PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Male Urogenital Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Screening for Syphilis and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnant Women - Guam, 2014.

Prenatal screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can prevent adverse perinatal outcomes. In Guam, the largest of the three U.S. territories in the Pacific, primary and secondary syphilis rates among women increased 473%, from 1.1 to 6.3 per 100,000 during 2009-2013 (1). In 2013, the first congenital syphilis case after no cases since 2008 was reported (1,2). Little is known about STI screening coverage and factors associated with inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam. This study evaluated the prevalence of screening for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and examined correlates of inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam. Data came from the medical records of a randomly selected sample of mothers with live births in 2014 at a large public hospital. Bivariate analyses and multivariable models using Poisson regression were conducted to determine factors associated with inadequate screening for syphilis and other STIs. Although most (93.5%) women received syphilis screening during pregnancy, 26.8% were not screened sufficiently early to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Many women were not screened for HIV infection (31.1%), chlamydia (25.3%), or gonorrhea (25.7%). Prenatal care and insurance were important factors affecting STI screening during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers play an important role in preventing congenital infections. Policies and programs increasing STI and HIV services for pregnant women and improved access to and use of prenatal care are essential for promoting healthy mothers and infants.

Prostate Cancer Screening.

Prostate Cancer Screening.

Pediatric Urinary System Neoplasms: An Overview and Update.

Pediatric urinary system neoplasms are a diverse group of tumors that frequently overlap in their clinical and radiologic features. By contrast, the histopathologic classification and treatment of these entities have become increasingly refined, resulting in improved outcomes, with the overall survival of Wilms tumors now exceeding 90%. Significantly, many contemporary protocols rely on radiologic diagnosis in the absence of tissue confirmation. This review article provides up-to-date clinical, epidemiologic, and imaging findings of pediatric urinary system neoplasms and their mimics frequently encountered in daily clinical practice.

Serum uric acid levels and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of evidence from observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and Mendelian randomisation studies.

Objective To map the diverse health outcomes associated with serum uric acid (SUA) levels.Design Umbrella review.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of citations and references.Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between SUA level and health outcomes, meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials that investigated health outcomes related to SUA lowering treatment, and Mendelian randomisation studies that explored the causal associations of SUA level with health outcomes.Results 57 articles reporting 15 systematic reviews and144 meta-analyses of observational studies (76 unique outcomes), 8 articles reporting 31 meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (20 unique outcomes), and 36 articles reporting 107 Mendelian randomisation studies (56 unique outcomes) met the eligibility criteria. Across all three study types, 136 unique health outcomes were reported. 16 unique outcomes in meta-analyses of observational studies had P<10(-6), 8 unique outcomes in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials had P<0.001, and 4 unique outcomes in Mendelian randomisation studies had P<0.01. Large between study heterogeneity was common (80% and 45% in meta-analyses of observational studies and of randomised controlled trials, respectively). 42 (55%) meta-analyses of observational studies and 7 (35%) meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials showed evidence of small study effects or excess significance bias. No associations from meta-analyses of observational studies were classified as convincing; five associations were classified as highly suggestive (increased risk of heart failure, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose or diabetes, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease mortality with high SUA levels). Only one outcome from randomised controlled trials (decreased risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence with SUA lowering treatment) had P<0.001, a 95% prediction interval excluding the null, and no large heterogeneity or bias. Only one outcome from Mendelian randomisation studies (increased risk of gout with high SUA levels) presented convincing evidence. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease showed concordant evidence in meta-analyses of observational studies, and in some (but not all) meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials with respective intermediate or surrogate outcomes, but they were not statistically significant in Mendelian randomisation studies.Conclusion Despite a few hundred systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and Mendelian randomisation studies exploring 136 unique health outcomes, convincing evidence of a clear role of SUA level only exists for gout and nephrolithiasis.

Pembrolizumab for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

Pembrolizumab for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

Pembrolizumab for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Women.

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Women.

Contribution of systemic and somatic factors to clinical response and resistance to PD-L1 blockade in urothelial cancer: An exploratory multi-omic analysis.

Inhibition of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with atezolizumab can induce durable clinical benefit (DCB) in patients with metastatic urothelial cancers, including complete remissions in patients with chemotherapy refractory disease. Although mutation load and PD-L1 immune cell (IC) staining have been associated with response, they lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the peripheral blood immune environment and to conduct detailed analyses of mutation load, predicted neoantigens, and immune cellular infiltration in tumors to enhance our understanding of the biologic underpinnings of response and resistance.

Predictors of delay to cystoscopy and adequacy of investigations in patients with haematuria.

To identify factors that impact on the timeliness and adequacy of haematuria evaluation.

Mini PCNL for renal calculi: does size matter?

To evaluate the minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MIP) system for renal calculi.

Factors affecting the timeliness and adequacy of haematuria assessment in bladder cancer: a systematic review.

To review the literature to identify factors affecting haematuria assessment in bladder cancer.

