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Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications - Top 30 Publications

Antidepressants during pregnancy and autism in offspring: population based cohort study.

Objectives To study the association between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.Design Observational prospective cohort study with regression methods, propensity score matching, sibling controls, and negative control comparison.Setting Stockholm County, Sweden.Participants 254 610 individuals aged 4-17, including 5378 with autism, living in Stockholm County in 2001-11 who were born to mothers who did not take antidepressants and did not have any psychiatric disorder, mothers who took antidepressants during pregnancy, or mothers with psychiatric disorders who did not take antidepressants during pregnancy. Maternal antidepressant use was recorded during first antenatal interview or determined from prescription records.Main outcome measure Offspring diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, with and without intellectual disability.Results Of the 3342 children exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy, 4.1% (n=136) had a diagnosis of autism compared with a 2.9% prevalence (n=353) in 12 325 children not exposed to antidepressants whose mothers had a history of a psychiatric disorder (adjusted odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.85). Propensity score analysis led to similar results. The results of a sibling control analysis were in the same direction, although with wider confidence intervals. In a negative control comparison, there was no evidence of any increased risk of autism in children whose fathers were prescribed antidepressants during the mothers' pregnancy (1.13, 0.68 to 1.88). In all analyses, the risk increase concerned only autism without intellectual disability.Conclusions The association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and autism, particularly autism without intellectual disability, might not solely be a byproduct of confounding. Study of the potential underlying biological mechanisms could help the understanding of modifiable mechanisms in the aetiology of autism. Importantly, the absolute risk of autism was small, and, hypothetically, if no pregnant women took antidepressants, the number of cases that could potentially be prevented would be small.

Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes: meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials.

Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity, and pre-existing medical condition; and secondarily on individual complications.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD). Data sources Major electronic databases from inception to February 2017 without language restrictions.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall, and in subgroups (interactions).Results IPD were obtained from 36 randomised trials (12 526 women). Less weight gain occurred in the intervention group than control group (mean difference -0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval -0.92 to -0.48 kg, I(2)=14.1%; 33 studies, 9320 women). Although summary effect estimates favoured the intervention, the reductions in maternal (odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.03, I(2)=26.7%; 24 studies, 8852 women) and offspring (0.94, 0.83 to 1.08, I(2)=0%; 18 studies, 7981 women) composite outcomes were not statistically significant. No evidence was found of differential intervention effects across subgroups, for either gestational weight gain or composite outcomes. There was strong evidence that interventions reduced the odds of caesarean section (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99, I(2)=0%; 32 studies, 11 410 women), but not for other individual complications in IPD meta-analysis. When IPD were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I(2)=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy reduce gestational weight gain and lower the odds of caesarean section. There is no evidence that effects differ across subgroups of women.

Inhibitory effect of Par-4 combined with cisplatin on human Wilms' tumor cells.

Wilms' tumor is associated with a high treatment success rate, but there is still a risk of recurrence. Cisplatin, which is one of the chemotherapeutic agents used for its treatment, is associated with a very high rate of resistance. Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response 4) is a tumor suppressor, which is capable of sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether combined treatment with Par-4 and cisplatin is effective for inhibiting growth of Wilms' tumor. Wilms' tumor and control cell samples were collected and analyzed by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Total proteins extracted from cultured cells were analyzed using western blotting and flow cytometry. In addition, a mouse xenograft model was established. We discovered significantly low expression of Par-4 in the tumor tissue, which was positively correlated with high expression of GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78). In addition, we found that ectopic Par-4 co-localized with cell surface GRP78 and induced high expression of the endoplasmic reticulum proteins ATF4 and BAX, which activated the endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway. Moreover, treatment with ectopic Par-4 and cisplatin suppressed xenograft growth in nude mice. In conclusion, our results showed that Par-4 overexpression and cisplatin had a synergistic effect on SK-NEP-1 cells, as a result of which cell growth was inhibited and cellular apoptosis was induced. Thus, in vitro and in vivo upregulation of Par-4 expression is indispensable for the trafficking of GRP78 to the cell membrane and subsequent apoptosis of cancer cells.

