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Eye Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Incomplete Miller-Fisher Syndrome with Advanced Stage Burkitt Lymphoma.

Lymphoma-associated incomplete Miller-Fisher syndrome is very rare.

Accelerated versus conventional corneal crosslinking for refractive instability: an update.

Corneal crosslinking (CXL) is a relatively new treatment modality offering refractive stability in patients with ectatic disorders. The procedure as initially described (Dresden protocol) is time consuming; accelerated protocols have been lately developed. The purpose of this review is to present the recent findings regarding the comparison of accelerated CXL with the conventional Dresden protocol.

Risk profiles of ectasia after keratorefractive surgery.

To identify and evaluate the risk factors of iatrogenic ectasia after refractive surgery.

Dietary Intake of Omega-3 Fatty Acids From Fish and Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Body mass index and risk of diabetic retinopathy: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent cause of acquired blindness worldwide. Various studies have reported the effects of body mass index (BMI) on the risk of DR, but the results remain controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and the risk of DR.A systematic search was performed using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases to obtain articles published through December 2016. Articles regarding the association between BMI and the risk of DR were retrieved. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included and then pooled with a random effects model.A total of 27 articles were included in this meta-analysis. When BMI was analyzed as a categorical variable, neither being overweight (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.07; P = .21; I = 65%) nor obesity (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.73-1.30; P = .86) were associated with an increased risk of DR when compared with normal weight. When BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, a higher BMI was not associated with an increased risk of DR (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.01; P = .25; I2 = 79%). The pooled results did not significantly change after the sensitivity analysis.Based on the current publications, neither being overweight nor obesity is associated with an increased risk of DR. Further studies should confirm these findings.

Ophthalmoplegia associated with lung adenocarcinoma in a patient with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: A case report.

The Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a neuromuscular disease; its unique symptoms of LEMS include dry mouth with a metallic taste, constipation, and erectile dysfunction. As it is quite rare, isolated ocular muscle impairment associated with LEMS east to ignore.

Climate and the eye: Case-crossover analysis of retinal detachment after exposure to ambient heat.

Retinal detachment is an important cause of visual loss, but the association with outdoor heat exposure has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the relationship between acute exposure to high outdoor temperature and risk of retinal detachment.

New Surgical Technique for Management of Recurrent Macular Hole.

Recurrence of macular hole (MH) following the standard approach of pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloids removal, internal limiting membrane peeling, gas tamponade, and postoperative positioning is a common postoperative complication following MH surgery. We present a new surgical technique which involves induction of serous macular detachment around the MH, parafoveal retinal massage to bring its edges closer, gas tamponade, and face down positioning. The recurrent MHs had closed in all four consecutive patients with a parallel gain in visual acuity following this technique. All patients had Type 1 closure of the MH indicating its closure without any defect of the neurosensory retina. The MHs remained closed during the follow-up without any late reopening.

Retinal Vascular Occlusion Secondary to Retrobulbar Injection: Case Report and Literature Review.

Retrobulbar injection has been widely practiced as a technique of ocular anesthesia for many decades. Nevertheless, the technique is not free from complications. Vascular occlusion secondary to retrobulbar injection is rare but can be vision threatening. We report a case series of two such patients who presented with poor vision following retrobulbar injection. Fundus showed pale retina with cherry red spot suggestive of central retinal artery occlusion in case 1 and pale disc with sclerosed vessels and multiple superficial hemorrhages suggestive of a combined occlusion of retinal artery and vein in case 2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed thickened inner retinal layers with intact outer retinal layers in case 1 and thinning in case 2. We conclude that retrobulbar injections can rarely be associated with dreadful vision-threatening complications like in our patients. We also report the role of OCT in assessing the prognosis following vascular occlusion.

Disseminated Rhinosporidiosis with Conjunctival Involvement in an Immunocompromised Patient.

