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Immune System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Recommendations for HIV Screening of Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men - United States, 2017.

CDC's 2006 recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing state that all persons aged 13-64 years should be screened for HIV at least once, and that persons at higher risk for HIV infection, including sexually active gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), should be rescreened at least annually (1). Authors of reports published since 2006, including CDC (2), suggested that MSM, a group that is at highest risk for HIV infection, might benefit from being screened more frequently than once each year. In 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found insufficient evidence to specify an HIV rescreening interval but recommended annual screening for MSM as a reasonable approach (3). However, some HIV providers have begun to offer more frequent screening, such as once every 3 or 6 months, to some MSM. A CDC work group conducted a systematic literature review and held four expert consultations to review programmatic experience to determine whether there was sufficient evidence to change the 2006 CDC recommendation (i.e., at least annual HIV screening of MSM in clinical settings). The CDC work group concluded that the evidence remains insufficient to recommend screening more frequently than at least once each year. CDC continues to recommend that clinicians screen asymptomatic sexually active MSM at least annually. Each clinician can consider the benefits of offering more frequent screening (e.g., once every 3 or 6 months) to individual MSM at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection, weighing their patients' individual risk factors, local HIV epidemiology, and local testing policies.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 2017 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the commonest leukemia in western countries. The disease typically occurs in elderly patients and has a highly variable clinical course. Leukemic transformation is initiated by specific genomic alterations that impair apoptosis of clonal B cells.

Notes from the Field: Preliminary Results After Implementation of a Universal Treatment Program (Test and Start) for Persons Living with HIV Infection - Lesotho, October 2015-February 2017.

Lesotho, a small, mountainous country completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa, has a population of approximately 2 million persons with an estimated gross national income of $1,280 per capita; 73% of the population resides in rural areas (1). Lesotho has a generalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (2). In 2014, the prevalence of HIV infection among persons aged 15-49 years was 24.6%, with an incidence of 1.9 new infections per 100 person-years of exposure (3). As the leading cause of premature death, HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has contributed to Lesotho's reporting the shortest life expectancy at birth among 195 countries and territories (4). In 2015, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage among HIV-positive persons in Lesotho was estimated to be 42% (5). In April 2016, Lesotho became the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to adopt the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for universal initiation of antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-positive persons, regardless of CD4 count (known as the "Test and Start" program or approach), with nationwide implementation occurring in June 2016 (6,7). Before implementation of Test and Start, many persons living with HIV infection in Lesotho were not eligible to initiate treatment until their CD4 count was <500 cells/mm(3).

All That Wheezes….

Effect of Oral Methylprednisolone on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With IgA Nephropathy: The TESTING Randomized Clinical Trial.

Guidelines recommend corticosteroids in patients with IgA nephropathy and persistent proteinuria, but the effects remain uncertain.

HIV-Associated Complications: A Systems-Based Approach.

Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. Aging, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities increase the risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. HIV-associated neurologic complications encompass a wide spectrum of pathophysiology and symptomatology. Cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions are common among persons with HIV infection. Although some specific antiretroviral medications have been linked to disease development, traditional risk factors (e.g., smoking) have major roles. Prevention and management of viral hepatitis coinfection are important to reduce morbidity and mortality, and new anti-hepatitis C agents produce high rates of sustained virologic response. Antiretroviral-associated metabolic complications include dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and loss of bone mineral density. Newer options generally pose less risk of significant systemic toxicity and are better tolerated. Family physicians who care for patients with HIV infection have a key role in identifying and managing many of these chronic complications.

RE: Association of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Announcement: Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives.

CDC monitors progress on selected national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and care objectives using surveillance data (1) and has released two HIV care continuums for 2014: a diagnosis-based continuum and a prevalence-based continuum (2,3).

Anal Pap Tests to Decrease Anal Cancer Burden in HIV-Infected Patients.

Usually HPV related, the cancer is increasingly common in this population.

More on Intralymphatic Injection of Autoantigen in Type 1 Diabetes.

Factors associated with immunovirologic dissociation in HIV-1-infected patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Ambulatory Treatment Center (ATC) in Dakar.

The objective of this work is to evaluate the different factors associated with immunovirologic dissociation despite highly active and effective antiretroviral treatment.