MicroRNA-139-5p inhibits bladder cancer proliferation and self-renewal by targeting the Bmi1 oncogene.

MiR-139-5p has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of cancers, but its role in bladder cancer has not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that miR-139-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer and inhibits the cancer stem cell self-renewal by targeting Bmi1 directly. We found that miR-139-5p expression was significantly downregulated in the bladder cancer specimens compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. In vitro, restoration of miR-139-5p expression significantly inhibited the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. Mechanism analysis revealed that miR-139-5p could decrease Bmi1 protein levels by binding to the 3' untranslated region of Bmi1 messenger RNA. Stem cell-related proteins such as c-MYC, NANOG, OCT4, and KLF4 and signaling pathways such as Wnt signaling were suppressed by restoration of miR-139-5p in bladder cancer cells. In addition, miR-139-5p expression also blocked self-renewal of bladder cancer stem cells by inhibiting Bmi1. In summary, our study supports that miR-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer development and suppresses cancer stem cell property of bladder cancer. Our study also suggests that miR-139-5p has the potential to be used as a therapeutic molecule for bladder cancer treatment.

Cervical cancer cell-derived angiopoietins promote tumor progression.

Metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer has limited treatment options and a high rate of mortality. Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs have shown great promise as a therapeutic target for treatment of advanced cervical cancer, drug resistance and class-specific side effects negate long-term benefits. The identification of alternative anti-angiogenic factors will be critical for future drug development for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this study, we found that angiopoietins and Tie receptors were highly expressed in cervical cancer cells. Tie-2 expression in tumor cells predicted poorer prognosis. Wound closure assay and Transwell assay showed that upregulated or downregulated Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression promoted or reduced cervical cancer cell lines migration and invasion, respectively. In subcutaneous xenograft models of cervical cancer, downregulation of Ang-1 and Ang-2 attenuated tumor growth. The expression of vimentin and endomucin and microvessel density were all significantly decreased in the siAng-1 group and siAng-2 group relative to the infection control group. Our data support that dual inhibition of Ang-1 and Ang-2 may be an alternative target for anti-angiogenic adjuvant therapy in advanced or recurrent cervical squamous cell cancer.

Downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase inhibits tumor growth via G2/M arrest in human endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, about 80% of which is endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. Dysregulation of spindle assembly checkpoint plays a vital role in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to explore how tyrosine threonine kinase, a spindle assembly checkpoint-related protein, promotes the endometrial endometrioid carcinoma progression. We found that both messenger RNA and protein levels of tyrosine threonine kinase in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tissues are higher than those in normal endometrial tissues, and its expression is associated with tumor stages. Genetic depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase by RNA interference in two endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell lines significantly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Mechanistically, depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and triggers caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Collectively, tyrosine threonine kinase is significantly upregulated in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, and downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase can suppress endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via G2/M cell cycle arrest. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine threonine kinase can be a potential therapeutic target for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma treatment.

Cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete FGF-1 to promote ovarian proliferation, migration, and invasion through the activation of FGF-1/FGFR4 signaling.

