A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Eye Diseases - Top 30 Publications

The protective efficacy and safety of bandage contact lenses in children aged 5 to 11 after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis: A single-center randomized controlled trial.

Postoperative complications, lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy sometimes occur after surgery for congenital blepharoptosis. Bandage contact lenses (BCL) can help prevent some ocular surface disorders. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BCL for protection of the ocular surface in children aged 5 to 11 years after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis.

Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia.

Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Preschool vision screening could allow detection and treatment of vision abnormalities during a critical developmental stage, preserving function and quality of life.

Photoreceptor-Based Biomarkers in AOSLO Retinal Imaging.

Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying inherited retinal degenerations has created the possibility of developing much needed treatments for these relentless, blinding diseases. However, standard clinical indicators of retinal health (such as visual acuity and visual field sensitivity) are insensitive measures of photoreceptor survival. In many retinal degenerations, significant photoreceptor loss must occur before measurable differences in visual function are observed. Thus, there is a recognized need for more sensitive outcome measures to assess therapeutic efficacy as numerous clinical trials are getting underway. Adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging techniques correct for the monochromatic aberrations of the eye and can be used to provide nearly diffraction-limited images of the retina. Many groups routinely are using AO imaging tools to obtain in vivo images of the rod and cone photoreceptor mosaic, and it now is possible to monitor photoreceptor structure over time with single cell resolution. Highlighting recent work using AO scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) across a range of patient populations, we review the development of photoreceptor-based metrics (e.g., density/geometry, reflectivity, and size) as candidate biomarkers. Going forward, there is a need for further development of automated tools and normative databases, with the latter facilitating the comparison of data sets across research groups and devices. Ongoing and future clinical trials for inherited retinal diseases will benefit from the improved resolution and sensitivity that multimodal AO retinal imaging affords to evaluate safety and efficacy of emerging therapies.

Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomographic Documentation of Choroidal Melanin Loss in Chronic Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease.

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a systemic autoimmune disorder that affects organs with melanocytes. The sunset glow fundus (SGF) in VKH disease was evaluated with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT).

High Symmetry of Visual Acuity and Visual Fields in RPGR-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Mutations in retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) cause 70% to 90% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP3) cases, making this gene a high-yield target for gene therapy. This study analyzed the utility of relevant clinical biomarkers to assess symmetry and rate of progression in XLRP3.

Multifocal Visual Evoked Potential in Eyes With Temporal Hemianopia From Chiasmal Compression: Correlation With Standard Automated Perimetry and OCT Findings.

To verify whether multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) can differentiate eyes with temporal hemianopia due to chiasmal compression from healthy controls. To assess the relationship between mfVEP, standard automated perimetry (SAP), and Fourier domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements.

Periorbital ecchymoses and breathlessness.

A 54-year-old man presented at our facility with a 3-month history of exertional breathlessness and purple blotches around his eyes. Examination revealed bilateral periorbital and perioral ecchymosis, purpuric spots along his waist, and waxy papules on his eyelids. In addition, the patient had macroglossia with nodular infiltration and irregular indentations at the lateral margin of his tongue. The patient also had a raised jugular venous pressure and prominent atrial and ventricular waves. Further examination revealed a fourth heart sound over the left ventricular apex, as well as bilateral basal rales. All other systems were normal except for mild hepatomegaly. Routine hematologic and biochemical lab work was unremarkable. X-rays of the spine and skull were normal, but a chest x-ray showed mild cardiomegaly. An electrocardiogram showed a QS complex from leads V1 to V4 (a pseudo-infarction pattern). An echocardiogram showed biatrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 48%, a speckled pattern on the myocardium, a thickened interatrial septum, and mild pericardial effusion. A color Doppler revealed mild mitral and tricuspid regurgitation with a restrictive pattern of mitral valve flow. Serum protein electrophoresis was normal. WHAT IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS? HOW WOULD YOU TREAT THIS PATIENT?

Mouth-clicks used by blind expert human echolocators - signal description and model based signal synthesis.

