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Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Rates and Trends of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia - United States, 2001-2014.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents in the United States, representing 20% of all cancers diagnosed in persons aged <20 years, or >3,000 new cases each year (1). Past studies reported increasing trends of ALL overall and among Hispanics, but these represented ≤28% of the U.S. population and did not provide state-based estimates (1-3). To describe U.S. ALL incidence rates and trends among persons aged <20 years during 2001-2014, CDC analyzed rigorous data (based on established publication criteria) from the United States Cancer Statistics data set, which includes incidence data on approximately 15,000 new cases per year of all types of invasive cancer among children and adolescents aged <20 years (4). The data set represented 98% of the U.S. population during the study period. Overall incidence of pediatric ALL during 2001-2014 was 34.0 cases per 1 million persons and among all racial/ethnic groups was highest among Hispanics (42.9 per 1 million). Both overall and among Hispanics, pediatric ALL incidence increased during 2001-2008 and remained stable during 2008-2014. ALL incidence was higher in the West than in any other U.S. Census region. State-specific data indicated that the highest rates of pediatric ALL incidence were in California, New Mexico, and Vermont. These demographic and geographic ALL incidence data might better inform public health interventions targeting the following areas: exposures to recognized risk factors for leukemia; ALL treatment, including clinical trial enrollment; survivorship care planning; and studies designed to understand the factors affecting changes in pediatric cancer incidence.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and hypereosinophilic syndrome with FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene effectively treated with imatinib: A case report.

Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder characterized by hypereosinophilia and organ damage. Some cases of HES are caused by the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene and respond to imatinib. FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive HES occasionally evolves into chronic eosinophilic leukemia or into another form of myeloproliferative neoplasm; however, the development of a malignant lymphoma is very rare. We present a rare case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and HES with the FIP1L1/PDGFRA gene rearrangement.

Successful 5-azacytidine treatment of myeloid sarcoma and leukemia cutis associated with myelodysplastic syndrome: A case report and literature review.

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) and leukemia cutis (LC) are extramedullary tumors comprising myeloid blasts. They can occur de novo or concurrently with hematological disorders, usually acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML chemotherapy is generally the initial therapy for MS and LC, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be considered as additional therapy. However, treatment for older patients who are unable to continue intensive chemotherapy is not currently standardized.

Oral tetrahydrouridine and decitabine for non-cytotoxic epigenetic gene regulation in sickle cell disease: A randomized phase 1 study.

Sickle cell disease (SCD), a congenital hemolytic anemia that exacts terrible global morbidity and mortality, is driven by polymerization of mutated sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in red blood cells (RBCs). Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) interferes with this polymerization, but HbF is epigenetically silenced from infancy onward by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1).

Connecting the Dots.

Editorial: Widening the Use of the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe to Kids With Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Esophageal Narrowing is not Just an Adult Problem.

The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) provides objective measurement of esophageal distensibility, thus offering a unique and potentially valuable assessment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Menard-Katcher and colleagues report the first study evaluating use of FLIP in pediatric patients that demonstrated a reduction in esophageal distensibility in patients with EoE compared to patients without EoE. An increase in esophageal distensibility was observed with age among pediatric patients without EoE, but not among those with EoE. While this study further supports the promise of esophageal distensibility assessment in EoE, future work remains needed to optimize FLIP utilization in both research and clinical settings.

Comparing the Efficacy of DeVIC Therapy and High-dose Methotrexate Monotherapy with Whole-brain Radiation Therapy for Newly-diagnosed Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Single Institution Study.

In the current study, we aimed to compare DeVIC (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide and carboplatin) chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) monotherapy plus whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for newly-diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), in terms of their efficacies and tolerability.

Thrombocytosis Portends Adverse Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 5,619 Patients in 16 Individual Studies.

The current study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) by a meta-analysis of the literature.

Significance of Hyperferritinemia in Hospitalized Adults.

Although high ferritin levels are associated with iron overload, it is known that ferritin is also an acute-phase reactant that may be elevated in conditions associated with acute and chronic inflammation. In addition, an elevated ferritin level is a criterion for the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome (HLH/MAS). Therefore, the significance of elevated serum ferritin is often unclear. As HLH/MAS is a medical emergency, prompt diagnosis is important to guide appropriate treatment.

Bortezomib-Induced Muscle Toxicity in Multiple Myeloma.

Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for ∼13% of all hematologic malignancies. Bortezomib treatment is effective in MM, but can be complicated with neurological side effects. We describe a patient with symptomatic MM who had a reversible metabolic myopathy associated with bortezomib administration and pathologically characterized by excessive storage of lipid droplets together with mitochondrial abnormalities. In a single-center prospective study, 14 out of 24 patients with symptomatic MM were treated with bortezomib and, among these, 7 developed muscular signs and/or symptoms. The myopathy was characterized by a proximal muscle weakness involving lower limbs and was an early complication. Complete resolution of muscle weakness occurred after treatment discontinuation. Conversely, none of the patients who received a treatment without bortezomib developed muscular symptoms. Experimental studies demonstrate that in primary human myoblasts bortezomib at low concentrations leads to excessive storage of lipid droplets together with structural mitochondrial abnormalities, recapitulating the pathologic findings observed in patient's muscle. Our data suggest that patients treated with bortezomib should be monitored for muscular signs and/or symptoms and muscle weakness should alert the clinician to the possibility of myopathy. Bortezomib-induced metabolic myopathy is a potentially reversible entity with important implications for management and treatment of patients with MM.