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, due to its high propensity for metastasis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts, as the dominant component of tumor microenvironment, are crucial for tumor progression. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ovarian cancer cells by cancer-associated fibroblasts remain little known. Here, we first isolated cancer-associated fibroblasts from patients' ovarian tissues and found that cancer-associated fibroblasts promoted SKOV3 cells' proliferation, migration, and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor-1 was identified as a highly increased factor in cancer-associated fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (~4.6-fold, p < 0.01) and ELISA assays (~4-fold, p < 0.01). High expression of fibroblast growth factor-1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts either naturally or through gene recombination led to phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in SKOV3 cells, which is followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-associated gene Snail1 and MMP3 expression. Moreover, treatment of SKOV3 cell with fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor PD173074 terminated cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, reduced the phosphorylation level of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, and suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. In addition, the expression level of Snail1 and MMP3 was reduced, while the expression level of E-cadherin increased. These observations suggest a crucial role for cancer-associated fibroblasts and fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 signaling in the progression of ovarian cancer. Therefore, this fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 axis may become a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion through regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common urologic malignancy. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) has been suggested as serving pivotal roles in tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance and biological role of CCAT2 in ccRCC remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to identify the function of CCAT2 in ccRCC and its possible molecular mechanism. Expression of CCAT2 was analyzed in 61 ccRCC tissues and two ccRCC cell lines (786-O and ACHN) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The functional roles of CCAT2 in ccRCC were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometric analysis. The influence of CCAT2 on tumorigenesis was monitored by in vivo mice xenograft model. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was evaluated by the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assay and western blot assay. CCAT2 expression was markedly higher in ccRCC cell lines and tissues, being positively associated with tumor size and tumor stage in ccRCC patients. Patients with higher CCAT2 expression had a markedly poorer overall survival than did patients with low CCAT2 expression. Knocking down CCAT2 expression led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of ccRCC cells in vitro as well as the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and CCAT2 overexpression remarkably enhanced these oncogenic properties. In vivo mice xenograft model also showed that knocking CCAT2 expression inhibited the growth of ccRCC xenografts. In conclusion, these results indicated that CCAT2 may play a critical role in ccRCC progression and will be further considered as a biomarker for predicting the survival of ccRCC patients and a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC intervention.

Targeting miR-21 decreases expression of multi-drug resistant genes and promotes chemosensitivity of renal carcinoma.

Renal cell carcinoma, the most common neoplasm of adult kidney, accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies and is usually highly resistant to conventional therapy. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which have been previously shown to promote malignant initiation and progression. In this study, we focused our attention on miR-21, a well described oncomiR commonly upregulated in cancer. Using a cohort of 99 primary renal cell carcinoma samples, we showed that miR-21 expression in cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues whereas no significant difference was observed with stages, grades, and metastatic outcome. In vitro, miR-21 was also overexpressed in renal carcinoma cell lines compared to HK-2 human proximal tubule epithelial cell line. Moreover, using Boyden chambers and western blot techniques, we also showed that miR-21 overexpression increased migratory, invasive, proliferative, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways whereas opposite results were observed using an anti-miR-21-based silencing strategy. Finally, we assessed the role of miR-21 in mediating renal cell carcinoma chemoresistance and further showed that miR-21 silencing significantly (1) increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and dovitinib; (2) decreased expression of multi-drug resistance genes; and (4) increased SLC22A1/OCT1, SLC22A2/OCT2, and SLC31A1/CTR1 platinum influx transporter expression. In conclusion, our results showed that miR-21 is a key actor of renal cancer progression and plays an important role in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In renal cell carcinoma, targeting miR-21 is a potential new therapeutic strategy to improve chemotherapy efficacy and consequently patient outcome.

Cordycepin induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells via activation of A3 adenosine receptors.

Bladder cancer is a neoplasm originated from bladder epithelial cells. The therapy for bladder cancer is so far not satisfactory. In this study, we examined the effects of Cordyceps militaris hot water extracts containing cordycepin on human bladder cells. Cordyceps militaris hot water extracts containing cordycepin was used to treat human T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and we found that Cordyceps militaris hot water extracts containing cordycepin decreased T24 cell survival in a dose-dependent manner, which was seemingly mediated by activation of A3 adenosine receptor and the subsequent inactivation of Akt pathways, resulting in increases in cleaved Caspase-3 and apoptosis. Overexpression of A3 adenosine receptor in T24 cells mimicked the effects of Cordyceps militaris hot water extracts, while A3 adenosine receptor depletion abolished the effects of Cordyceps militaris hot water extracts containing cordycepin. Together, these data suggest that Cordyceps militaris hot water extracts containing cordycepin may be a promising treatment for bladder cancer via A3 adenosine receptor activation.

