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Independent Living - Top 30 Publications

Clinical and Community Strategies to Prevent Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Falls in older adults are the result of several risk factors across biological and behavioral aspects of the person, along with environmental factors. Falls can trigger a downward spiral in activities of daily living, independence, and overall health outcomes. Clinicians who care for older adults should screen them annually for falls. A multifactorial comprehensive clinical fall assessment coupled with tailored interventions can result in a dramatic public health impact, while improving older adult quality of life. For community-dwelling older adults, effective fall prevention has the potential to reduce serious fall-related injuries, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, institutionalization, and functional decline.

Perspectives on the risks for older adults living independently.

Insight into risks concerning older adults living independently from their own perspective and their care provider's perspective is essential to address issues that may threaten their independent living. The most often mentioned perceived risks by older adults and their care providers in different regions in the Netherlands were: loneliness, falls, budget cuts in Dutch long-term care and not being able to call for help. The different perspectives of the respondents show a wide variety in risks, but also some similarities. The perspective of the frail older adults is required to gain insight into the priority of their perceived risks. An additional finding was the reluctance shown by the older adults to ask others in their social network for help. Results imply that possible preventive measures should not only focus on the medical or physical domain because older adults are likely to have other priorities to maintain self-reliance and live independently.

Social Support, Social Strain, and Cognitive Function Among Community-Dwelling U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes.

Psychological well-being and independent living of young adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

To assess the psychological well-being and social integration of adults with craniopharyngioma diagnosed in childhood.

Attitudes to ageing among older Norwegian adults living in the community.

Attitudes toward ageing have powerful influences and impact older adults' own perception of health, quality of life and utilisation of health and social care services. This study describes attitudes to ageing among 490 Norwegian older adults living in the community who responded to The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire. Results showed that in spite of physical changes and psychological losses, the attitudes of older adults support life acceptance with gained wisdom in feeling that there were many pleasant things about growing older and that their identity was not defined by their age. They demonstrated the ability to incorporate age-related changes within their identities and at the same time maintain a positive view of self. Although they acknowledged that old age represented a time of loss with decreasing physical independence, they meant that their lives had made a difference, they wanted to give a good example to younger persons and felt it was a privilege to grow old.

Prospective Study on the Impact of Fear of Falling on Functional Decline among Community Dwelling Elderly Women.

Fear of falling (FOF) is expected to have effects on functional decline in the elderly. In this study, we examined over 2 years the effect of change in FOF on functional decline in community dwelling elderly. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from elderly women, 70 years of age and older, who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). Participants were divided into four categories according to change in FOF between the 2010 and 2012 surveys. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding the effects of changes in FOF on functional decline after controlling for variables as known risk factors for functional decline. Rates of functional decline were highest in the "consistently having FOF" group, whereas they were lowest in the "consistently no FOF" group in both 2010 and 2012. Characteristics independently associated with functional decline were change in FOF, depressive symptoms, low frequency of meeting friends, and fear-induced activity avoidance. Longer exposure to FOF was associated with an increased risk of functional decline. FOF is an important health problem that deserves attention in its own right. Public health approaches for elderly persons should address early detection, prevention, and intervention programs for FOF.

Home care packages: insights into the experiences of older people leading up to the introduction of consumer directed care in Australia.

This paper reports phase one, conducted from March to June 2015, of a two-phase, qualitative descriptive study designed to explore the perceptions and experiences of older people before and after the introduction of consumer directed care (CDC) to home care packages (HCP) in Australia. Eligible consumers with a local HCP provider were mailed information about the study. Data collection occurred before the introduction of CDC and included face-to-face, in-depth interviews, summaries of interviews, field notes and reflective journaling. Semi-structured questions and 'emotional touchpoints' relating to home care were used to guide the interview conversation. Line-by-line data analysis, where significant statements were highlighted and clustered to reveal emergent themes, was used. Five older people, aged 81 to 91 years, participated in the study. The four emergent themes were: seeking quality and reciprocity in carer relationships; patchworking services; the waiting game; and technology with utility. Continuity of carers was central to the development of a trusting relationship and perceptions of care quality among older consumers. Care coordinators and workers should play a key role in ensuring older people receive timely information about CDC and their rights and responsibilities. Participants' use of contemporary technologies suggests opportunities to improve engagement of HCP clients in CDC.

