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Immune System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Persistence of Penicillin Allergy-Reply.

Persistence of Penicillin Allergy.

Effectiveness of a combination strategy for linkage and retention in adult HIV care in Swaziland: The Link4Health cluster randomized trial.

Gaps in the HIV care continuum contribute to poor health outcomes and increase HIV transmission. A combination of interventions targeting multiple steps in the continuum is needed to achieve the full beneficial impact of HIV treatment.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.

HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART.

Contemporary disengagement from antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: A cohort study.

Retention in care is an essential component of meeting the UNAIDS "90-90-90" HIV treatment targets. In Khayelitsha township (population ~500,000) in Cape Town, South Africa, more than 50,000 patients have received antiretroviral therapy (ART) since the inception of this public-sector program in 2001. Disengagement from care remains an important challenge. We sought to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with disengagement from care during 2013-2014 and outcomes for those who disengaged.

Reaching global HIV/AIDS goals: What got us here, won't get us there.

In a Perspective, Wafaa El-Sadr and colleagues discuss tailored approaches to treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries.

Hepatitis B virus infection in an HBsAb-positive lymphoma patient who received chemotherapy: A case report.

Tumor chemotherapy could weaken the immune system of patients, which might enhance the body sensitivities to the exogenous pathogens, among which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection should be concerned because of the higher chances of infection and the severe outcomes, especially in East Asia. The titer level of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) higher than 10 IU/L is considered to offer immunocompetent individuals adequate protection. However, whether this level is enough to the tumor patients during chemotherapy remains unclear.

The relationship between iron bone marrow stores and response to treatment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Iron is an intracellular element whose accumulation in the body is associated with tissue damage. This study examines the effect of iron on pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its "response to treatment." At the end of the first year of treatment, bone marrow iron store (BMIS) was evaluated in children with ALL and the relationship between iron store and minimal residual disease was investigated. Moreover, the 3-year disease-free survival (3-DFS) of patients was determined. Patients' BMIS were compared with that of subjects with normal bone marrow. The study examined 93 children, including 78 Pre-B and 15 T-cell ALL patients. BMIS did not differ between the children with ALL and those with no evidence of cancer. BMIS was increased in 26.6% of patients at the end of the first year of treatment. Drug resistance and BM relapses were more prevalent in cases with high BMIS in both Pre-B and T-cell groups. Bone marrow iron store is not considered a risk factor for childhood ALL. However, high levels of BMIS are associated with poor response to treatment and the risk of relapse. Bone marrow iron store control during treatment can therefore help achieve better outcomes and improve the chances of recovery.

Everolimus for pediatric patients with acute graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A pilot study.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to the poor prognosis for patients not responding to first-line steroids treatment, improvements in aGVHD therapy are needed. Everolimus is a promising candidate that combines immunosuppressive properties with anti-neoplastic effects. Here, we retrospectively reviewed the efficacy of everolimus with steroids as primary treatment in 13 patients with grade II to grade IV aGVHD after HSCT. Among them, 12 (92.3%) had complete response to everolimus with steroids without additional immunosuppressive agents. The median duration of therapy was 76 days (range 20-110). Asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia was the most common therapy complication (69.2%), but treatment interruption was not needed. Thrombotic microangiopathy was rare (7.7%), but can be quickly solved by stopping everolimus and cyclosporine treatment. Other toxicities were manageable. Two patients developed chronic GVHD (15.4%), limited in one and extensive in the other. The overall survival was 76.9% with a median follow-up of 3.4 years after HSCT (range 0.7-5.7). Accordingly, everolimus with steroids were feasible for patients with aGVHD after HSCT as primary treatment. Further large-scale studies are required.

ACE Inhibitors and Statins in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, rapid increases in albumin excretion during puberty precede the development of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, long-term risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of albumin excretion might benefit from angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statins, drugs that have not been fully evaluated in adolescents.

HIV Infection Manifesting as Proximal White Onychomycosis.