Estimating Health-State Utility Values in Kidney Transplant Recipients and Waiting-List Patients Using the EQ-5D-5L.

To report health-state utility values measured using the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in a large sample of patients with end-stage renal disease and to explore how these values vary in relation to patient characteristics and treatment factors.

Case 21-2017. A 28-Year-Old Pregnant Woman with Endocervical Carcinoma.

MiR-210 and miR-155 as potential diagnostic markers for pre-eclampsia pregnancies.

Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In recent years, many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA) play important roles in the development of PE. However, the molecular pathogenesis of PE remains unknown.In the present study, we performed a case-control study to verify the differential expression of 4 candidate miRNAs (miR-210, miR-155, miR-125b-5p, and miR-125a-5p) in 20 PE pregnancies and 20 healthy pregnancies. The real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction has been utilized to estimate the Ct values in both groups.Our results have shown that miR-210 and miR-155 were upregulated in serum of PE pregnancies, which suggest a potential association between these 2 miRNAs and the pathogenesis of PE. Further studies showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of miR-210 and miR-155 were 0.750 and 0.703, respectively. The AUC of the expression ratio of miR-210 (serum/urine) and miR-155 (serum/urine) were 0.761 and 0.718, respectively. Moreover, 24-hour urine proteins have positive correlation with urine miR-210 and miR-155.Our findings indicated that serum miR-210 and miR-155 could be 2 sensitivity and specificity biomarkers for the diagnosis of PE while urine miR-210 and miR-155 both could be used to evaluate the severity of kidney injury. Using these miRNAs may provide a novel diagnosis method for identifying pregnant women who are at risk for developing PE.

Formation of the calcarine sulcus: a potential marker to predict the progression in utero of isolated mild fetal ventriculomegaly.

Our previous study confirmed the negative association between the development of calcarine sulcus and the width of lateral ventricles. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the reliability of calcarine sulcus depth in the 2nd trimester to predict the prenatal enlargement of lateral ventricle in fetuses with isolated mild fetal ventriculomegaly (IMVM).This study used a retrospective cohort study design. A total of 97 pregnant women with IMVM diagnosed between 20 and 26 weeks' gestation returned for a 2nd examination at 30 to 32 weeks. Lateral ventricular size and calcarine sulcus depth were acquired from ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, respectively. Progression was defined as the process of developing from a lower group toward a higher (<10 mm, 10-12 mm, 13-15 mm, and ≥16 mm).Significant correlation was observed between calcarine sulcus depth and ventricular measurements at the 2nd scan (r = -0.71, P < .0001). Receiver-operating characteristic curves showed that calcarine sulcus depth (area under curve [AUC] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.92) had the best diagnostic performance in predicting the prenatal progression, as compared with lateral ventricle width (AUC = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.54-0.84) and gestational age (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.57-0.83) at the initial scan. The cutoff value for calcarine sulcus depth was 3.3 mm, with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 81.3%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that calcarine sulcus depth ≥3.3 mm (odds ratio = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02-0.38, P = .001) was an independent predictor of the prenatal progression.For IMVM, calcarine sulcus depth might be a powerful marker to identify subjects at higher risk for worse prenatal progression.

The effect of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury after pediatric congenital heart surgery: A prospective randomized trial.

Dexmedetomidine has been reported to have a renal protective effect after adult open heart surgery. The authors hypothesized that intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine would attenuate the decrease in renal function after pediatric open heart surgery.

Beneficial effects of Fu-Zheng-Qu-Zhuo oral liquid combined with standard integrated therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 3-4): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

The high worldwide prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a critical health problem and the development of more effective therapies is urgently needed. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial from October 2010 to December 2012 to assess whether Fu-Zheng-Qu-Zhuo oral liquid (FZQZ) has a beneficial effect in preventing CKD progression when added to standard integrated therapies.

Diagnostic value of plasma NGAL and intraoperative diuresis for AKI after major gynecological surgery in patients treated within an intraoperative goal-directed hemodynamic algorithm: A substudy of a randomized controlled trial.