Prognostic significance of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation in upper urinary tract after radical nephroureterectomy without metastatic diseases: A retrospective cohort study.

To evaluate the impact of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation (UCDD) on the prognosis of patients for primary upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) with pN0/x status treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and to evaluate the prognostic value of UCDD in different tumor locations (renal pelvis and ureter).Data from a total of 346 patients with UTUC who received RNU between January 2012 and March 2016 in the institution were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological features and prognostic factors age, sex, complaint, height, weight, blood pressure, tumor grade, stage, smoking status, history of adjuvant chemotherapy, tumor location, history of bladder cancer, tumor necrosis, degree of hydronephrosis, tumor size, tumor focality, and preoperative anemia were compared between patients with pure UTUC and patients with UCDD. The endpoints were cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and intraluminal recurrence-free survival (IRFS).Overall, divergent differentiation was present in 50 patients (14.5%). UCDD was related to different tumor location (P = .01), smoking (P = .04), higher body mass index (P = .02), and advanced tumor grade (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, UCDD was found to be significantly correlated with worse IRFS, CSS, and OS (all P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that UCDD was an independent predictor of IRFS (P < .01), CSS (P = .01), and OS (P = .01). However, 40 patients died for various reasons and the 5-year OS rates were 91.9% in UCDD- group and 68.0% in UCDD+ group, respectively. In patients with ureteral tumors, UCDD was the significant predictor for IRFS, CSS, and OS. However, the prognostic value of UCDD was not observed in pyelocaliceal tumors.The presence of divergent differentiation is associated with inferior survival. UCDD may identify patients at high risks for poor prognosis especially in patients with ureteral tumors. As a result, more attention and follow-up should be given to patients with ureteric urothelial carcinoma.

Case 16-2017 - A 69-Year-Old Woman with Urinary Incontinence.

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children in Dakar: about 40 cases.

This study aimed to analyze the diagnostic, therapeutic, and evolutionary features of nephrosis in children in a pediatric department in Dakar.

Antibiogram profile of uropathogens isolated at Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing since the introduction of chemotherapy. This study was aimed to assess the types of isolates from patients with UTI and to determine their current antimicrobial susceptibility profile.

Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant's Wife.

Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil's work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merchant's wife who lived in the 1400s. It relies heavily on the documents left by her and her husband, Francesco Datini; the couple left many records, including letters of correspondence between them. Margherita and those around her regarded infertility not as the devil's curse or a punishment by God but as a disease that can be cured. Margherita and her husband, Francesco, tried hard to cure their infertility. They received treatment and prescriptions from several doctors while also relying on folk remedies, religious therapies, and even magical remedies. The comparative analysis of Datini documents, medical books, and theoretical treatises or prescriptive essays by clerics suggests that the general perception of infertility in medieval Europe was located between the extremely religious and modern medical conceptions of it.

Role of Cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate in diagnosis of kidney impairment in hepatic cirrhosis patients.

Hepatic cirrhosis is often accompanied by functional kidney impairment, which may be reversed if early treatment is promptly administered. This study aimed to investigate the role of Cystatin C and Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate in the diagnosis of kidney impairment in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.Four hundred sixty five patients with hepatic cirrhosis were recruited. Serum creatinine and Cystatin C were determined, and their estimated glomerular filtration rates were calculated.The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (area under curve [AUC]) of Cystatin C and Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly larger than that of serum creatinine and serum creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rate, respectively (P = .000). When the optimal cut-off value and upper reference limit were used, similar sensitivity, misdiagnosis rate, and diagnostic consistency were only observed in Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate (P > .05).Cystatin C and Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate are superior to serum creatinine and serum creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rate in diagnosis of secondary kidney impairment, and Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate has a better performance as compared with Cystatin C. However, it is not a measured parameter, and thus the lab should determine its own optimal cut-off value.

Explaining trends and variation in timing of dialysis initiation in the United States.

The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) registry of end-stage renal disease has often been used to study the timing of dialysis initiation, measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation. We conducted an observational study and examined how well variables in the USRDS database explain the trends and variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation.We identified 971,481 patients who initiated dialysis between 1995 and 2012 in the USRDS registry.The mean eGFR at dialysis initiation monotonically rose from 7.7 in 1995 to 11.1 in 2009, and then leveled off to 10.9 mL/min/1.73 m in 2012. The trend of rising, then leveling off was similar across all subgroups studied. Substantial variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation was observed, with standard deviation of 4.38 (95% CI: 2.0-18.4). A total of 11.4% of the total variation occurred across physicians and 88.6% within physicians. Adjustment for measured factors only modestly decreased the total variation. Of the total variance, 10.7% was explained by measured patient-level variables and 1.2% by measured physician and other factors, while 9.2% of physician-level variation and 78.9% of patient-level variation remained unexplained. The extent of variation explained by measured variables was similar over the entire study period.The finding that the majority of variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation is unexplained by measured variables casts doubt on how well eGFR serves as a measure for "timing" of dialysis initiation, and it indicates the need to collect more focused data to gain understanding of factors that affect timing of dialysis initiation in the US.

Concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A case report.

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic disease. The typical pathological finding in the kidney is abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration with characteristic storiform fibrosis in the interstitium. Antibodies of the IgG4 subclass have been linked to certain autoimmune diseases including antiproteinase 3 (PR3) anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) of the IgG4 subclass. Here, we report a rare case of kidney injury with concurrent typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 subclass of myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis.

S100A11 regulates renal carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion, and migration via the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway and E-cadherin.

S100A11 is a S100 protein family member that contributes to cancer progression. Upregulated in human renal cancer tissues, S100A11 may be a prognostic marker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma, but how it functions in cancer is uncertain. Thus, we studied S100A11 and noted knockdown of S100A11 using short hairpin RNA, which inhibited proliferation, invasion, and migration of renal carcinoma cells as well as increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt in renal carcinoma cells. Therefore, S100A11 may be a key molecular target for treating renal carcinoma.

Risk Factors and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF); however, few studies concerning the risk factors and recovery patterns of renal function have been published.

Characterization of a splice-site mutation in the tumor suppressor gene FLCN associated with renal cancer.

Renal cell carcinoma is among the most prevalent malignancies. It is generally sporadic. However, genetic studies of rare familial forms have led to the identification of mutations in causative genes such as VHL and FLCN. Mutations in the FLCN gene are the cause of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a rare tumor syndrome which is characterized by the combination of renal cell carcinoma, pneumothorax and skin tumors.

Functional male accessory glands and fertility in Drosophila require novel ecdysone receptor.

In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins), which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the roles of hormone-dependent transcription factors (Nuclear Receptors), in accessory gland development, function and male fertility of a genetically tractable insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. First, we carried out an RNAi screen involving 19 hormone receptors, individually and specifically, in a male reproductive tissue (accessory gland) for their requirement in Drosophila male fertility. Subsequently, by using independent RNAi/ dominant negative forms, we show that Ecdysone Receptor (EcR) is essential for male fertility due to its requirement in the normal development of accessory glands in Drosophila: EcR depleted glands fail to make seminal proteins and have dying cells. Further, our data point to a novel ecdysone receptor that does not include Ultraspiracle but is probably comprised of EcR isoforms in Drosophila male accessory glands. Our data suggest that this novel ecdysone receptor might act downstream of homeodomain transcription factor paired (prd) in the male accessory gland. Overall, the study suggests novel ecdysone receptor as an important player in the hormonal regulation of seminal protein production and insect male fertility.

Survival among chronic hemodialysed patient in Cameroon.

Haemodialysis is the only renal replacement therapy available in Cameroon; 95% of patients has received subsidies by the State since 2002 and the number of dialysis centers is growing. However, since the opening of the first center in 1990, there are no data on survival in chronic dialysis patients.

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder: about 5 cases.

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder is a rare histological entity, characterized by the ability to metastasize quickly and associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical, histological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. We conducted a retrospective study collecting data from the medical records of 5 patients in the Department of Urology, at the Ibn Sina University Hospital during the period between January 2008 and June 2015. The average age was 63 years. Four males and one female were involved in the sudy. The neuroendocrine carcinoma was pure in four cases and impure or associated with urothelial component in one case. In two patients metastases were present at initial diagnosis. In one case, cystectomy was performed followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy; chemoradiotherapy was performed in two cases and palliative chemotherapy in the other two cases. The median survival was 10 months. Only one patient was alive, with a follow-up period of 20 months. The management of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder is not standardized, several therapeutic options have been proposed: surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Long term risk of severe retinopathy in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a data linkage study.

To determine the relationship between glycaemic control trajectory and the long term risk of severe complications in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, as well as the effects of paediatric and adult HbA1c levels.

Relationship between SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism and the susceptibility of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis based on 20 publications.

The pathogenetic mechanism of prostate cancer (PCa) has not been understood completely, and gene polymorphisms have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the course. It has been reported that rs9282858 polymorphism of steroid 5-α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) may affect the susceptibility of PCa, but some researches showed different results. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis to clarify this relationship.Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases concerning the association between SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism and PCa. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Additionally, stratified analyses were performed based on ethnicity and source of control. Besides, heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias evaluation were conducted in current meta-analysis as well.Ultimately, 20 publications incorporating 30 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving a total of 7300 cases and 7952 controls. The overall results demonstrated that SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism was remarkably associated with increased susceptibility of PCa (TT vs. AA: OR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.94-8.58; TT + AT vs. AA: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.11-1.47; TT vs. AA + AT: OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 2.12-9.27; allele T vs. allele A: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.17-1.54). After subgroup analyses by ethnicity and source of control, we also observed a similar trend in Latinos, other-ethnicity, population-based, and hospital-based groups under corresponding genetic models.Our findings indicate that SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism may be a susceptible factor to PCa.