Echolocation is the ability to use sound-echoes to infer spatial information about the environment. Some blind people have developed extraordinary proficiency in echolocation using mouth-clicks. The first step of human biosonar is the transmission (mouth click) and subsequent reception of the resultant sound through the ear. Existing head-related transfer function (HRTF) data bases provide descriptions of reception of the resultant sound. For the current report, we collected a large database of click emissions with three blind people expertly trained in echolocation, which allowed us to perform unprecedented analyses. Specifically, the current report provides the first ever description of the spatial distribution (i.e. beam pattern) of human expert echolocation transmissions, as well as spectro-temporal descriptions at a level of detail not available before. Our data show that transmission levels are fairly constant within a 60° cone emanating from the mouth, but levels drop gradually at further angles, more than for speech. In terms of spectro-temporal features, our data show that emissions are consistently very brief (~3ms duration) with peak frequencies 2-4kHz, but with energy also at 10kHz. This differs from previous reports of durations 3-15ms and peak frequencies 2-8kHz, which were based on less detailed measurements. Based on our measurements we propose to model transmissions as sum of monotones modulated by a decaying exponential, with angular attenuation by a modified cardioid. We provide model parameters for each echolocator. These results are a step towards developing computational models of human biosonar. For example, in bats, spatial and spectro-temporal features of emissions have been used to derive and test model based hypotheses about behaviour. The data we present here suggest similar research opportunities within the context of human echolocation. Relatedly, the data are a basis to develop synthetic models of human echolocation that could be virtual (i.e. simulated) or real (i.e. loudspeaker, microphones), and which will help understanding the link between physical principles and human behaviour.

The WAGR syndrome gene PRRG4 is a functional homologue of the commissureless axon guidance gene.

WAGR syndrome is characterized by Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and intellectual disabilities. WAGR is caused by a chromosomal deletion that includes the PAX6, WT1 and PRRG4 genes. PRRG4 is proposed to contribute to the autistic symptoms of WAGR syndrome, but the molecular function of PRRG4 genes remains unknown. The Drosophila commissureless (comm) gene encodes a short transmembrane protein characterized by PY motifs, features that are shared by the PRRG4 protein. Comm intercepts the Robo axon guidance receptor in the ER/Golgi and targets Robo for degradation, allowing commissural axons to cross the CNS midline. Expression of human Robo1 in the fly CNS increases midline crossing and this was enhanced by co-expression of PRRG4, but not CYYR, Shisa or the yeast Rcr genes. In cell culture experiments, PRRG4 could re-localize hRobo1 from the cell surface, suggesting that PRRG4 is a functional homologue of Comm. Comm is required for axon guidance and synapse formation in the fly, so PRRG4 could contribute to the autistic symptoms of WAGR by disturbing either of these processes in the developing human brain.

Surgical treatment of neovascular glaucoma with Ex-PRESS glaucoma shunt: Case report.

Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is one of the most aggressive types of glaucoma, and its abnormal fibrovascular tissue growth on the iris and trabecular meshwork may create difficulties to control the intraocular pressure (IOP) and perform the operation such as trabeculectomy.

Evaluation of an interlaced triple procedure: penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and nonopen-sky intraocular lens implantation.

To evaluate an interlaced triple procedure that involved penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) using diathermy capsulotomy, and nonopen-sky intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.This retrospective study involved data from 34 patients who were diagnosed with severe corneal opacities and cataracts. These patients were divided into an interlaced procedure group (21 patients) and a traditional procedure group (13 patients). In the interlaced group, the method of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) was completed via diathermy capsulotomy. The donor corneal button was sutured at 8 positions (at equal intervals) using 10-0 nylon sutures, and the IOL was inserted into the capsular bag using a closed anterior chamber approach at the 10:30 to 12 o'clock positions between the sutures. In the traditional group, CCC was completed using side-port capsular forceps, and the IOL was implanted using an open anterior chamber approach.In the interlaced group, the CCC, open-sky, and total operation times were significantly shorter than in the traditional group (Pā€Š<ā€Š.05). Neither the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) nor corneal endothelial cell density was significantly different between the groups at 1 and 6 months after the operation.This interlaced triple procedure for the treatment of corneal diseases with cataracts appears to be feasible and practical.

Does Decreased Static Ocular Counter Rolling Account for Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test in Unilateral Superior Oblique Palsy?

