A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Male Urogenital Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Long term risk of severe retinopathy in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a data linkage study.

To determine the relationship between glycaemic control trajectory and the long term risk of severe complications in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, as well as the effects of paediatric and adult HbA1c levels.

Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Cancer.

Group B streptococcal bacteriuria during pregnancy as a risk factor for maternal intrapartum colonization: a prospective cohort study.

Current evidence is inconclusive regarding the intrapartum administration of chemoprophylaxis, merely based on the presence of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria of any colony count, in the prevention of early-onset neonatal GBS infection. The aim of this study was to assess whether GBS bacteriuria is a risk factor for intrapartum colonization (IPC) regardless of urinary concentration or the results of late third-trimester rectovaginal screening cultures (RVSCs).

Accuracy of ethnicity data recorded in hospital-based patient clinical records and the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry.

Sustained health inequities are experienced by indigenous and minority populations. Accurate ethnicity data are fundamental to healthcare planning and provision and monitoring of health outcomes to address such inequities. This study investigated the accuracy of ethnicity data in a large clinical registry of end-stage kidney disease patients (the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry; ANZDATA) and hospital-based patient clinical records compared with self-reported ethnicity data collected in the 'Dialysis Outcomes in those aged ≥65 years' (DOS65+) study.

Sex differences in micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.

Vascular complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both men and women with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus, however the prevalence, progression and pathophysiology of both microvascular (nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) and macrovascular [coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stroke] disease are different in the two sexes. In general, men appear to be at a higher risk for diabetic microvascular complications, while the consequences of macrovascular complications may be greater in women. Interestingly, in the absence of diabetes, women have a far lower risk of either micro- or macro-vascular disease compared with men for much of their lifespan. Thus, the presence of diabetes confers greater risk for vascular complications in women compared with men and some of the potential reasons, including contribution of sex hormones and sex-specific risk factors are discussed in this review. There is a growing body of evidence that sex hormones play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. While estrogens are generally considered to be cardioprotective and androgens detrimental to cardiovascular health, recent findings challenge these assumptions and demonstrate diversity and complexity of sex hormone action on target tissues, especially in the setting of diabetes. While some progress has been made toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of sex differences in the pathophysiology of diabetic vascular complications, many questions and controversies remain. Future research leading to understanding of these mechanisms may contribute to personalized- and sex-specific treatment for diabetic micro- and macro-vascular disease.

SerpinC1/Antithrombin III in kidney-related diseases.

The gene SerpinC1 encodes a serine protease inhibitor named antithrombin III (ATIII). This protease demonstrates both anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory action. ATIII is the most important coagulation factor inhibitor, and even minor changes in ATIII can significantly alter the risk of thromboembolism. ATIII can also suppress inflammation via a coagulation-dependent or -independent effect. Moreover, apart from ATIII deficiency, ATIII and its gene SerpinC1 may also be related to many diseases (e.g. hypertension, kidney diseases). The present review summarizes how ATIII affects the progress of kidney disease and its mechanism. Further studies are required to investigate how ATIII affects renal function and the treatment.

Bladder Fill after Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair Reduces Time to Discharge.

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy (LIH) has a relatively high risk of urinary retention. Bladder dysfunction may delay discharge after LIH. We hypothesized that filling the bladder before Foley catheter removal decreases time to discharge (TTD) after LIH. A secondary aim was to determine incidence of postoperative urinary retention (POUR) after bladder fill (BF). We reviewed a consecutive series of total extraperitoneal and transabdominal preperitoneal LIH procedures performed by a single surgeon at our institution from 2010 to 2013. All patients were catheterized during LIH, and selected patients received a 200-mL saline BF before Foley catheter removal. Patients were required to void >250 mL before discharge. TTD and incidence of POUR were compared between the BF and no-BF groups. A total of 161 LIH cases were reviewed. BF was performed in 89/161 (55%) of cases. TTD was significantly shorter in the BF versus the no-BF group (222 vs 286 minutes, respectively; P < 0.01). Patient and operative characteristics were similar between the BF and no-BF groups (P > 0.05). Incidence of POUR in the BF and the no-BF group was 10.1 and 16.7 per cent, respectively; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.22). No postoperative urinary tract infection occurred in either group. In conclusions, postoperative BF significantly reduces TTD after LIH. Further studies may help to determine whether shorter postanesthesia care unit time and lower POUR rates associated with BF can lower LIH procedural costs and increase patient satisfaction.

