypocalcemia (0.4% vs 0%) compared with the inpatient group. Outpatients requiring calcium replacement had shorter duration of postoperative calcium supplementation (44.4 ± 59.3 days vs 63.3 ± 94.4 days; P < 0.001). Our data demonstrate similar safety in outpatient and inpatient total and completion thyroidectomy.

Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes.

In patients who have had type 1 diabetes for 5 years, current recommendations regarding screening for diabetic retinopathy include annual dilated retinal examinations to detect proliferative retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema, both of which require timely intervention to preserve vision. During 30 years of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its longitudinal follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, retinal photography was performed at intervals of 6 months to 4 years.

Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy.

Vitamin D status and its association with insulin resistance among type 2 diabetics: A case -control study in Ghana.

Vitamin D plays a major role in physiological processes that modulate mineral metabolism and immune function with probable link to several chronic and infectious conditions. Emerging data suggests a possible influence of vitamin D on glucose homeostasis. This study sought to provide preliminary information on vitamin D status among Ghanaian type 2 diabetics and assessed its association with glucose homeostasis.

Modeling the shape and composition of the human body using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images.

There is growing evidence that body shape and regional body composition are strong indicators of metabolic health. The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that accurately describe holistic body shape, thickness, and leanness. We hypothesized that there are unique body shape features that are predictive of mortality beyond standard clinical measures. We developed algorithms to process whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans into body thickness and leanness images. We performed statistical appearance modeling (SAM) and principal component analysis (PCA) to efficiently encode the variance of body shape, leanness, and thickness across sample of 400 older Americans from the Health ABC study. The sample included 200 cases and 200 controls based on 6-year mortality status, matched on sex, race and BMI. The final model contained 52 points outlining the torso, upper arms, thighs, and bony landmarks. Correlation analyses were performed on the PCA parameters to identify body shape features that vary across groups and with metabolic risk. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify sex and race, and predict mortality risk as a function of body shape parameters. These parameters are novel body composition features that uniquely identify body phenotypes of different groups and predict mortality risk. Three parameters from a SAM of body leanness and thickness accurately identified sex (training AUC = 0.99) and six accurately identified race (training AUC = 0.91) in the sample dataset. Three parameters from a SAM of only body thickness predicted mortality (training AUC = 0.66, validation AUC = 0.62). Further study is warranted to identify specific shape/composition features that predict other health outcomes.

Metabolic syndrome, serum uric acid and renal risk in patients with T2D.

Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and increased serum uric acid (SUA), are well known renal risk predictors and often coexist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether they independently contribute to the onset of CKD is at present unclear.

Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158) prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI) or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009), pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004), asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036), thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77), depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001) and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020) compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

The relationship between diabetes and colorectal cancer prognosis: A meta-analysis based on the cohort studies.

Though a meta-analysis reported the effect of diabetes on colorectal prognosis in 2013, a series of large-scale long-term cohort studies has comprehensively reported the outcome effect estimates on the relationship between diabetes and colorectal prognosis, and their results were still consistent.

Relationship and associated mechanisms between ambulatory blood pressure and clinic blood pressure with prevalent cardiovascular disease in diabetic hypertensive patients.

The present study was to compare the association between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and clinic BP (CBP) with prevalent cardiovascular diseases (CVD); and the underlying mechanism would also be investigated concurrently.Diabetic hypertensive patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups based on presence of CVD. Twenty-four hour-ABP monitoring was performed and between-group differences were evaluated and logistic regression analysis was conducted.A total of 568 diabetic hypertensive patients were enrolled, and the mean age was 60.8 years, male accounted for 67.8%. Mean durations of diabetes mellitus and hypertension were 6.1 ± 2.7 and 5.4 ± 3.3 years, respectively, and 20.6% had prevalent CVD. Compared to patients without CVD, patients with CVD had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), and serum sodium level. No significant between-group differences in CBP were observed. However, 24 hour-SBP, daytime-SBP and nighttime-SBP were all significantly higher in patients with CVD compared to those without CVD. Pearson correlation analysis showed that BMI was positively correlated with PAC and serum sodium level. Logistic regression analyses showed that the association between clinic SBP and DBP with CVD were progressively attenuated to nonsignificant. In contrast, both ambulatory SBP and DBP were independently associated with CVD. However, after being further adjusted for PAC, no significant association was observed between ambulatory SBP and CVD.In diabetic hypertensive patients, ABP is superior to CBP in relation to CVD. The association between ambulatory SBP and CVD may be dependent on aldosterone excess.

