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Immune System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

The Enduring Challenge of Advanced HIV Infection.

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in Adults: A Review.

Asthma affects about 7.5% of the adult population. Evidence-based diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment can improve functioning and quality of life in adult patients with asthma.

The Prime Diabetes Model: Novel Methods for Estimating Long-Term Clinical and Cost Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Recent publications describing long-term follow-up from landmark trials and diabetes registries represent an opportunity to revisit modeling options in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy.

Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy.

Silent presentation of multiple metastasis Burkitt lymphoma in a child: A case report and review of the literature.

The Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It accounts for 34% of lymphoma cases in children.

Immune recovery of middle-aged HIV patients following antiretroviral therapy: An observational cohort study.

In HIV-infected persons, age is negatively associated with optimal CD4 recovery following antiretroviral therapy. Our understanding of the situation in older adults, especially the middle-aged is, however, limited. We undertook to examine the latter's pattern of CD4/CD8 recovery following antiretroviral therapy.Retrospective clinical cohort data of HIV patients diagnosed between 1985 and 2014 in Hong Kong were collected. They were categorized by age at treatment initiation, viz., young adults (age 18-49), middle-aged (age 50-64), and elderly (≥65 years' old). Predictors of immune recovery (CD4 count, CD8 count, CD4/CD8 ratio) over time were examined using multivariable linear generalized estimating equations.A total of 2754 patients (aged ≥18) have been on antiretroviral therapy, with baseline characteristics similar between middle-aged and the elderly. Late diagnosis, defined as progression to AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis, was less common in middle-aged (odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.37-0.91). Among Chinese patients who have been on treatment for ≥4 years (n = 913), 80.6%, 14.6%, and 4.8% were young adults, middle-aged, and elderly respectively. Late treatment initiation, defined as AIDS diagnosis or CD4 count ≤100 cells/μL before treatment, was common in middle-aged and elderly, the former however had faster CD4 recovery (3.95 vs. 3.36 cells/μL/month), but slower CD8 decline (-1.76 vs. -4.34 cells/μL/month) and CD4/CD8 normalization (0.009 vs. 0.0101/month).As a transitional age group, the immune recovery of middle-aged patients lagged behind young adults largely because of late treatment initiation. Following adoption of early and non-CD4-guided treatment initiation, their long-term clinical outcome is expected to improve.

An unusual association between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, mixed connective tissue disease, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report.

In the adult patient, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is uncommon and frequently difficult to diagnose due to its nonspecific presentation and numerous complications.

The investigation of CD4+T-cell functions in primary HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to reduced CD4T-cell counts and immune dysfunction. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV primary infection has been recommended to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, but a comprehensive study on restoration of CD4T-cell function in primary HIV-infected individuals with ART still needs to be eluciated. We investigated longitudinal changes in the CD4T-cell counts, phenotypes, and functions in HIV-infected individuals with early ART (initiated within 6 months after HIV infection) or later ART (initiated more than 12 months after HIV infection). Patients from early ART and later ART groups had received ART for at least 1 year. Individuals with early ART had more CD4T cells, a faster rate of CD4T-cell recovery than those receiving later ART; the levels of CD4T-cell activation and senescence were lower in early ART compared to those with later ART (P = .031; P = .016), but the activation was higher than normal controls (NC) (P = .001); thymic emigrant function was more upregulated in early ART than in later ART (P = .015), but still lower than NC (P = .027); proliferative capacity and interferon-γ secretion of CD4T cells were significantly decreased in primary infection (P < .001; P = .029), and early ART restored these CD4T-cell functions, there is no difference with NC, later ART could partially restore the functions of CD4T cells, but it remained lower than that of NC (P = .005; P = .019). Early ART could better improve CD4T-cell function.

The accuracy of HIV rapid testing in integrated bio-behavioral surveys of men who have sex with men across 5 Provinces in South Africa.

We describe the accuracy of serial rapid HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa and discuss the implications for HIV testing and prevention.This was a cross-sectional survey conducted at five stand-alone facilities from five provinces.Demographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected. Dried blood spots were obtained for HIV-related testing. Participants were offered rapid HIV testing using 2 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series. In the laboratory, reference HIV testing was conducted using a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a fourth-generation EIA as confirmatory. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive, and false-negative rates were determined.Between August 2015 and July 2016, 2503 participants were enrolled. Of these, 2343 were tested by RDT on site with a further 2137 (91.2%) having definitive results on both RDT and EIA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rates, and false-negative rates were 92.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 89.6-94.8], 99.4% (95% CI 98.9-99.7), 97.4% (95% CI 95.2-98.6), 98.3% (95% CI 97.6-98.8), 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.1), and 7.4% (95% CI 5.2-10.4), respectively. False negatives were similar to true positives with respect to virological profiles.Overall accuracy of the RDT algorithm was high, but sensitivity was lower than expected. Post-HIV test counseling should include discussions of possible false-negative results and the need for retesting among HIV negatives.