Rhinosporidiosis is a granulomatous infection of mucocutaneous tissue caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi that most commonly occurs in the nasal cavity. Ocular rhinosporidiosis affects primarily the conjunctiva. Diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is based on strong clinical suspicion and is confirmed by histopathological examination. We report a rare case of conjunctival rhinosporidiosis in an immunocompromised patient (human immunodeficiency virus) with disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis. A 44-year-old male presented with a swelling in the right upper eyelid for 6 months. Excision biopsy of the ocular lesion showed multiple thick-walled, variable-sized sporangia containing endospores within the subepithelium suggestive of rhinosporidiosis. A multidrug regimen of systemic cycloserine, ketoconazole, and dapsone was administered to treat disseminated rhinosporidiosis, in addition to antiretroviral therapy. There was good response with reduction in the swellings.

Age-related Changes in the Foveal Bulge in Healthy Eyes.

Intact foveal bulge has been associated with good visual outcome in retinal diseases. The aim of this study was to study the variation in foveal bulge with age.

Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome Outbreak after Cataract Surgery Triggered by Viscoelastic Substance.

The purpose of this study is to present toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) outbreak at our clinic and discuss possible causes of TASS.

Update on the Epidemiology and Antibiotic Resistance of Ocular Infections.

The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology.

Risks of Cefuroxime Prophylaxis for Postcataract Endophthalmitis.

Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is a rare but vision-threatening complication. Intracameral cefuroxime (ICC) has been reported to be effective at reducing the risk, but concerns regarding the risks associated with this intervention remain.

Collagen Cross-linking for Microbial Keratitis.

Collagen cross-linking is gaining popularity not only for arresting the progression of keratoconus but also other indications including management of corneal infections. In this review article, we analyzed the published literature to understand the level of evidence for its use in corneal ulcer. Photoactivated riboflavin and ultraviolet A light are known to possess antimicrobial properties. The treatment also induces formation of inter- and intra-fibrillar bonds, thereby making the corneal collagen resistant to the action of proteases arresting stromal melt. Both properties are well documented in in vitro experiments. The antimicrobial action is seen against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The animal experiments have documented its efficacy against bacterial and fungal keratitis models. The literature on its application in human corneal infection is highly variable and comprises case reports, case series, and comparative nonrandomized and randomized trials. The treatment has been used as primary treatment, adjunctive treatment along with antibiotics, as the first line of treatment as well as for failed medical treatment cases. Even the cases included are of variable severity caused by a variety of microorganisms including culture-negative cases. Furthermore, the treatment protocols are also variable. While most reports show beneficial effects for bacterial corneal ulcer cases, especially those with superficial infiltrate, the effect has been mixed for fungal and parasitic keratitis. In view of these characteristics, we infer that the level of evidence for its use in corneal ulcer is at most weak. We need well-characterized, high-quality, clinical trials of sufficient power to assess its true value.

Adjunctive Therapies for Bacterial Keratitis.

Bacterial keratitis is the most common type among all types of infectious keratitis. Currently, antibiotics are the main-stay of treatment. The objective of this systematic review is to review published clinical studies which discuss the adjunctive treatment of bacterial keratitis to guide clinical decision-making. We reviewed the role of a variety of medications and surgeries which can help in managing bacterial keratitis complications, which include as thinning, perforation, and impaired wound healing. We have included appropriate animal and laboratory studies, case reports and case series, and randomized clinical trials regarding each therapy.

Infectious uveitis: An enigma.

Infectious uveitis accounts for majority of the cases of uveitis in developing countries. It also encompasses an array of various microorganisms and their clinical presentations. Some of these infectious uveitic entities are familiar, while others are newly emerging in the global ophthalmic world. Many of these entities are also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and appropriate, timely management is required to save not the eye, but life of the patient. This review highlights the ocular manifestations of various infectious uveitic entities, relevant to the ophthalmologist.

Nicking Glaucoma with Nicotinamide?

Cardiac pseudotumor revealing Behçet's disease.