Serum resistin positively correlates with serum lipids, but not with insulin resistance, in first-degree relatives of type-2 diabetes patients: an observational study in China.

To investigate whether serum resistin correlated with hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, or insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their first-degree relatives (DFDRs) in a case-control observational study.We determined the serum levels of resistin, plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin, and performed clinical assessments of hypertension, obesity, and IR for 42 T2DM patients, 74 of their DFDRs, and 51 healthy control participants with no family history of T2DM (NC group). The biochemical and clinical variables were compared between the 3 groups, and relationships between serum resistin and the other variables were evaluated using a Pearson correlation analysis.Significant trends were observed in the triglyceride, HbA1c, and resistin levels, in which the values observed in the DFDR group were intermediate to those of the T2DM and NC groups (P < .05 for all). A stratified analysis revealed significant trends in the resistin level and scores for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes for IR and insulin sensitivity in women and in the HbA1c and resistin levels in men (P < .05 for all), with DFDR subjects exhibiting intermediate values. The Pearson analysis showed that serum resistin positively correlated with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the DFDR group only (P < .05 for both), and that resistin did not correlate significantly with HOMA indexes, blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI, waist or hip circumference, or blood pressure.Our results suggest that elevated serum resistin might contribute to an increased risk of hyperlipidemia in DFDRs of Chinese T2DM patients.

Ultrasound is helpful to differentiate Bethesda class III thyroid nodules: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most dependable tool to triage thyroid nodules for medical or surgical management. However, Bethesda class III cytology, namely "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (FLUS) or "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS), is a major limitation of the US-FNA in assessing thyroid nodules. As the most important imaging method, ultrasound (US) has a high efficacy in diagnosing thyroid nodules. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the role of US in evaluating Bethesda class III thyroid nodules.

Evaluation of gemcitabine efficacy after the FOLFIRINOX regimen in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

To evaluate gemcitabine efficacy in advanced pancreatic cancer patients after the FOLFIRINOX regimen.Patients with locally-advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma from French and Canadian centers, who were treated with the first-line FOLFIRINOX regimen (FFX L1), followed by gemcitabine monotherapy as a second-line treatment (GEM L2), were retrospectively evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed on the demographic, toxicity, and response rate data. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method.Seventy-two patients were reviewed (median age of 63.5 years [range, 32-75 years], men [62%], predominantly pancreatic head tumor location [51%] and metastatic disease [64%] at the time of diagnosis). The objective response rate to GEM-L2 treatment was 8/72 (11%), and 32 patients (44%) experienced a clinical benefit from gemcitabine. Four patients had a partial response to GEM-L2, although they previously showed a progressive response following FFX-L1 treatment. The median OS for the entire cohort was 13.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-35). The median PFS of the GEM-L2 group was 2.5 months (95% CI: 0.2-10.8) with no statistical differences between patients with controlled or progressive disease on FFX-L1 therapy.Gemcitabine as a second-line treatment for advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma after FOLFIRINOX failure showed clinical benefits in some patients.

Predictive factors of better outcomes by monotherapy of an antivascular endothelial growth factor drug, ranibizumab, for diabetic macular edema in clinical practice.

Intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) has been approved for treating diabetic macular edema (DME), and is used in daily clinical practice. However, the treatment efficacies of IVR monotherapy in real-world clinical settings are not well known.The medical records of 56 eyes from 38 patients who received their first IVR for DME between April 2014 and March 2015, and were retreated with IVR monotherapy as needed with no rescue treatment, such as laser photocoagulation, were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical course, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and fundus findings at baseline, before the initial IVR injection, and at 12 months, were evaluated.Twenty-five eyes from 25 patients (16 men; mean age 68.7 ± 9.8 years) who received IVR in the first eye, or unilaterally, without any other treatments during follow-up were included. After 12 months, mean central retinal thickness (CRT), which includes edema, was reduced (P = .003), although mean BCVA remained unchanged. There was a negative correlation between individual changes in BCVA (r = -0.57; P = .003) and CRT (r = -0.60; P = .002) at 12 months compared with baseline values. BCVA changes were greater in individuals with a history of pan-retinal photocoagulation at baseline (P = .026). After adjusting for age and sex, CRT improvement >100 μm at 12 months was associated with a greater CRT at baseline (OR 0.87 per 10 μm [95% CI 0.72-0.97]; P = .018) according to logistic regression analyses; however, better BCVA and CRT at 12 months were associated with a better BCVA (r = 0.77; P < .001) and lower CRT (r = 0.41; P = .039) at baseline, respectively, according to linear regression analyses.IVR monotherapy suppressed DME, and the effects varied according to baseline conditions. Eyes that had poorer BCVA or greater CRT, or a history of pan-retinal photocoagulation at baseline, demonstrated greater improvement with IVR monotherapy. In contrast, to achieve better outcome values, DME eyes should be treated before the BCVA and CRT deteriorate. These findings advance our understanding of the optimal use of IVR for DME in daily clinical practice, although further study is warranted.

Two year result of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema using treat and extend protocol.

To determine the efficacy of the treat and extend (TAE) protocol with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for managing diabetic macular edema (DME).Retrospective, single-center study.For this retrospective study, 42 eyes of 42 patients were initially treated with 3 consecutive monthly IVB injections (loading phase), after which they were selected for different additional therapies. For the TAE protocol, the baseline treatment interval was selected to be 8 weeks and was sequentially lengthened by 2 weeks if the central macular thickness (CMT) was <300 μm at 2 consecutive examinations.Among the 42 eyes, 8 eyes (19.0%) received the TAE treatment for 2 years. The BCVA was improved significantly from 0.37 ± 0.04 before treatment to 0.19 ± 0.04 logMAR units at 2 years after the TAE determined IVB injections (P < .05). The ratio of eyes with a gain of the BCVA by more than 2 lines was 37.5%. The CMT was significantly reduced from 515.4 ± 75.5 to 303.6 ± 45.0 μm after 2 years (P < .01). The mean number of TAE injection was 8.8 and the mean injection interval was 11.0 weeks.After the loading phase, 19.0% of patients can be treated with the TAE protocol. Although significant visual improvements were obtained after the TAE protocol, it does not apply to every DME case.

Association between diabetes mellitus and subsequent ovarian cancer in women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) might be associated with risk of ovarian cancer; however, the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DM and the incidence of ovarian cancer on the basis of cohort studies.Relevant studies from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library until September 2016 were collected. The summary risk ratio (RR) was used as the effect measure in a random effects model. Sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and calculation of publication bias were conducted.Thirteen articles including 14 cohorts comprising a total of 3708, 313 women and reporting 5534 cases of ovarian cancer were included. The summary RR suggested that patients with DM had a higher risk of ovarian cancer than patients without DM (RR: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.34; P = .004), and no evidence of publication bias was found. The subgroup analysis indicated a higher incidence of ovarian cancer in patients with DM in studies published after 2010, studies not conducted in Europe or the United States, studies that did not adjust for body mass index or smoking status, and studies with lower Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores.The present findings indicated that DM is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and future large-scale epidemiologic studies should be performed to evaluate this relation in specific populations.

Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism with extensive intracranial calcification in children: First report from Saudi Arabia.

Pediatric idiopathic hypoparathyroidism with extensive intracranial calcifications outside the basal ganglia (BG) is extremely rare with less than 10 cases worldwide.