Case 12-2017 - A 34-Year-Old Man with Nephropathy.

Sleep duration and quality in relation to chronic kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy men and women.

It is unclear whether sleep duration and quality are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. The aim of this study was to examine the association of sleep duration and quality with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration in young and middle-aged adults.

Metabolic syndrome, serum uric acid and renal risk in patients with T2D.

Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and increased serum uric acid (SUA), are well known renal risk predictors and often coexist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether they independently contribute to the onset of CKD is at present unclear.

Mortality is associated with inflammation, anemia, specific diseases and treatments, and molecular markers.

Lifespan is a complex trait, and longitudinal data for humans are naturally scarce. We report the results of Cox regression and Pearson correlation analyses using data of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), with mortality data of 1518 participants (113 of which died), over a time span of more than 10 years. We found that in the Cox regression model based on the Bayesian information criterion, apart from chronological age of the participant, six baseline variables were considerably associated with higher mortality rates: smoking, mean attachment loss (i.e. loss of tooth supporting tissue), fibrinogen concentration, albumin/creatinine ratio, treated gastritis, and medication during the last 7 days. Except for smoking, the causative contribution of these variables to mortality was deemed inconclusive. In turn, four variables were found to be associated with decreased mortality rates: treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, treatment of dyslipidemia, IGF-1 and being female. Here, being female was an undisputed causative variable, the causal role of IFG-1 was deemed inconclusive, and the treatment effects were deemed protective to the degree that treated subjects feature better survival than respective controls. Using Cox modeling based on the Akaike information criterion, diabetes, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and serum calcium were also associated with mortality. The latter two, together with albumin and fibrinogen, aligned with an"integrated albunemia" model of aging proposed recently.

The role of renoscintigraphy and surgery in the management of Page kidney: A case report.

Page kidney is an uncommon condition that hypertension occurs secondary to microvascular ischemia and alternation of small-vessel hemodynamics due to external compression of renal parenchyma and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. There are no specific guidelines for the management of Page kidney in the literatures.

Microwave ablation of malignant renal tumours: intermediate-term results and usefulness of RENAL and mRENAL scores for predicting outcomes and complications.

The aim of this study was to evaluate intermediate-term results after microwave ablation (MWA) of renal tumours and determine the association of RENAL and modified RENAL (mRENAL) scores with oncological outcomes and complications. In May 2008-September 2014, 58 patients affected by early-stage RCC (renal cell carcinoma; T1a or T1b) were judged unsuitable for surgery and treated with percutaneous MWA. Follow-up was performed with contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure. Technical success (TS), primary technical effectiveness (PTE), secondary technical effectiveness (STE), the local tumour progression rate (LTPR), the cancer-specific survival rate (CSSR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and safety were recorded. All lesions were evaluated using RENAL and mRENAL scores, and complications were assessed with RENAL scores. The TS rate was 100%, PTE was 93%, STE was 100%, LTPR was 15.7% at 1 year, CSSR was 96.5%, DFS was 87.9% at 5 years, and OS was 80.6%. Mean follow-up was 25.7 months (range 3-72). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) RENAL and mRENAL scores of all treated tumours were 6.7 ± 2.05 (range 4-11) and 7 ± 2.3 (range 4-12), respectively. Major complications occurred in two (2/58) and minor complications in three patients (3/58). Overall complications correlated significantly with RENAL scores; in particular, E and L represent negative predictors for safety and effectiveness. MWA is a valuable alternative for treating RCCs. The correlation with outcomes and complications of RENAL and mRENAL scores could help to customise MWA indications in RCC patients.