Symptoms of Apathy Independently Predict Incident Frailty and Disability in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Although depressive symptoms are widely recognized as a predictor of functional decline among older adults, little is known about the predictive utility of apathy in this population. We prospectively examined apathy symptoms as predictors of incident slow gait, frailty, and disability among non-demented, community-dwelling older adults.

Dancing in time: feasibility and acceptability of a contemporary dance programme to modify risk factors for falling in community dwelling older adults.

Falls are a common cause of injury in older adults, with the prevention of falls being a priority for public health departments around the world. This study investigated the feasibility, and impact of an 8 week contemporary dance programme on modifiable physical (physical activity status, mobility, sedentary behaviour patterns) and psychosocial (depressive state, fear of falling) risk factors for falls.

Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living.

Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan.

The impact of seizures on epilepsy outcomes: A national, community-based survey.

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of seizures on persons living with epilepsy in a national, community-based setting.

Protein Intake and Mobility Limitation in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: the Health ABC Study.

The current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is based on short-term nitrogen balance studies in young adults and may underestimate the amount needed to optimally preserve physical function in older adults. We examined the association between protein intake and the onset of mobility limitation over 6 years of follow-up in older adults in the Health ABC study.

Predicting Mortality and Independence at Discharge in the Aging Traumatic Brain Injury Population Using Data Available at Admission.

Aging worsens outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but available studies may not provide accurate outcomes predictions due to confounding associated injuries. Our goal was to develop a predictive tool using variables available at admission to predict outcomes related to severity of brain injury in aging patients.

The OCarePlatform: A context-aware system to support independent living.

Currently, healthcare services, such as institutional care facilities, are burdened with an increasing number of elderly people and individuals with chronic illnesses and a decreasing number of competent caregivers.

Physical and psychological characteristics of the community-dwelling elderly with heart disease.

Objectives Although the survival rates of patients with heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction and heart failure, have increased, the incidence of heart disease in elderly individuals has also increased. We compared characteristics of the community-dwelling elderly with heart diseases (heart disease group) and without heart diseases (non-heart disease group).Methods A total of 758 elderly individuals participated in our survey ("Otassha-kensin") in 2014. The heart disease group (47 men, 28 women) and the non-heart disease group (263 men, 420 women) were selected from among these participants. Data on comorbidities, medications, the Kihon check list (KCL), and social background (lifestyle, exercise habits, certification for using long-term care insurance, and Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence [JST-IC]) were obtained through interview. Body composition, grip strength, 5 walking time (usual pace, maximum speed), timed-up and go test (TUG), single-leg standing time, cognitive function, and depression were evaluated to assess physical and psychological function. Frailty was defined by the KCL. For between-groups comparisons, the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used. To determine factors related to heart disease with functional decline, we used a multiple logistic regression analysis with the group (the non-heart disease group [0] and the heart disease group [1]) as the dependent variable and the decline in physical and psychological function as the independent variable.Results Men in the heart disease group had less grip strength, worse balance, and lower JST-IC scores than did men in the non-heart disease group. Women in the heart disease group had greater 5 walking times (usual pace, maximum speed) than those in the non-heart disease group. Both men and women in the heart disease group overall used more drugs and statins, and medications for heart disease than did participants in the non-heart disease group. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, 5 walking time (maximum speed) was shown to be associated with heart disease.Conclusions The community-dwelling elderly with heart disease showed declined physical functions. Our results suggested that these functional declines may be induced via medication and/or declines in daily activity.

Predicting Mortality up to 14 Years Among Community-Dwelling Adults Aged 65 and Older.

Extended validation of an index predicting mortality among community-dwelling US older adults.

New or Worsening Symptoms and Signs in Community-Dwelling Persons with Dementia: Incidence and Relation to Use of Acute Medical Services.

To understand the range of symptoms that present to family caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD).

The psychometric properties of the Chinese version-reintegration to normal living index (C-RNLI) for identifying participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people.

The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people.

The severity and associated factors of participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people: an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF).

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) describes participation restriction as one aspect of disability. Participation restriction refers to health problems that can hinder people's involvement in different life events. It is rational to believe that the prevalence of participation restriction increases among a frail population. However, information about the level of participation restriction among older people, particularly the pre-frail or frail, remains scant. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and underlying risk factors associated with participation restriction among community-dwelling frail and pre-frail older people.