Intracardiac thrombosis is a rare complication of Behçet's disease (BD), which may manifest as intracardiac tumor. In half of cases, its detection precedes the diagnosis of MB. High mortality rates may be related to post-surgical complications and/or pulmonary arteries involvement. We report the case of a 29-year old young patient, with a previous history of bipolar aphthosis, who underwent surgery after the detection of right atrium and ventricle tumor. Anatomo-pathological examination showed thrombus and MB was diagnosed in the postoperative period. Patient's evolution was favorable under medical treatment based on corticosteroids, colchicine and vitamin K antagonists (AVK). The detection of intracardiac mass in a young subject should suggest the diagnosis of cardiac thrombus and Behçet's disease, even in the absence of ethnic or geographical risk factors.

A particular type of cicatricial Pemphigoid with unique IgA deposit.

Cicatricial Pemphigoid is a subepithelial bullous dermatosis which essentially involves the mucous membranes with cicatricial evolution We report the case of a 66-year old patient hospitalized with erosive gingivitis associated with dysphagia, dyspnea and blurred vision. Dermatologic examination showed erosive lesions involving the palate and the pharynx. Ophthalmologic examination showed symblepharons, ectropion and bilateral cataract. Gingival biopsy revealed a necrotic detachment of the buccal epithelium. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear IgA deposit at the dermo-epidermal junction. Indirect immunofluorescence test was negative. The diagnosis of cicatricial pemphigoid was confirmed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy objectified double stenosis of the esophagus. Nasopharyngeal and bronchial endoscopy showed ulceration of the epiglottis, hypopharynx, pharynx and bronchial tree. The patient was treated with Solumedrol bolus corresponding to 0.5mg/kg/day prednisone associated with 100mg/day disulone. The patient showed a favorable early clinical outcome complicated because of the aggravation of dysphagia and esophageal stenosis after 2 months. Our case study is singular due to the occurrence of a cicatricial pemphigoid in a male patient with a serious clinical picture due to lesions extending to conjunctival, oral, nasal, esophageal and bronchial mucous membranes associated with direct immunofluorescence only showing IgA deposit.

A rare cause of exophthalmia: intraorbital cavernous hemangioma (about a case).

Cavernous hemangioma is the most frequent primary benign vascular tumor of the orbit in the adult; the median age of diagnosis is 42 years with a female predominance. This tumor develops slowly and has no tendency for spontaneous regression; it is electively located at the level of the retro-ocular muscular cone but it can develop in the extraconic space. Clinically it appears as progressive irreducible, non-pulsating, painless (unless there's an unexpected complication) exophthalmia, associated with decrease in visual acuity in 2/3 of cases. The diagnosis is easily confirmed by imaging, which allows to precisely locate the tumor in relation to the optic nerve and the oculomotor muscles and to indicate the type of surgical approach. Surgical resection should be complete; it is usually simple because the tumor is limited and perfectly cleavable. Surgical approach is established on the basis of tumor volume and above all of the seat of the lesion. Functional prognosis is good and recurrences are rare. We here report the case of a 44-year old patient with orbital cavernous hemangioma revealed by exophthalmia.

Bilateral papilledema secondary to intracranial hypertension in an adolescent girl.

Papilledema is a fluid and/or axonal swelling of the optic nerve head due to a blockage of axoplasmic flow at the level of the cribriform plate. We report the case of a 17-year old adolescent girl with bilateral papilledema secondary to idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

You're the Flight Surgeon.

Ensley D. You're the flight surgeon: green laser event. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):437-439.

Exome sequencing identifies a de novo mutation of CTNNB1 gene in a patient mainly presented with retinal detachment, lens and vitreous opacities, microcephaly, and developmental delay: Case report and literature review.