Data on early markers for acute kidney injury (AKI) after noncardiovascular surgery are still limited. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of plasma neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) and intraoperative diuresis for AKI in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery treated within a goal-directed hemodynamic algorithm.This study is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a hemodynamic goal-directed algorithm based on the esophageal Doppler in patients undergoing epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. The diagnostic value of plasma NGAL obtained at ICU admission and intraoperative diuresis was determined with respect to patients already meeting AKI criteria 6 hours after surgery (AKI6h) and to all patients meeting AKI criteria at least once during the postoperative course (AKItotal). AKI was diagnosed by the definition of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) group creatinine criteria and was screened up to postoperative day 3. Receiver operating characteristic curves including a gray zone approach were performed.A total of 48 patients were analyzed. None of the patients had increased creatinine levels before surgery and 14 patients (29.2%) developed AKI after surgery. Plasma NGAL was predictive for AKI6h (AUCAKI6h 0.832 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.629-0.976), P = .001) and AKItotal (AUCAKItotal 0.710 (CI 0.511-0.878), P = .023). The gray zones of pNGAL calculated for AKI6h and AKItotal were 210 to 245 and 207 to 274 ng mL, respectively. The lower cutoffs of the gray zone at 207 and 210 ng mL had a negative predictive value (NPV) (i.e., no AKI during the postoperative course) of 96.8% (CI 90-100) and 87.1% (CI 78-97), respectively. Intraoperative diuresis was also predictive for AKI6h (AUCAKI6h 0.742 (CI 0.581-0.871), P = .019) with a gray zone of 0.5 to 2.0 mL kg h. At the lower cutoff of the gray zone at 0.5 mL kg h, corresponding to the oliguric threshold, the NPV was 84.2% (78-92).This study indicates that pNGAL can be used as an early marker to rule out AKI occurring within 3 days after major abdominal surgery. Intraoperative diuresis can be used to rule out AKI occurring up to 6 hours after surgery.

Identification of SEPP1 polymorphisms is not a genetic risk factor for preeclampsia in Chinese Han women: A clinical trial and experimental study.

SEPP1 encodes selenoprotein P, which involved in oxidative stress and plays an important role in the development of preeclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between PE and genetic variants of SEPP1 in Chinese Han women.

Risk of surgical site infection, acute kidney injury, and Clostridium difficile infection following antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin plus a beta-lactam versus either drug alone: A national propensity-score-adjusted retrospective cohort study.

The optimal regimen for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial. Use of combination prophylaxis with a beta-lactam plus vancomycin is increasing; however, the relative risks and benefits associated with this strategy are unknown. Thus, we sought to compare postoperative outcomes following administration of 2 antimicrobials versus a single agent for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Potential harms associated with combination regimens, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), were also considered.

Rap2B promotes angiogenesis via PI3K/AKT/VEGF signaling pathway in human renal cell carcinoma.

Human renal cell carcinoma which is a highly vascular tumor is the leading cause of death from urologic cancers. Angiogenesis has a pivotal role in oncogenesis and in the viability and expansion of renal cell carcinoma. Rap2B, as a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein of the Ras family, was first discovered in the early 1990s during the screening of a platelet complementary DNA library. Previous studies have shown that Rap2B aberrantly expressed in human carcinogenesis and promoted the development of tumors via multiple signaling pathways. However, the function of Rap2B in tumor angiogenesis that is necessary for tumor growth and metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of Rap2B in angiogenesis in renal cell carcinoma by Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells growth assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. We found that Rap2B promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our data illustrated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway is involved in Rap2B-mediated upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and renal cell carcinoma angiogenesis. Taken together, these results revealed that Rap2B promotes renal cell carcinoma angiogenesis via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, which suggests that Rap2B is a novel therapeutic target for renal cell carcinoma anti-angiogenesis therapy.