18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography can reliably rule-out infection and cancer in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis suspected of disease relapse.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by systemic inflammation in small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Although immunosuppressive therapy has greatly improved the prognosis for these patients, there are still significant comorbidities, such as cancer and infection, associated with AAV. These comorbidities are often indistinguishable from an underlying AAV disease relapse, and create a clinical conundrum, as these conditions are normally contraindications for immunosuppressive treatment. Thus, it is important to be able to rule out these comorbidities before initiation of immunosuppressive treatment. We examined F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)'s value in ruling out cancer or infection in patients with AAV.Data were obtained retrospectively for a clinically based cohort of AAV patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT during 2009 to 2014 owing to a suspicion of cancer, infection, or both cancer and infection indistinguishable from disease relapse. FDG-PET/CT conclusions were compared to the final diagnoses after follow-up analysis (mean 43 months).A total of 19 patients were included who underwent a total of 26 scans. The results of FDG-PET/CT outcome compared to final diagnosis were: 9 true positives, 3 false positives, 13 true negatives, and 1 false negative. The diagnostic probabilities for FDG-PET/CT with respect to overall comorbidity (i.e., cancer or infection) were: sensitivity 90% ( 95% confidence interval [CI] 60%-98%), specificity 81% ( 95% CI 57%-93%), positive predictive value 75% (95% CI 47%-91%), negative predictive value 93% (95% CI 68%-99%), and accuracy 84% (95% CI 66%-94%).FDG-PET/CT had a high negative predictive value and ruled out the comorbidities correctly in all but one case of urinary tract infection, a well-known limitation. Our study showed FGD-PET/CT's promise as an effective tool for ruling out cancer or infection in patients with AAV albeit in a limited population.

Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone: A case report.

Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported.

The immediate effect of facial candling on inflammatory mediators, substance P, symptoms severity, and quality of life in allergic rhinitis patients: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Asian countries have a variety of ethnic groups and culture that provide their own traditional treatment in health care. Facial candling appears to be one of the popular traditional treatments in Southeast Asian. The complementary medicine practitioners promote that the facial candling treatment would help in reducing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and other problems related to sinus. Due to the lack of evidence available, the effectiveness of this treatment method and its mechanism, however, remains unknown. The objective of this research is therefore to study impact of facial candling on inflammatory mediators, substance P (SP), symptoms severity, and quality of life (QoL) in allergic rhinitis patients.

Trial of Tocilizumab in Giant-Cell Arteritis.

Giant-cell arteritis commonly relapses when glucocorticoids are tapered, and the prolonged use of glucocorticoids is associated with side effects. The effect of the interleukin-6 receptor alpha inhibitor tocilizumab on the rates of relapse during glucocorticoid tapering was studied in patients with giant-cell arteritis.

Giant-Cell Arteritis - More Ecstasy, Less Agony.

Case 23-2017. A 9-Day-Old Girl with Vomiting, Acidosis, and Azotemia.

All That Wheezes...

More on Intralymphatic Injection of Autoantigen in Type 1 Diabetes.

Collision of Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Stomach: A Case Report.

Collision of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the stomach is extremely rare.

Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care: A Concise Review of Evidence-Based Practice.

Children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a population that requires a unique approach to HIV care. Prevention, testing, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention and engagement in care are critical steps. Each step requires providers to address age-specific barriers, so that successful and prolonged viral suppression can occur. Adherence to ART, disclosure of HIV-positive status, and stigma are examples of struggles faced by youth, their families, and health care providers. A multifaceted approach and thoughtful transitions of care are needed, but with sustained ART, youth living with HIV can survive and thrive with the expectation of a normal lifespan.

Challenges and emerging opportunities for the HIV prevention, treatment and care cascade in men who have sex with men in Asia Pacific.

In Asia Pacific, most countries have expanded HIV treatment guidelines to include all those with HIV infection and adopted antiretroviral treatment for prevention (TFP) as a blanket strategy for HIV control. Although the overall epidemic development associated with this focus is positive, the HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) is continuing unperturbed without any signs of decline or reversal. This raises doubt about whether TFP as a blanket HIV prevention policy is the right approach. This paper reviews currently available biomedical HIV prevention strategies, national HIV prevention policies and guidelines from selected countries and published data on the HIV cascade in MSM. No evidence for efficacy of TFP in protecting MSM from HIV infection was found. The rationale for this approach is based on assumptions about biological plausibility and external validity of latency-based efficacy found in heterosexual couples. This is different from the route and timing of HIV transmission in MSM. New HIV infections in MSM principally occur in chains of acutely HIV-infected highly sexually active young men, in whom acquisition and transmission are correlated in space and time. By the time TFP renders its effects, most new HIV infections in MSM will have already occurred. On a global level, less than 6% of all reports regarding the HIV care cascade from 1990 to 2016 included MSM, and only 2.3% concerned MSM in low/middle-income countries. Only one report originated from Asia Pacific. Generally, HIV cascade data in MSM show a sobering picture of TFP in engaging and retaining MSM along the continuum. Widening the cascade with a preventive extension, including pre-exposure prophylaxis, the first proven efficacious and only biomedical HIV prevention strategy in MSM, will be instrumental in achieving HIV epidemic control in this group.