Periorbital ecchymoses and breathlessness.

A 54-year-old man presented at our facility with a 3-month history of exertional breathlessness and purple blotches around his eyes. Examination revealed bilateral periorbital and perioral ecchymosis, purpuric spots along his waist, and waxy papules on his eyelids. In addition, the patient had macroglossia with nodular infiltration and irregular indentations at the lateral margin of his tongue. The patient also had a raised jugular venous pressure and prominent atrial and ventricular waves. Further examination revealed a fourth heart sound over the left ventricular apex, as well as bilateral basal rales. All other systems were normal except for mild hepatomegaly. Routine hematologic and biochemical lab work was unremarkable. X-rays of the spine and skull were normal, but a chest x-ray showed mild cardiomegaly. An electrocardiogram showed a QS complex from leads V1 to V4 (a pseudo-infarction pattern). An echocardiogram showed biatrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 48%, a speckled pattern on the myocardium, a thickened interatrial septum, and mild pericardial effusion. A color Doppler revealed mild mitral and tricuspid regurgitation with a restrictive pattern of mitral valve flow. Serum protein electrophoresis was normal. WHAT IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS? HOW WOULD YOU TREAT THIS PATIENT?

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Model-based meta-analysis of progression-free survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying treatment responses and progression-free survival (PFS) times. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of treatment and patient-population characteristics on PFS in patients with NHL.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid complicated by papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report and brief literature review.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involves mainly the skin and bone and rarely the thyroid. Meanwhile, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer. Both LCH and PTC could make the thyroid enlarged and hypermetabolic. The coincidence of these 2 events in a patient is rare, and this paper aimed to report such case.

Exacerbation of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia during late pregnancy and recovery after delivery: A case report and literature review.

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen. Main clinical features include intermittent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia. Scattered case reports suggested that PIL is compatible to pregnancy, but with increased complications.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Eosinophilic Bronchitis.

An Aγ-globin G->A gene polymorphism associated with β(0)39 thalassemia globin gene and high fetal hemoglobin production.

Increase of the expression of γ-globin gene and high production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in β-thalassemia patients is widely accepted as associated with a milder or even asymptomatic disease. The search for HbF-associated polymorphisms (such as the XmnI, BCL11A and MYB polymorphisms) has recently gained great attention, in order to stratify β-thalassemia patients with respect to expectancy of the first transfusion, need for annual intake of blood, response to HbF inducers (the most studied of which is hydroxyurea).

Multiple Hemorrhagic Skin Lesions in a 52-Year-Old Patient with Liver Cirrhosis.

ABCB1 Polymorphisms and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

The association between ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) C3435T and C1236T polymorphisms and the risk for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of all published studies to determine the association of ABCB1 C3435T and C1236T polymorphisms and pediatric ALL risk. A systematic retrieval of relevant publications from the PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. Data were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using STATA version 12.0 software. Metaanalysis results showed no significant association between C3435T polymorphism and pediatric ALL risk (TT vs. CC: odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95-1.52; CT vs. CC: OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.82-1.23; the dominant model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.89-1.29; the recessive model: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.84-1.62). Similarly, there was no association found for the C1236T polymorphism (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.18, 95% CI= 0.82-1.70; CT vs. CC: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.80-1.45; the dominant model: OR = 1.10, 95% CI= 0.83-1.46; the recessive model: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.61-1.58). Similar results were observed in the subgroup analyses on ethnicity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The present meta-analysis found no evidence for ABCB1 C3435T and C1236T polymorphisms as risk factors for pediatric ALL.

Macrotextured Breast Implants with Defined Steps to Minimize Bacterial Contamination around the Device: Experience in 42,000 Implants.

Bacteria/biofilm on breast implant surfaces has been implicated in capsular contracture and breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). Macrotextured breast implants have been shown to harbor more bacteria than smooth or microtextured implants. Recent reports also suggest that macrotextured implants are associated with a significantly higher incidence of breast implant-associated ALCL. Using techniques to reduce the number of bacteria around implants, specifically, the 14-point plan, has successfully minimized the occurrence of capsular contracture. The authors hypothesize that a similar effect may be seen in reducing the risk of breast implant-associated ALCL.

Aortic Valve Replacement as a Trigger of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Mechanical hemolysis is a frequent but usually harmless complication of aortic valve replacement. The most common reason is valvular leakage. This report presents atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) as an alternative cause of mechanical hemolysis after this procedure. aHUS is a complement-mediated disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. It necessitates immediate specific treatment including plasma exchange or complement inhibition to avoid an adverse outcome. The present case identifies aortic valve replacement as a trigger of aHUS and shows that this disease must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of hemolysis after valve surgery.