Decreased long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 contributes to ovarian cancer cell metastasis partly via affecting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Long non-coding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis. The dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs, such as the SPRY4-IT1 (SPRY4 intronic transcript 1), has been associated with various types of malignancies. However, the functional roles and regulatory mechanism of SPRY4-IT1 in ovarian cancer remain to be elucidated. Here, we quantified the expression level of SPRY4-IT1 in ovarian cancer patients and found its downregulation in ovarian cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Patients with lower SPRY4-IT1 expression were associated with a relatively poor prognosis. In consistency, the expression of SPRY4-IT1 was found to be reduced in four human ovarian cancer cell lines compared to normal ovarian epithelial cells. Next, two ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and HO8910 were employed in vitro assays to investigate biological functions of SPRY4-IT1 in ovarian cancer. The cell proliferation was reduced following SPRY4-IT1 overexpression in SKOV3/HO8910 cells based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assays. The SPRY4-IT1 overexpression also dramatically arrested cell cycle and promoted cell apoptosis. Both wound-healing and transwell-based assays demonstrated that cell migration and invasion were inhibited following SPRY4-IT1 overexpression. Meanwhile, overexpression of SPRY4-IT1 increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin and vimentin protein levels, indicating that SPRY4-IT1 may regulate ovarian cancer cell metastasis through the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Taken together, our findings suggest that SPRY4-IT1 regulates various cellular processes of ovarian cancer cells and its downregulation may contribute to ovarian cancer progression and metastasis partly via affecting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Minimal change disease in horseshoe kidney.

The horseshoe kidney is a frequent urological birth defect. The most frequent complications are urinary tract infections, stones and hydronephrosis. The occurrence of glomerular disease in horseshoe kidney is rare. Therefore, we report the first case of minimal change disease occurring in a patient with horseshoe kidney in literature. A 22-year-old Caucasian man without personal or family medical history admitted to the pneumology department for a pulmonary artery embolism. In presence of a generalized oedema, a biological assessment was performed yielding intense nephrotic syndrome with urine protein excretion 22g/day. The abdominal ultrasound revealed a horseshoe kidney. Hence a scanno-guided kidney biopsy was taken yielding minimal change disease. High dose steroids were started, then gradually tapered with good response. Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly, with a prevalence of 0.25% among the general population. The occurrence of glomerular nephropathy in horseshoe kidney has been reported in few cases. We report the first case of minimal change disease occurring in a patient with horseshoe kidney in literature. The mechanism of the association between the horseshoe kidney and these renal pathologies could not be explained in the previous reports. There is no literature data indicating a high rate of glomerulonephritis in horseshoe kidneys. The co-incidence of two renal diseases in this patient can be only a coincidence. The question that arises is whether this glomerulopathy is associated or not with this anatomical abnormality. Further studies are needed to answer this question.

Struma ovarii: a rare case of giant ovarian cyst.

Struma ovarii is a rare tumor, which accounts for 2.7% of ovarian teratomas and 0.01% of ovarian tumors. It usually affects women in the fifth decades of life and is most often detected incidentally during ultrasound and then confirmed histologically. The gold standard treatment is surgery and prognosis is excellent. We here report the particular case of a young female patient with giant struma ovarii whose radiological features were classified as unusual presentation. We match patient's data with those from the literature.

Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Global surveillance and a call for international collaborative action.

In a Policy Forum, Teodora Wi and colleagues discuss the challenges of antimicrobial resistance in gonococci.

Intraperitoneal cytology after laparoscopic hysterectomy in patients with endometrial cancer: A retrospective observational study.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dissemination of cancer cells at laparoscopic hysterectomy according to the intraperitoneal cytology.Patients with endometrial cancer underwent total laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy. Peritoneal wash cytology was performed on entering the peritoneal cavity before surgical preparation and just after hysterectomy.Seventy-eight patients underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Among the 15 patients who had positive intraperitoneal cytology on entering the peritoneal cavity, 10 converted to negative intraperitoneal cytology after hysterectomy. In contrast, among the 63 patients who had negative intraperitoneal cytology on entering the peritoneal cavity, 2 converted to positive intraperitoneal cytology after hysterectomy.While surgery can reduce the number of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity, leakage can occur, as seen in some cases of hysterectomy. Careful washing must be performed after hysterectomy.