Patient-reported outcomes and survival in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year retrospective cohort study using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29.

There is increasing emphasis on using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to complement traditional clinical outcomes in medical research, including in multiple sclerosis (MS). Research, particularly in oncology and heart failure, has shown that PROs can be prognostic of hard clinical endpoints such as survival time (time from study entry until death). However, unlike in oncology or cardiology, it is unknown whether PROs are associated with survival time in neurological diseases. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29) is a PRO sensitive to short-term change in MS, with questions covering both physical and psychological quality of life. This study aimed to investigate whether MSIS-29 scores can be prognostic for survival time in MS, using a large observational cohort of people with MS.

Drug Combinations with Transplantation for Myeloma

Osteolytic bone lesions, severe hypercalcemia without circulating blasts: unusual presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Hypercalcemia and severe osteolytic lesions are rare complications of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. We report a case of a 3 years old boy who presented with prolonged fever, nausea, vomiting and increasing lower limbs pain. Skeletal X-rays and CT scan showed severe osteolytic lesions of the skull and extremities. Her physical examination showed multiple cervical lymph nodes. In laboratory tests, he had severe hypercalcemia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was not elevated. Despite the absence of circulating blasts, bone marrow biopsy revealed B-precursor (ALL). Hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous isotonic sodium chloride solution and diuretics but the serum calcium level normalized only after the beginning of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The child responded initially to chemotherapy and eventually relapsed and died of septic shock. Acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with hypercalcemia. A detailed examination even when there no circulating blasts in their peripheral blood smear, and if in doubt bone marrow aspiration should must be taken into consideration.

Clinical and immunological profile of 15 Moroccan patients with Hyper IgM syndrome.

Hyper IgM syndrome is a well known genetic (primary) immunodeficiency disorder which was first described in 1961. It is caused by B lymphocyte deficiency characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels and low or zero levels of IgG, IgA, IgE resulting from isotype-switching deficiency. Clinical manifestations are dominated by recurrent infections, especially involving the digestive tube of the ENT sphere and the lungs. This syndrome is caused by B-cell immunoglobulin class switch deficiency and decreased capacity to induce proliferation of T lymphocytes. The net result of these deficiencies is reflected in increased susceptibility to Pneumocystis jiroveci, Cryptosporidium spp and other intracellular organisms as well as high rate of bacterial and viral infections. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with this increased susceptibility to infections in order to allow a better diagnosis and therapy in patients with Hyper IgM syndrome (HIM).

Successful treatment using corticosteroid combined antibiotic for acute acalculous cholecystitis patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

There is no consensus of treatments for acute acalculous cholecystitis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The study was aimed to investigate the effect of the corticosteroid for these patients.A series of patients who were diagnosed as acute acalculous cholecystitis with SLE in the period from January 2012 to December 2016 at our hospital were included. They accepted 2 different conservative treatment strategies initially: the treatment using moxifloxacin (the antibiotic group), and the treatment using corticosteroid combined moxifloxacin (the corticosteroid group). Then clinical manifestations, laboratory features, and outcomes were analyzed.The study identified 22 women Han Chinese patients with the SLE history of 2.8 ± 1.4 year. There was no significant difference in SLE history, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2000), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR), hematologic examination results, and corticosteroid dosage between 2 groups. And there was no significant difference in the symptom of acute cholecystitis, duration of the symptoms, white blood level, and the thickness of gallbladder wall between 2 groups either. However, the SLEDAI-2000 of the corticosteroid group was lower than that of the antibiotic group (7.3 ± 1.4 vs 10.7 ± 3.0, P = .03), so was the SLICC/ACR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs 0.3 ± 0.5, P = .01). Moreover, total 11 of 12 patients were successfully treated in the corticosteroid group, only 1 patient got cholecystectomy because no improvement after conservative treatment. While 4 of 10 patients were successfully treated by moxifloxacin alone, 6 patients had to accept cholecystectomy in the antibiotic group. The rate of successful conservative treatment in the corticosteroid group was higher than that of the antibiotic group (P = .02). All patients were followed up at least 6 months, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence of abdominal pain between 2 groups (P = .37).The corticosteroid plays an important role in the management of the acalculous cholecystitis patient with SLE, and it should be considered as a first line of treatment.

Rituximab alone as induction therapy for membranous lupus nephritis: A multicenter retrospective study.