Managing multiple chronic conditions in the community: a Canadian qualitative study of the experiences of older adults, family caregivers and healthcare providers.

The prevalence of multiple chronic conditions (MCC) among older persons is increasing worldwide and is associated with poor health status and high rates of healthcare utilization and costs. Current health and social services are not addressing the complex needs of this group or their family caregivers. A better understanding of the experience of MCC from multiple perspectives is needed to improve the approach to care for this vulnerable group. However, the experience of MCC has not been explored with a broad sample of community-living older adults, family caregivers and healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of managing MCC in the community from the perspectives of older adults with MCC, family caregivers and healthcare providers working in a variety of settings.

A structural equation model of the relation between socioeconomic status, physical activity level, independence and health status in older Iranian people.

Health status is an independent predictor of mortality, morbidity and functioning in older people. The present study was designed to evaluate the link between socioeconomic status (SES), physical activity (PA), independence (I) and the health status (HS) of older people in Iran, using structural equation modelling.

Minimal Important Change and Minimal Detectable Change in Activities of Daily Living in Community-Living Older People.

To estimate the minimal important change (MIC) and the minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Katz-activities of daily living (ADL) index score and the Lawton instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale.

Design of the Mobility and Independent Living in Elders Study: An older adult cohort in rural India.

The Mobility and Independent Living in Elders Study (MILES) was established in 2012 to estimate the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for disability and age-related disease in rural older Indians. Here we describe the main goals of MILES, the essential elements of its design and examinations, and the initial findings from the baseline visit.

Health-related quality of life and associated factors in functionally independent older people.

Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a key indicator of elderly people's health status that can be affected by different factors. However, little is known about which variables are associated with it in functionally independent elderly people. The aim of this project was to study HRQL and a wide variety of health, lifestyle, social and contextual aspects and their relation to HRQL in a sample of functionally independent, non-cognitively impaired community-dwelling adults, over 65 years of age, from a northern region of Spain.

Impact of home care versus alternative locations of care on elder health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

Many elders struggle with the decision to remain at home or to move to an alternative location of care. A person's location of care can influence health and wellbeing. Healthcare organizations and policy makers are increasingly challenged to better support elders' dwelling and health care needs. A summary of the evidence that examines home care compared to other care locations can inform decision making. We surveyed and summarized the evidence evaluating the impact of home care versus alternative locations of care on elder health outcomes.

Using a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Protocol With Community Dwelling Older African Americans.

Little is known about the feasibility of smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) approaches to collect psychosocial data from older populations, especially disadvantaged older populations. In response to this gap, this report provides evidence of the feasibility and utility of a smartphone-based EMA approach for real-time assessment with older African Americans. In addition, we share lessons learned about how to improve utility.

Estimation of prevalence of sarcopenia by using a new bioelectrical impedance analysis in Chinese community-dwelling elderly people.

The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition.

Health-related quality of life in Brazilian community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly: Comparison between genders.

To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL) indicators between institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly men and women.

Formal and Informal Care of Community-Living Older People: A Population-Based Study from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care.

Study formal and informal care of community-living older people in the Swedish National study of Aging and Care (SNAC).

Physical Activity in Community Dwelling Older People: A Systematic Review of Reviews of Interventions and Context.

The promotion and maintenance of higher physical activity (PA) levels in the older population is an imperative for cognitive and healthy ageing but it is unclear what approaches are best suited to achieve this for the increasing number of older people living in the community. Effective policies should be informed by robust, multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional evidence, which not only seeks what works, but in 'what context? In addition to evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of PA for maintaining cognitive health, social contexts such as 'how do we actually get older people to partake in PA?' and 'how do we sustain that activity long-term?' also need highlighting. This review is part of a comprehensive evidence synthesis of preventive interventions in older age, with a focus on healthy behaviours to identify evidence gaps and inform policy relating to ageing well and cognitive health. An overview of systematic reviews of PA was conducted to explore three topics: (1) PA efficacy or effectiveness for primary prevention of cognitive decline in 55+; (2) Interventions efficacious or effective for increasing PA uptake and maintenance in 55+; (3) barriers and facilitators to PA in 55+.