Insufficient activation of Akt upon reperfusion because of its novel modification by reduced PP2A-B55α contributes to enlargement of infarct size by chronic kidney disease.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases myocardial infarct size by an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the hypothesis that impairment of protective PI3K-PDK1-Akt and/or mTORC-Akt signaling upon reperfusion contributes to CKD-induced enlargement of infarct size. CKD was induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNx group) 4 weeks before myocardial infarction experiments, and sham-operated rats served as controls (Sham group). Infarct size as a percentage of area at risk after ischemia/reperfusion was significantly larger in the SNx group than in the Sham group (56.3 ± 4.6 vs. 41.4 ± 2.0%). In SNx group, myocardial p-Akt-Thr308 level at baseline was elevated, and reperfusion-induced phosphorylation of p-Akt-Ser473, p-p70s6K and p-GSK-3β was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation upon reperfusion by Ku-0063794 significantly increased infarct size in the Sham group but not in the SNx group. There was no difference between the two groups in activities of mTORC2 and PDK1 and protein level of PTEN. However, the PP2A regulatory subunit B55α, which specifically targets Akt-Thr308, was reduced by 24% in the SNx group. Knockdown of B55α by siRNA increased baseline p-Akt-Thr308 and blunted Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in H9c2 cells. A blunted response of Akt-Ser473 to IGF-1 was also observed in HEK293 cells transfected with a p-Thr308-mimetic Akt mutant (T308D). These results indicate that increased Akt-Thr308 phosphorylation by down-regulation of B55α inhibits Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation upon reperfusion in CKD and that the impaired Akt activation by insufficient Ser473 phosphorylation upon reperfusion contributes to infarct size enlargement by CKD.

Molecular Abnormalities Underlying Bone Fragility in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Prevention of bone fractures is one goal of therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), as indicated by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. CKD patients, including those on hemodialysis, are at higher risk for fractures and fracture-related death compared to people with normal kidney function. However, few clinicians focus on this issue as it is very difficult to estimate bone fragility. Additionally, uremia-related bone fragility has a more complicated pathological process compared to osteoporosis. There are many uremia-associated factors that contribute to bone fragility, including severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone, and bone mineralization disorders. Uremia also aggravates bone volume loss, disarranges microarchitecture, and increases the deterioration of material properties of bone through abnormal bone cells or excess oxidative stress. In this review, we outline the prevalence of fractures, the interaction of CKD-MBD with osteoporosis in CKD patients, and discuss possible factors that exacerbate the mechanical properties of bone.

Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear.

MICA diversity and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located centromerically to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B. The short distance between these loci in the MHC indicates the presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Similarly to the HLA, the MICA is highly polymorphic, and this polymorphism has not been well documented in different populations. In this study, we estimated the allelic frequencies of MICA and the linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in 346 renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil. MICA and HLA were typed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method (PCR-SSO), combined with the Luminex technology. A total of 19 MICA allele groups were identified. The most frequent allele groups were MICA*008 (21.6%), MICA*002 (17.0%) and MICA*004 (14.8%). The most common haplotypes were MICA*009-B*51 (7.8%), MICA*004-B*44 (6.06%) and MICA*002-B*35 (5.63%). As expected from the proximity of the MICA and HLA-B loci, most haplotypes showed strong LD. Renal patients and healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil showed statistically significant differences in their MICA polymorphisms. The MICA*027 allele group was more frequent in renal patients (Pc = 0.018, OR: 3.421, 95% CI: 1.516-7.722), while the MICA*019 allele group was more frequent in healthy subjects (Pc = 0.001, OR: 0.027, 95% CI: 0.002-0.469). This study provided information on the distribution of MICA polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in Brazilian renal-transplant candidates. This information should help to determine the mechanisms of susceptibility to different diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in allograft rejection associated with MICA polymorphisms in a Brazilian population.