High HIV incidence in men who have sex with men following an early syphilis diagnosis: is there room for pre-exposure prophylaxis as a prevention strategy?

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is becoming a pivotal strategy for HIV prevention. Understanding the impact of risk factors for HIV transmission to identify those at highest risk would favour the implementation of PrEP, currently limited by costs. In this service evaluation, we estimated the incidence of bacterial STIs in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with early syphilis attending a London sexual health clinic according to their HIV status. In addition, we estimated the incidence of HIV infection in HIV-negative MSM, following a diagnosis of early syphilis.

Corneal Confocal Microscopy: An Imaging Endpoint for Axonal Degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis.

To evaluate whether corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) detects axonal degeneration and whether this is associated with retinal nerve fiber degeneration and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

The tradition algorithm approach underestimates the prevalence of serodiagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals.

Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient) was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001). Compared to the reverse algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC) algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Tocilizumab for uncontrollable systemic inflammatory response syndrome complicating adult-onset Still disease: Case report and review of literature.

Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by evanescent salmon-pink rash, fever spikes, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy. AOSD usually has a good prognosis, but it can sometimes be fatal, especially when it is complicated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure.

Thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome during acute Q fever: A cross-sectional study.

Q fever is a neglected and potentially fatal disease. During acute Q fever, antiphospholipid antibodies are very prevalent and have been associated with fever, thrombocytopenia, acquired heart valve disease, and progression to chronic endocarditis. However, thrombosis, the main clinical criterion of the 2006 updated classification of the antiphospholipid syndrome, has not been assessed in this context. To test whether thrombosis is associated with antiphospholipid antibodies and whether the criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome can be met in patients with acute Q fever, we conducted a cross-sectional study at the French National Referral Center for Q fever.Patients included were diagnosed with acute Q fever in our Center between January 2007 and December 2015. Each patient's history and clinical characteristics were recorded with a standardized questionnaire. Predictive factors associated with thrombosis were assessed using a rare events logistic regression model. IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG aCL) assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were tested on the Q fever diagnostic serum. A dose-dependent relationship between IgG aCL levels and thrombosis was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.Of the 664 patients identified for inclusion in the study, 313 (47.1%) had positive IgG aCL and 13 (1.9%) were diagnosed with thrombosis. Three patients fulfilled the antiphospholipid syndrome criteria. After multiple adjustments, only positive IgG aCL (relative risk, 14.46 [1.85-113.14], P = .011) were independently associated with thrombosis. ROC analysis identified a dose-dependent relationship between IgG aCL levels and occurrence of thrombosis (area under curve, 0.83, 95%CI [0.73-0.93], P < .001).During acute Q fever, antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and acquired valvular heart disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies should be systematically assessed in acute Q fever patients. Hydroxychloroquine, which has been previously shown to antagonize IgG aCL pathogenic properties, should be tested in acute Q fever patients with anticardiolipin antibodies to prevent antiphospholipid-associated complications.Key Point: In addition to fever, thrombocytopenia and acquired valvular heart disease, antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with thrombosis during acute Q fever.

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio could be a good diagnostic marker and predictor of relapse in patients with adult-onset Still's disease: A STROBE-compliant retrospective observational analysis.

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is the proportion of absolute neutrophil count to lymphocytes on routine complete blood count (CBC) tests, and has been studied as a simple marker of the systemic inflammatory response. This study was performed to investigate whether the NLR could be used as a tool to diagnose and predict prognosis in cases of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD).We retrospectively reviewed 164 patients with suspected AOSD. Among 164 patients with suspected AOSD, 37 patients received another diagnosis (such as viral infection) and were compared with the 127 patients who received a diagnosis of AOSD. Laboratory tests including CBCs, ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and the NLR were evaluated.AOSD patients showed higher neutrophil counts, lower lymphocyte counts, higher NLRs, and higher levels of ferritin, ESR, and CRP than non-AOSD patients (all P < .001). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the NLR for diagnosis of AOSD, the area under the curve (AUC) was highest at 0.967 (95% CI = 0.940-0.993) with a cutoff value of 3.08. The cutoff value showed the greatest sensitivity (91.7%), specificity (68.4%), and AUC value (0.967) as a diagnostic tool for AOSD. The NLR and treatment appeared to be significant prognostic factors for relapse, but only age showed a significant relationship with death. Furthermore, the NLR was significantly higher in patients with macrophage activation syndrome than in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) patients (P = .007). In ROC analysis, the NLR with a cutoff value of 5.86 showed a sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of 87.8%, and AUC of 0.794.The NLR can be used as a diagnostic tool and predictor of relapse in AOSD, and for differential diagnosis of HLH.