Predictors and long-term outcome in Greek adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a 17-year continuous follow-up study.

To describe the disease characteristics, continuous course and long-term outcome and to evaluate predictors of outcome in JIA in Greece.

A qualitative exploration of physical, mental and ocular fatigue in patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) affects exocrine glands such as those producing the tear film, leading to dry and painful eyes, but is also associated with fatigue. The experience of fatigue in pSS, and its relationship with sicca symptoms, is poorly understood.

Effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on complexity of breathing pattern in a guinea pig model of asthma.

Asthma represents an episodic and fluctuating behavior characterized with decreased complexity of respiratory dynamics. Several evidence indicate that asthma severity or control is associated with alteration in variability of lung function. The pathophysiological basis of alteration in complexity of breathing pattern in asthma has remained poorly understood. Regarding the point that Rho-kinase is involved in pathophysiology of asthma, in present study we investigated the effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on complexity of respiratory dynamics in a guinea pig model of asthma. Male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 12 series of inhalations with ovalbumin or saline. Animals were treated by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (1mM aerosols) prior to each allergen challenge. We recorded respiration of conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. Exposure to ovalbumin induced lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling including goblet cell hyperplasia, increase in the thickness of airways smooth muscles and subepithelial collagen deposition. Complexity analysis of respiratory dynamics revealed a dramatic decrease in irregularity of respiratory rhythm representing less complexity in asthmatic guinea pigs. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced the airway remodeling and hyperreponsiveness, but had no significant effect on lung inflammation and complexity of respiratory dynamics in asthmatic animals. It seems that airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling do not significantly affect the complexity of respiratory dynamics. Our results suggest that inflammation might be the probable cause of shift in the respiratory dynamics away from the normal fluctuation in asthma.

Skewed Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) Cells, Impaired iNKT:B Cell Help and Decreased SAP Expression in Blood Lymphocytes from Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a syndrome with predominantly defective B cell function. However, abnormalities in the number and function of other lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) have been described in most patients. We have analysed the distribution of iNKT cell subpopulations in the PB of CVID patients and the ability of these cells to provide in vitro cognate B cell help. The total of iNKT cells was reduced in the PB of CVID patients, especially CD4+, CD4-/CD8- and CCR5+/CXCR3+. These findings were associated with an enrichment of memory-like and a tendency towards a reduction in TNF-α-expressing effector iNKT cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of CVID patients. Moreover, an accumulation of follicular helper iNKT cells in the PB of CVID patients was demonstrated. CVID αGalCer-pulsed iNKT cells are not able to induce autologous B cell proliferation although they do induce proliferation to healthy donor B cells. Interestingly, autologous and heterologous co-cultures did not differ in the amount of immunoglobulin secreted by B cells in vitro. Finally, reduced intracellular SAP expression in iNKT cells and other lymphocytes in the blood from CVID patients was observed. These results provide further insights into the immunological mechanisms underlying the iNKT cell defects and the potential targets to improve B cell help in CVID.

Review of 2017 Diabetes Standards of Care.

Diabetes is a complex medical condition that requires evidence-based care. This article discusses the current diabetes screening, diagnostic criteria, and treatment recommendations for patients with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes.

Management of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents.

Diabetes is a common chronic illness in children and adolescents. This article will discuss the prevalence, diagnostic criteria, types, treatment, and transition of care into adulthood.

Insulin Therapy: The Old, the New and the Novel-An Overview.

Since its development, insulin therapy has been a mainstay in the arsenal of every practitioner battling against diabetes. For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, insulin is essential for survival, and for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the disease progresses, it may become a necessary addition to treatment. The goal of this article is to discuss insulin therapies that are currently available for use in the management of diabetes, from the old to the new and novel, and briefly discuss insulin use in special populations.

Management of Type 1 Diabetes.