Disparities in dialysis allocation: An audit from the new South Africa.

End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) is a public health problem with an enormous economic burden. In resource limited settings management of ESKD is often rationed. Racial and socio-economic inequalities in selecting candidates have been previously documented in South Africa. New guidelines for dialysis developed in the Western Cape have focused on prioritizing treatment. With this in mind we aimed at exploring whether the new guidelines would improve inequalities previously documented. A retrospective study of patients presented to the selection committee was conducted at Groote Schuur Hospital. A total of 564 ESKD patients presented between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012 were assessed. Half of the patients came from low socioeconomic areas, and presentation was late with either overt uremia (n = 181, 44·4%) or fluid overload (n = 179, 43·9%). More than half (53·9%) of the patients were not selected for the program. Predictors of non-acceptance onto the program included age above 50 years (OR 0·3, p = 0·001), unemployment (OR 0·3, p<0·001), substance abuse (OR 0·2, p<0·001), diabetes (OR 0·4, p = 0·016) and a poor psychosocial assessment (OR 0·13, p<0·001). Race, gender and marital status were not predictors. The use of new guidelines has not led to an increase in inequalities. In view of the advanced nature of presentation greater efforts need to be made to prevent early kidney disease, to allocate more resources to renal replacement therapy in view of the loss of young and potentially productive life.

Skeletal-related events and mortality among men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer: The impact of alternative measures of radiation to the bone.

Skeletal-related events (SREs), which include radiation to the bone (RtB), can occur among patients with bone metastasis (BM). There is a recognized potential for misclassification of RtB when using claims data. We compared alternative measures of RtB to better understand their impact on SRE prevalence and SRE-related mortality.

Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus.

The Emergence of Kidney Stone Disease During Childhood-Impact on Adults.

The goal of this chapter is to review the recent epidemiologic trends of kidney stone disease and discuss the impact of the increasing incidence of nephrolithiasis among children on adults with respect to extra-renal manifestations, surgical management, and secondary prevention.

Approach to Androgen Deprivation in the Prostate Cancer Patient with Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Several studies have reported an association between ADT and an increase in cardiovascular events, especially in those receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared to GnRH antagonists. We review the body of literature reporting the association of ADT and cardiovascular morbidity, and discuss the proposed mechanism of cardiovascular disease due to ADT including metabolic changes that may promote atherosclerosis and local hormonal effects that may increase plaque rupture and thrombosis.

Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Inguinal Hernia Repair at the Time of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy.

Abdominal straining associated with voiding dysfunction or constipation has traditionally been associated with the development of abdominal wall hernias. Thus, classic general surgery dictum recommends that any coexistent bladder outlet obstruction should be addressed by the urologist before patients undergo surgical repair of a hernia. While organ-confined prostate cancer is usually not associated with the development of lower urinary tract symptoms, a modest proportion of patients treated with radical prostatectomy may have coexisting benign prostatic hyperplasia with elevated symptom scores and hernias may be incidentally detected at the time of surgery. Furthermore, dissection of the space of Retzius during retropubic or minimally invasive prostatectomy may result exposure of abdominal wall defects which may have been present, but asymptomatic if plugged with preperitoneal fat. Herein we examine the literature regarding the incidence of postoperative inguinal hernias after prostatectomy, review potential risk factors which could aid in preoperative patient identification, and discuss the published experience regarding concurrent hernia repair at the time of open or minimally invasive radical prostatectomy.

Extraperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Indications, Technique and Outcomes.

Extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (eRARP) is an alternative to the more commonly employed transperitoneal RARP (tRARP) for treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. The purpose of this review is to discuss indications in which eRARP would be a more favorable approach in comparison to tRARP. In addition, we will discuss the safety and technique of eRARP.