To understand the relationship of static ocular counter rolling (s-OCR) and clinical manifestations in acquired unilateral superior oblique palsy subjects during the Bielschowsky head tilt test.

Allogeneic Descemet's Membrane Transplantation Enhances Corneal Endothelial Monolayer Formation and Restores Functional Integrity Following Descemet's Stripping.

To characterize the differences in corneal endothelial wound healing in the presence or absence of Descemet's membrane (DM), in vivo.

Histological, morphometric, protein and gene expression analyses of rat retinas with ischaemia-reperfusion injury model treated with sildenafil citrate.

The aim of this study was to better understand the role of apoptosis in a retinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury model and to determine whether sildenafil citrate treatment can prevent retinal cell apoptosis. Thirty-six rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) and two experimentally induced ischaemia-reperfusion groups (7 and 21 days; n = 15 per group). The induced ischaemia-reperfusion groups were treated with sildenafil for 7 and 21 days (n = 10 per group), and 10 animals were treated with a placebo for the same period (n = 5 per group). Paracentesis of the anterior chamber was performed with a 30-G needle attached to a saline solution (0.9%) bag positioned at a height of 150 cm above the eye for 60 min. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometer (TonoVet(®) ). The eyes were analysed by histology and morphometry, and by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR for expression of Caspase-7, Caspase-6, Caspase-9, Tnf-r2, Fas-l, Bcl-2 and Bax. Sildenafil-treated animals showed lower levels of histopathological changes (inflammatory, cellular and tissue) than their placebo-treated counterparts at both 7 and 21 days. The retinal ganglion cell layer (RGC) was preserved in the sildenafil groups (SG), with a cell count closer to control than in the placebo groups (PG). Caspase-7 expression was significantly higher in both treated groups at 7 days compared to controls. Gene expression levels in both treatment groups differed from the controls, but in SG Bax and Caspase-6 expression levels were similar to control animals. These results suggest that the main mechanism of retinal cell death in this model is apoptosis, as there is an increase in pro-apoptotic factors and decrease in the anti-apoptotic ones. Also, sildenafil seems to protect the retinal ganglion cell layer from apoptosis. Cell survival was evident in the histological and morphometric analyses, and sildenafil treatment had a protective effect in the apoptosis pathways, with gene expression levels in SG similar to the controls.

Variations and Trends in Health Burden of Visual Impairment Due to Cataract: A Global Analysis.

To evaluate the global trends in health burden of people visually impaired from cataract in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and its correlations with national levels of socioeconomic development.

Efficacy of a Fixed Combination of Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Colistimethate Sodium for Treatment of Candida albicans Keratitis.

To evaluate the antifungal activity of a fixed antibiotic combination (AC) containing tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol (CAF), and colistimethate sodium (CS).

Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Induced Retinal Folds and Deformations.

We hypothesized that the edema/swelling in the retina due to acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) can induce retinal folds (RF). We determined the pattern and frequency of folds in NAION at presentation and in follow-up, and the relationship between folds and a number of functional and structural parameters over time.

Racioethnic Differences in Human Posterior Scleral and Optic Nerve Stump Deformation.

The purpose of this study was to quantify the biomechanical response of human posterior ocular tissues from donors of various racioethnic groups to better understand how differences in these properties may play a role in the racioethnic health disparities known to exist in glaucoma.

Conditional Müller Cell Ablation Leads to Retinal Iron Accumulation.

Retinal iron accumulation is observed in a wide range of retinal degenerative diseases, including AMD. Previous work suggests that Müller glial cells may be important mediators of retinal iron transport, distribution, and regulation. A transgenic model of Müller cell loss recently demonstrated that primary Müller cell ablation leads to blood-retinal barrier leakage and photoreceptor degeneration, and it recapitulates clinical features observed in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2), a rare human disease that features Müller cell loss. We used this mouse model to determine the effect of Müller cell loss on retinal iron homeostasis.

Association of a PDCD1 Polymorphism With Sympathetic Ophthalmia in Han Chinese.

Several studies have shown that sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease possess many similarities concerning their clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated with VKH disease in earlier studies may also be associated with SO.