The diagnostic accuracy of urinary TIMP-2·IGFBP7 for acute kidney injury in adults: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a challenge. Recently, [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7], which is a combination of urine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), has been identified as a potential biomarker of AKI. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] for AKI in adult patients.

Rituximab alone as induction therapy for membranous lupus nephritis: A multicenter retrospective study.

The optimal treatment for pure membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) remains undetermined. Rituximab constitutes a promising therapeutic option for lupus nephritis and is currently being evaluated for use in idiopathic membranous nephritis. We retrospectively analysed the efficacy and tolerance of rituximab as a monotherapy in the induction treatment of pure MLN.We retrospectively investigated SLE patients with biopsy-proven pure class V lupus nephritis presenting with a protein-to-creatinine ratio of at least 2 g/g and treated with rituximab as monotherapy. A background low dose of corticosteroids (≤20 mg/day) was allowed, as was hydroxychloroquine; higher doses of steroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs fell under the exclusion criteria. Remission status was evaluated at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after rituximab.The study included 15 patients (13 women, median age 37 years, 27% with extra-renal manifestations, median SLE duration 1.5 years). The median protein-to-creatinine ratio was 4.9 g/g, 80% of the patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria, the median serum albumin was 24 g/L, the median serum creatinine was 0.7 mg/dL, and the median eGFR was 122 mL/min/1.73 m. The median follow-up was 29 months (6-112 months). Treatment failure occurred in 2 patients. However, remission was recorded in the remaining 13 (87%, complete remission in 8 patients) with a median time to remission of 5 months. Median proteinuria decreased from 4.9 g/g to 0.16 g/g at month 12 and to 0.11 g/g at month 24. Median serum albumin increased to 36.5 g/L at month 24, and all patients had serum albumin levels greater than 30 g/L at month 12. Renal function remained stable in all patients. Relapse of proteinuria was recorded in 3 patients (at 12, 29, and 34 months). No patients experienced serious adverse events.Rituximab as monotherapy may represent an effective treatment for pure MLN with an excellent tolerance profile.

Sudden bilateral vision loss as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome from acute uremia: Clinical case report.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological entity associated with vasogenic edema. Symptoms may include headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual impairment. Patients with PRES generally present with neurological deficits.

Efficacy of short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials.

The prophylactic efficacy of statin pretreatment for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effectiveness of short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment in preventing CIN.

Sociodemographic differences among HIV-positive and HIV-negative recently pregnant women in Mexico City: A case-control study.

National HIV preventive programs in Mexico focus on high-risk groups that do not consider women, apart from prenatal screening. Nonetheless, the epidemic in women is growing, and there is a need to better understand sociodemographic factors in women living with HIV (WLH). We performed a case-control study in Mexico City, including HIV+ and HIV- women with a recent pregnancy to compare their sociodemographic characteristics and describe the circumstances of diagnosis in HIV+ women, as well as prenatal screening frequency in both groups. Fifty cases and 102 controls were interviewed. HIV+ women were more frequently the only economic support of the family (20% vs 0%, P < .0001). Thirty-eight percent of cases had their first pregnancy at ≤18 years, versus 16% of controls (odds ratio 2.47, 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.72, P = .03); 16% of cases had lived in the street; 6% reported transactional sex, versus none of the controls (P < .0001). In the multivariate analysis, there was strong evidence of an association between HIV infection and age at the time of the interview, history of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, history of violence, and civil status. Only 6% of controls were tested for HIV during prenatal follow-up. WLH in this study faced important social vulnerability. Targeting women living in these social contexts might increase early diagnosis and could tailor HIV prevention strategies. Prenatal coverage needs to be improved and should represent a national priority.