Comprehensive type 1 diabetes management requires understanding of the pathophysiology of disease and the ability to contrast this process with type 2 diabetes. Nurses are often the first contact with patients and must be aware of the advancements in detection, therapies, and signs of complications in these patients. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for glycemic complications caused by potentially preventable errors in medication administration, which can be mitigated with appropriate education.

Association Between Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene (MIC) polymorphisms have been associated with many autoimmune diseases. To explore the correlation between MIC polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we compared the sequence of the MIC gene in Han Chinese patients with SLE from Hainan Island, China, with healthy individuals.

Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in Patients With Sjögren's Syndrome.

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but the risk of IHD in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated the prevalence and risk of IHD with SjS compared to controls from the general population using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample 2011 database.

Enhancers looping to target genes.

High-resolution maps of enhancer-promoter interactions in rare primary human T cell subsets and coronary artery smooth muscle cells link variants associated with autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases to target genes. This represents an important step forward for mapping genes involved in complex diseases.

Cardiac Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children: The CHAART-2 Study.

Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), cardiac mortality and morbidity were common in HIV-infected children.

Single-cell analysis identifies cellular markers of the HIV permissive cell.

Cellular permissiveness to HIV infection is highly heterogeneous across individuals. Heterogeneity is also found across CD4+ T cells from the same individual, where only a fraction of cells gets infected. To explore the basis of permissiveness, we performed single-cell RNA-seq analysis of non-infected CD4+ T cells from high and low permissive individuals. Transcriptional heterogeneity translated in a continuum of cell states, driven by T-cell receptor-mediated cell activation and was strongly linked to permissiveness. Proteins expressed at the cell surface and displaying the highest correlation with T cell activation were tested as biomarkers of cellular permissiveness to HIV. FACS sorting using antibodies against several biomarkers of permissiveness led to an increase of HIV cellular infection rates. Top candidate biomarkers included CD25, a canonical activation marker. The combination of CD25 high expression with other candidate biomarkers led to the identification of CD298, CD63 and CD317 as the best biomarkers for permissiveness. CD25highCD298highCD63highCD317high cell population showed an enrichment of HIV-infection of up to 28 fold as compared to the unsorted cell population. The purified hyper-permissive cell subpopulation was characterized by a downregulation of interferon-induced genes and several known restriction factors. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis coupled with functional characterization of cell biomarkers provides signatures of the "HIV-permissive cell".

Toxoplasma gondii serine-protease inhibitor-1: A new adjuvant candidate for asthma therapy.

Serine-proteases are important players in the pathogenesis of asthma, promoting inflammation and tissue remodeling. It's also known that many serine protease inhibitors display immunomodulatory properties. TgPI-1 is a Toxoplasma gondii protein that exhibits broad spectrum inhibitory activity against serine proteases. In view of the increased prevalence of atopic disorders and the need to develop new treatment strategies we sought to investigate the potential of TgPI-1 for treating respiratory allergies. For this purpose, we developed a therapeutic experimental model. BALB/c mice were rendered allergic by intraperitoneal ovalbumin-alum sensitization and airway-challenged. Once the asthmatic phenotype was achieved, mice were intranasally treated with rTgPI-1 alone or with a mixture of rTgPI-1 and ovalbumin (OVA). A week later mice were given a secondary aerosol challenge. Treatment with rTgPI-1 alone or co-administered with OVA diminished bronchoalveolar eosinophilia, mucus production and peribronchial lung infiltration. This effect was accompanied by a lung resistance reduction of 26.3% and 50.3% respectively. Both treatments resulted in the production of lower levels of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ and regulatory IL-10 by thoracic lymph node cells stimulated with OVA. Interestingly, significant decreases in OVA specific IgE and T cell proliferation, and increases in FoxP3+ T cells at local and systemic levels were only detected when the inhibitor was administered along with OVA. These results show that both rTgPI-1 treatments reduced asthma hallmarks. However, co-administration of the inhibitor with the allergen was more effective. Hence, rTgPI-1 emerges as a novel adjuvant candidate for asthma treatment.