Detection of Early Loss of Color Vision in Age-Related Macular Degeneration - With Emphasis on Drusen and Reticular Pseudodrusen.

To evaluate chromatic sensitivity in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) characterized by drusen and reticular pseudodrusen. To investigate whether the severity of color vision loss can distinguish between various stages of AMD and hence be used as an index of progression toward advanced AMD.

L-/M-cone opponency in visual evoked potentials of human cortex.

L and M cones send their signals to the cortex using two chromatic (parvocellular and blue-yellow koniocellular) and one luminance (magnocellular) pathways. These pathways contain ON and OFF subpathways that respond to excitation increments and decrements respectively. Here, we report on visually evoked potentials (VEP) recordings that reflect L- and M-cone driven increment (LI and MI) and decrement (LD and MD) activity. VEP recordings were performed on 12 trichromats and four dichromats (two protanopes and two deuteranopes). We found that the responses to LI strongly resembled those to MD, and that LD and MI responses were very similar. Moreover, the lack of a photoreceptor type (L or M) in the dichromats led to a dominance of the ON pathway of the remaining photoreceptor type. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that antagonistic L/M signal processing, already present in the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), is also observed at the visual cortex. These data are in agreement with results from human psychophysics where MI stimuli lead to a perceived brightness decrease whereas LI stimuli resulted in perceived brightness increases. VEP recording is a noninvasive tool that can be easily and painlessly applied. We propose that the technique may provide information in the diagnosis of color vision deficiencies.

Candida Species From Eye Infections: Drug Susceptibility, Virulence Factors, and Molecular Characterization.

To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors.

Quantitative Characterization of Autoimmune Uveoretinitis in an Experimental Mouse Model.

To accurately evaluate the autoimmune inflammation, we aim to develop three quantitative measurements to monitor the inflammatory changes in the retina: retinal-choroidal thickness, major retinal vessel diameter, and electroretinography amplitudes.

A Novel Potentially Causative Variant of NDUFAF7 Revealed by Mutation Screening in a Chinese Family With Pathologic Myopia.

Pathologic myopia described as myopia accompanied by severe deformation of the eye besides excessive elongation of eye, is usually a genetic heterogeneous disorder characterized by extreme, familial, early-onset vision loss. However, the exact pathogenesis of pathologic myopia remains unclear. In this study, we screened a Han Chinese family with pathologic myopia to identify the causative mutation and explore the possible pathogenic mechanism based on evaluation of the biological functions of the mutation.

Analyzing and Predicting Visual Acuity Outcomes of Anti-VEGF Therapy by a Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model of Imaging and Clinical Data.

We develop a longitudinal statistical model describing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) changes in anti-VEGF therapy in relation to imaging data, and predict the future BCVA outcome for individual patients by combining population-wide trends and initial subject-specific time points.

Orientation of the Temporal Nerve Fiber Raphe in Healthy and in Glaucomatous Eyes.

To determine the normal variation in orientation of the temporal nerve fiber raphe, and the accuracy with which it may be predicted or approximated in lieu of direct measurement.

Autologous Induced Stem-Cell-Derived Retinal Cells for Macular Degeneration.

Outcomes of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy combined with phacoemulsification and capsulotomy without intraocular lens implantation in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment.

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment (RRDCD) is a special type of complex retinal detachment, and usually has a poor prognosis. This study aimed to assess the anatomical outcomes of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (23G PPV) combined with phacoemulsification (phaco) and capsulotomy without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with RRDCD.Seventy-six consecutive patients with RRDCD, who underwent retinal repair surgery from January 2010 to December 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Forty patients underwent 23G PPV + phaco + IOL implantation, and 36 underwent 23G PPV + phaco + capsulotomy without IOL implantation (i.e., aphakia). All cases were filled with silicone oil. The follow-up time was 6 months after silicone oil was removed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was the statistical method used.The overall retinal anatomical reattachment rate was 58% (44/76): 40% (16/40) of patients receiving 23G PPV + phaco + IOL implantation; and 78% (28/36) of patients receiving 23G PPV + phaco + capsulotomy + aphakia (P = .007).Surgical repair using 23G PPV + phaco + capsulotomy without IOL implantation can improve anatomical reattachment rates in patients with RRDCD.