Synergistic effects of the immune checkpoint inhibitor CTLA-4 combined with the growth inhibitor lycorine in a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) management has undergone a major transformation over the past decade; immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials and show promising results. However, the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) is still limited. Lycorine, an alkaloid extracted from plants of the Amaryllidaceae family, is touted as a potential anti-cancer drug because of its demonstrative growth inhibition capacity (induction of cell cycle arrest and inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry formation). Moreover, T cell checkpoint blockade therapy with antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) has improved outcomes in cancer patients. However, the anti-tumor efficacy of combined lycorine and anti-CTLA-4 therapy remains unknown. Thus, we investigated a combination therapy of lycorine hydrochloride and anti-CTLA-4 using a murine RCC model. As a means of in vitro confirmation, we found that lycorine hydrochloride inhibited the viability of various RCC cell lines. Furthermore, luciferase-expressing Renca cells were implanted in the left kidney and the lung of BALB/c mice to develop a RCC metastatic mouse model. Lycorine hydrochloride and anti-CTLA-4 synergistically decreased tumor weight, lung metastasis, and luciferin-staining in tumor images. Importantly, the observed anti-tumor effects of this combination were dependent on significantly suppressing regulatory T cells while upregulating effector T cells; a decrease in regulatory T cells by 31.43% but an increase in effector T cells by 31.59% were observed in the combination group compared with those in the control group). We suggest that a combination of lycorine hydrochloride and anti-CTLA-4 is a viable therapeutic option for RCC patients.

Relaxin abrogates renal interstitial fibrosis by regulating macrophage polarization via inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

Renal fibrosis is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To inhibit the CKD process, it is important to prevent renal fibrosis, though CKD remains incurable. Renal fibrosis can be inhibited by relaxin in several experimental models, but the mechanism of relaxin for antifibrotic potential is still not clear. And here we have studied the role of relaxin in macrophage polarization and renal inflammation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Our results show that relaxin can downregulate the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, shift macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype and ameliorat renal fibrosis in the early stages of UUO. In vitro experiments, it has been confirmed that relaxin can downregulate the TLR4 signaling and induce the M2 macrophage transition. Furthermore, the transitional actions of macrophage phenotype induced by relaxin are significantly blocked by TAK-242, a TLR4 antagonist, in vitro experiments. Thus, there is a novel mechanism of relaxin for antifibrosis that shifts macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype via inhibition of TLR4 signaling.

Detection of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections as early as 2004, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections.

Carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empiric treatment and outcomes among patients hospitalized with Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infection, pneumonia and sepsis.

Drug resistance among gram-negative pathogens is a risk factor for inappropriate empiric treatment (IET), which in turn increases the risk for mortality. We explored the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) on the risk of IET and of IET on outcomes in patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections.

Early dialysis initiation does not improve clinical outcomes in elderly end-stage renal disease patients: A multicenter prospective cohort study.

The optimal timing for initiating dialysis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is controversial, especially in the elderly.

Dividing CKD stage 3 into G3a and G3b could better predict the prognosis of IgA nephropathy.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 was divided into stage G3a and stage G3b in the 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Whether it is appropriate to regard 45 mL/min/per 1.73 m2 as the threshold value of G3a/G3b staging and whether dividing CKD stage 3 into G3a/G3b plays a useful role in assessing the prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) remain unknown. Three hundred and ninety patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Peking University First Hospital diagnosed with IgAN in CKD stage 3 were enrolled and successfully followed up. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze hazard ratios of reaching the composite endpoints (doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <15 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 or renal replacement therapy, or death) for patients with different eGFR and risk factors affecting composite endpoints. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative renal survival rate of patients. When eGFR was lower than 45 ml/min/per 1.73 m2, the hazard ratio increased sharply for patients in CKD stage 3 who reached the composite endpoints. Renal injury and prognosis were significantly different between patients in the G3a and G3b groups. Stage G3b was a major risk factor affecting prognosis. A threshold value of 45 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 appears appropriate to assess the prognosis of IgAN patients with CKD stage 3. Dividing IgAN patients with CKD stage 3 into G3a and G3b is very useful to help understand disease conditions and for predicting the risk for disease progression.