Cytokine-induced killer cells: A novel treatment for allergic airway inflammation.

The effectiveness of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells for treatment of cancers has long been appreciated. Here, we report for the first time that CIK cells can be applied to treat allergic airway inflammation. Adopting from an established protocol with some modifications, we generated CIK cells ex vivo from mouse T cells, and examined their effectiveness in treatment of allergic airway inflammation using the ovalbumin-induced model of allergic airway inflammation. Based upon evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, T helper type2 cytokine levels and lung histology, all of which are important parameters for determining the severity of allergic airway inflammation, diseased mice treated with CIK cells showed significant reductions in all the parameters without any obvious adverse effects. Interestingly, the observed effects were comparable to those treated with dexamethasone. Thus, our study provides a novel application of CIK cells in treatment of allergic airway inflammation.

Dynamics and heterogeneity of brain damage in multiple sclerosis.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease driving inflammatory and degenerative processes that damage the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is not well understood how these events interact and evolve to evoke such a highly dynamic and heterogeneous disease. We established a hypothesis whereby the variability in the course of MS is driven by the very same pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the disease, the autoimmune attack on the CNS that leads to chronic inflammation, neuroaxonal degeneration and remyelination. We propose that each of these processes acts more or less severely and at different times in each of the clinical subgroups. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model that was constrained by experimental data (the expanded disability status scale [EDSS] time series) obtained from a retrospective longitudinal cohort of 66 MS patients with a long-term follow-up (up to 20 years). Moreover, we validated this model in a second prospective cohort of 120 MS patients with a three-year follow-up, for which EDSS data and brain volume time series were available. The clinical heterogeneity in the datasets was reduced by grouping the EDSS time series using an unsupervised clustering analysis. We found that by adjusting certain parameters, albeit within their biological range, the mathematical model reproduced the different disease courses, supporting the dynamic CNS damage hypothesis to explain MS heterogeneity. Our analysis suggests that the irreversible axon degeneration produced in the early stages of progressive MS is mainly due to the higher rate of myelinated axon degeneration, coupled to the lower capacity for remyelination. However, and in agreement with recent pathological studies, degeneration of chronically demyelinated axons is not a key feature that distinguishes this phenotype. Moreover, the model reveals that lower rates of axon degeneration and more rapid remyelination make relapsing MS more resilient than the progressive subtype. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis of a common pathogenesis for the different MS subtypes, even in the presence of genetic and environmental heterogeneity. Hence, MS can be considered as a single disease in which specific dynamics can provoke a variety of clinical outcomes in different patient groups. These results have important implications for the design of therapeutic interventions for MS at different stages of the disease.

Asthma is associated with atherosclerotic artery changes.

Asthma is a chronic airway inflammation with a potential systemic impact. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory artery disease. The aim of our study was to prove if there is a correlation between the occurrence of asthma and increased atherosclerotic vessel disorders. Vessel status was compared between mild-to-moderate, severe allergic asthma and matched controls. Measurements of artery stiffness were calculated by central pulse wave velocity, ultrasonographic strain imaging and ankle-brachial index. Atherosclerotic plaque burden was assessed by colour-coded duplex sonography. Additionally, analysis of cardiovascular and asthma blood markers was conducted. Arterial stiffness expressed as an increased central pulse wave velocity and decreased circumferential and radial strains as well as the prevalence of media sclerosis were significantly higher among asthma patients compared to controls. Atherosclerotic plaque burden was relevantly increased in asthma groups vs. controls (severe asthma: 43.1%, mild-to-moderate asthma: 25.0%, control: 14.3% of study participants). Except for the elevated IgE and fibrinogen concentrations as well as leukocyte number there were no relevant differences in the blood parameters between the groups. Allergic asthma is associated with distinct atherosclerotic artery changes compared to the respectively matched control collective. The severity of asthma correlates with more pronounced pathological vessel alternations.