Diagnosis of Upper Quadrant Lymphedema Secondary to Cancer: Clinical Practice Guideline From the Oncology Section of the American Physical Therapy Association.

The Oncology Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) developed a clinical practice guideline to aid the clinician in diagnosing secondary upper quadrant cancer-related lymphedema. Following a systematic review of published studies and a structured appraisal process, recommendations were written to guide the physical therapist and other health care clinicians in the diagnostic process. Overall clinical practice recommendations were formulated based on the evidence for each diagnostic method and were assigned a grade based on the strength of the evidence for different patient presentations and clinical utility. In an effort to maximize clinical applicability, recommendations were based on the characteristics as to the location and stage of a patient's upper quadrant lymphedema.

Valganciclovir for the Suppression of Epstein-Barr Virus Replication.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and can lead to lymphoproliferative diseases. We evaluated the effects of valganciclovir on oral EBV shedding in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-six men received oral valganciclovir or daily placebo for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week "washout period" and then 8 weeks of the alternative treatment. Valganciclovir reduced the proportion of days with EBV detected from 61.3% to 17.8% (relative risk, 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], .21-.41; P < .001), and quantity of virus detected by 0.77 logs (95% CI, .62-.91 logs; P < .001). Further investigations into the impact of valganciclovir on EBV-associated diseases are needed.

Evolutionary biology of high-risk multiple myeloma.

The outcomes for the majority of patients with myeloma have improved over recent decades, driven by treatment advances. However, there is a subset of patients considered to have high-risk disease who have not benefited. Understanding how high-risk disease evolves from more therapeutically tractable stages is crucial if we are to improve outcomes. This can be accomplished by identifying the genetic mechanisms and mutations driving the transition of a normal plasma cell to one with the features of the following disease stages: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma, myeloma and plasma cell leukaemia. Although myeloma initiating events are clonal, subsequent driver lesions often occur in a subclone of cells, facilitating progression by Darwinian selection processes. Understanding the co-evolution of the clones within their microenvironment will be crucial for therapeutically manipulating the process. The end stage of progression is the generation of a state associated with treatment resistance, increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis and an ability to grow independently of the bone marrow microenvironment. In this Review, we discuss these end-stage high-risk disease states and how new information is improving our understanding of their evolutionary trajectories, how they may be diagnosed and the biological behaviour that must be addressed if they are to be treated effectively.

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms: when genetics and environment collide.

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) arise as a late effect of chemotherapy and/or radiation administered for a primary condition, typically a malignant disease, solid organ transplant or autoimmune disease. Survival is measured in months, not years, making t-MN one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers. In this Review, we discuss recent developments that reframe our understanding of the genetic and environmental aetiology of t-MN. Emerging data are illuminating who is at highest risk of developing t-MN, why t-MN are chemoresistant and how we may use this information to treat and ultimately prevent this lethal disease.

Metastatic spread of solid subtype lung adenocarcinoma to the small intestine with anemia and melena: A case report.

Metastasis to the small intestine from a primary lung cancer is rare, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis of small intestine metastasis is difficult because of the low incidence of clinically apparent symptoms.

Soil iron and aluminium concentrations and feet hygiene as possible predictors of Podoconiosis occurrence in Kenya.

Podoconiosis (mossy foot) is a neglected non-filarial elephantiasis considered to be caused by predisposition to cumulative contact of uncovered feet to irritative red clay soil of volcanic origins in the tropical regions. Data from structured observational studies on occurrence of Podoconiosis and related factors are not available in Kenya.

High Prevalence of Anemia but Low Level of Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children during a Low Transmission Period of Malaria in Rural Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Anemia is a worldwide public health concern especially in preschool children in developing countries and iron deficiency (ID) is generally assumed to cause at least 50% of the cases. However, data on this contribution are scarce. To close this gap, we determined in 2013 the contribution of ID in the etiology of anemia and measured others factors associated to noniron deficiency anemia (NIDA) in 900 preschool children randomly selected during a two-stage cluster nutritional survey in the Miti-Murhesa health zone, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. In these children, we collected sociodemographic, clinical, and biological parameters and determined the nutritional status according to the World Health Organization 2006 standards. Anemia was defined as altitude-adjusted hemoglobin < 110 g/L and ID was defined as serum ferritin < 12 μg/L or < 30 μg/L in the absence or presence of inflammation, respectively. Median (interquartile range) age was 29.4 (12-45) months. The prevalence of anemia was 46.6% (391/838) among whom only 16.5% (62/377) had ID. Among children without signs of inflammation, only 4.4% (11/251) met the ferritin-based (unadjusted) definition of ID. Logistic regression analysis identified ID, history of fever during the last 2 weeks and mid-upper arm circumference < 125 mm as the only independent factors associated to anemia. In conclusion, anemia is a severe public health problem in the Miti-Murhesa health zone, but NIDA is mostly predominant and needs to be further studied. Control of infections and prevention of acute undernutrition (wasting) are some of appropriate interventions to reduce the burden anemia in this region.