The CTNNB1 (β-catenin) gene is well known for its crucial role in cell adhesion and the Wnt-signaling pathway. Previous studies have shown that gain-of-function mutations in the CTNNB1 gene contribute to the occurrence and development of a variety of carcinomas in humans. Recently, de novo, heterozygous, loss-of-function mutations of the CTNNB1 gene were found that partially explain intellectual disability in some patients. Other major clinical symptoms in these patients included microcephaly, abnormal facial features, motor delays, speech impairments, and deformities of the hands and feet. In addition, approximately 75% of these patients had mild visual defects, such as astigmatism, hyperopia, or strabismus PATIENT CONCERNS:: A 15-month-old Chinese boy, presenting with retinal detachment, lens and vitreous opacities, hypertonia of the extremities, mild thumb adduction, microcephaly, and developmental delay, is described. Targeted gene sequencing using an ophthalmic gene panel was performed to test for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy; however, the pathogenic gene was not found.

27th Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Eye Complications Study Group (EASDec).

Abstracts will be available online on 25 May 2017.

Treatment of Macular Edema Due to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Another Score for Repackaged Bevacizumab.

Anti-VEGF therapy for juxtafoveolar choroidal neovessels in people with high myopia: about a case.

Choroidal neovessels are a threatening complication of high myopia, accounting for 5 to 10% of cases. They require immediate treatment because of their poor prognosis. Anti-VEGF intravitreal injections are currently a new therapeutic alternative far exceeding photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nevertheless, anti-VEGF treatment algorithm for this type of neovessels remains a matter of discussion among the authors. The purpose of this study was to highlight the difficulties in managing these neovessels and to discuss the Anti-VEGF therapeutic regimen to follow.

Adherence to diabetic eye examination guidelines in Australia: the National Eye Health Survey.

To determine adherence to NHMRC eye examination guidelines for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian people with diabetes.

Long term risk of severe retinopathy in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a data linkage study.

To determine the relationship between glycaemic control trajectory and the long term risk of severe complications in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, as well as the effects of paediatric and adult HbA1c levels.

Opposing Effects of Valproic Acid Treatment Mediated by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Activity in Four Transgenic X. laevis Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degeneration (RD) that leads to blindness for which no treatment is available. RP is frequently caused by mutations in Rhodopsin; in some animal models, RD is exacerbated by light. Valproic acid (VPA) is a proposed treatment for RP and other neurodegenerative disorders, with a phase II trial for RP under way. However, the therapeutic mechanism is unclear, with minimal research supporting its use in RP. We investigated the effects of VPA on Xenopus laevis models of RP expressing human P23H, T17M, T4K, and Q344ter rhodopsins, which are associated with RP in humans. VPA ameliorated RD associated with P23H rhodopsin and promoted clearing of mutant rhodopsin from photoreceptors. The effect was equal to that of dark rearing, with no additive effect observed. Rescue of visual function was confirmed by electroretinography. In contrast, VPA exacerbated RD caused by T17M rhodopsin in light, but had no effect in darkness. Effects in T4K and Q344ter rhodopsin models were also negative. These effects of VPA were paralleled by treatment with three additional histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, but not other antipsychotics, chemical chaperones, or VPA structural analogues. In WT retinas, VPA treatment increased histone H3 acetylation. In addition, electron microscopy showed increased autophagosomes in rod inner segments with HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment, potentially linking the therapeutic effects in P23H rhodopsin animals and negative effects in other models with autophagy. Our results suggest that the success or failure of VPA treatment is dependent on genotype and that HDACi treatment is contraindicated for some RP cases.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, degenerative retinal disease that leads to blindness for which no therapy is available. We determined that valproic acid (VPA), currently undergoing a phase II trial for RP, has both beneficial and detrimental effects in animal models of RP depending on the underlying disease mechanism and that both effects are due to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition possibly linked to autophagy regulation. Off-label use of VPA and other HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RP should be limited to the research setting until this effect is understood and can be predicted. Our study suggests that, unless genotype is accounted for, clinical trials for RP treatments may give negative results due to multiple disease mechanisms with differential responses to therapeutic interventions.