The optimal treatment for pure membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) remains undetermined. Rituximab constitutes a promising therapeutic option for lupus nephritis and is currently being evaluated for use in idiopathic membranous nephritis. We retrospectively analysed the efficacy and tolerance of rituximab as a monotherapy in the induction treatment of pure MLN.We retrospectively investigated SLE patients with biopsy-proven pure class V lupus nephritis presenting with a protein-to-creatinine ratio of at least 2 g/g and treated with rituximab as monotherapy. A background low dose of corticosteroids (≤20 mg/day) was allowed, as was hydroxychloroquine; higher doses of steroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs fell under the exclusion criteria. Remission status was evaluated at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after rituximab.The study included 15 patients (13 women, median age 37 years, 27% with extra-renal manifestations, median SLE duration 1.5 years). The median protein-to-creatinine ratio was 4.9 g/g, 80% of the patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria, the median serum albumin was 24 g/L, the median serum creatinine was 0.7 mg/dL, and the median eGFR was 122 mL/min/1.73 m. The median follow-up was 29 months (6-112 months). Treatment failure occurred in 2 patients. However, remission was recorded in the remaining 13 (87%, complete remission in 8 patients) with a median time to remission of 5 months. Median proteinuria decreased from 4.9 g/g to 0.16 g/g at month 12 and to 0.11 g/g at month 24. Median serum albumin increased to 36.5 g/L at month 24, and all patients had serum albumin levels greater than 30 g/L at month 12. Renal function remained stable in all patients. Relapse of proteinuria was recorded in 3 patients (at 12, 29, and 34 months). No patients experienced serious adverse events.Rituximab as monotherapy may represent an effective treatment for pure MLN with an excellent tolerance profile.

Nivolumab-induced myasthenia gravis in a patient with squamous cell lung carcinoma: Case report.

Nivolumab (Nivo) is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been used to treat advanced melanoma, nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma since 2015. Nivo is associated with several side effects, including hepatitis, pneumonitis, acute renal failure, endocrine disorder, and other immune-related adverse events. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old man with squamous cell lung carcinoma who developed myasthenia gravis (MG) after a third Nivo infusion.

Sociodemographic differences among HIV-positive and HIV-negative recently pregnant women in Mexico City: A case-control study.

National HIV preventive programs in Mexico focus on high-risk groups that do not consider women, apart from prenatal screening. Nonetheless, the epidemic in women is growing, and there is a need to better understand sociodemographic factors in women living with HIV (WLH). We performed a case-control study in Mexico City, including HIV+ and HIV- women with a recent pregnancy to compare their sociodemographic characteristics and describe the circumstances of diagnosis in HIV+ women, as well as prenatal screening frequency in both groups. Fifty cases and 102 controls were interviewed. HIV+ women were more frequently the only economic support of the family (20% vs 0%, P < .0001). Thirty-eight percent of cases had their first pregnancy at ≤18 years, versus 16% of controls (odds ratio 2.47, 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.72, P = .03); 16% of cases had lived in the street; 6% reported transactional sex, versus none of the controls (P < .0001). In the multivariate analysis, there was strong evidence of an association between HIV infection and age at the time of the interview, history of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, history of violence, and civil status. Only 6% of controls were tested for HIV during prenatal follow-up. WLH in this study faced important social vulnerability. Targeting women living in these social contexts might increase early diagnosis and could tailor HIV prevention strategies. Prenatal coverage needs to be improved and should represent a national priority.

The impact of systemic lupus erythematosus on women's sexual functioning: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

A number of studies have reported the relationship between women's sexual problems and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper was to explore the impact of SLE on women's sexual function.

Unmasking Ptosis in Both Eyes.

PD-1 Blockade in Mediastinal Gray-Zone Lymphoma.

Drug Combinations with Transplantation for Myeloma.

Drug Combinations with Transplantation for Myeloma.

Drug Combinations with Transplantation for Myeloma.

Type I diabetes mellitus in children less than 5 years: case study conducted at the university clinics of Lubumbashi and review of the literature.

Worldwide trends in type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are changing. It is increasingly affecting children of less than 5 years. The smaller the child, the greater the complexity of patient management. A delay in diagnosis or poor treatment can cause sudden death due to acute severe complications. It would be worth looking at this, raising public awareness, adapting our healthcare system to face this epidemic of noncommunicable diseases in Africa and establishing registers to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of type I diabetes mellitus in our environment. The aim of our study was to highlight the seriousness of type I diabetes mellitus occurrence at an early stage in children in our environment.

Utility of 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines in HIV-Infected Adults With Carotid Atherosclerosis.

Although HIV is associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, it is unknown whether guidelines can identify HIV-infected adults who may benefit from statins. We compared the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations in HIV-infected adults and evaluated associations with carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque.

Management of Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection.

No field in medicine has moved as swiftly as HIV/AIDS over the past 35 years. Because of the rapid turnover of key information, this In the Clinic focuses on essential principles of care for newly diagnosed adults with HIV-1 infection and how to prevent infection in persons at risk. To ensure continued usefulness, future directions in therapy and how to access updated information on a continuous basis are emphasized.