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Male Urogenital Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Sleep duration and quality in relation to chronic kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy men and women.

It is unclear whether sleep duration and quality are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. The aim of this study was to examine the association of sleep duration and quality with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration in young and middle-aged adults.

Metabolic syndrome, serum uric acid and renal risk in patients with T2D.

Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and increased serum uric acid (SUA), are well known renal risk predictors and often coexist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether they independently contribute to the onset of CKD is at present unclear.

Mortality is associated with inflammation, anemia, specific diseases and treatments, and molecular markers.

Lifespan is a complex trait, and longitudinal data for humans are naturally scarce. We report the results of Cox regression and Pearson correlation analyses using data of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), with mortality data of 1518 participants (113 of which died), over a time span of more than 10 years. We found that in the Cox regression model based on the Bayesian information criterion, apart from chronological age of the participant, six baseline variables were considerably associated with higher mortality rates: smoking, mean attachment loss (i.e. loss of tooth supporting tissue), fibrinogen concentration, albumin/creatinine ratio, treated gastritis, and medication during the last 7 days. Except for smoking, the causative contribution of these variables to mortality was deemed inconclusive. In turn, four variables were found to be associated with decreased mortality rates: treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, treatment of dyslipidemia, IGF-1 and being female. Here, being female was an undisputed causative variable, the causal role of IFG-1 was deemed inconclusive, and the treatment effects were deemed protective to the degree that treated subjects feature better survival than respective controls. Using Cox modeling based on the Akaike information criterion, diabetes, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and serum calcium were also associated with mortality. The latter two, together with albumin and fibrinogen, aligned with an"integrated albunemia" model of aging proposed recently.

Microwave ablation of malignant renal tumours: intermediate-term results and usefulness of RENAL and mRENAL scores for predicting outcomes and complications.

The aim of this study was to evaluate intermediate-term results after microwave ablation (MWA) of renal tumours and determine the association of RENAL and modified RENAL (mRENAL) scores with oncological outcomes and complications. In May 2008-September 2014, 58 patients affected by early-stage RCC (renal cell carcinoma; T1a or T1b) were judged unsuitable for surgery and treated with percutaneous MWA. Follow-up was performed with contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure. Technical success (TS), primary technical effectiveness (PTE), secondary technical effectiveness (STE), the local tumour progression rate (LTPR), the cancer-specific survival rate (CSSR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and safety were recorded. All lesions were evaluated using RENAL and mRENAL scores, and complications were assessed with RENAL scores. The TS rate was 100%, PTE was 93%, STE was 100%, LTPR was 15.7% at 1 year, CSSR was 96.5%, DFS was 87.9% at 5 years, and OS was 80.6%. Mean follow-up was 25.7 months (range 3-72). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) RENAL and mRENAL scores of all treated tumours were 6.7 ± 2.05 (range 4-11) and 7 ± 2.3 (range 4-12), respectively. Major complications occurred in two (2/58) and minor complications in three patients (3/58). Overall complications correlated significantly with RENAL scores; in particular, E and L represent negative predictors for safety and effectiveness. MWA is a valuable alternative for treating RCCs. The correlation with outcomes and complications of RENAL and mRENAL scores could help to customise MWA indications in RCC patients.

Insufficient activation of Akt upon reperfusion because of its novel modification by reduced PP2A-B55α contributes to enlargement of infarct size by chronic kidney disease.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases myocardial infarct size by an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the hypothesis that impairment of protective PI3K-PDK1-Akt and/or mTORC-Akt signaling upon reperfusion contributes to CKD-induced enlargement of infarct size. CKD was induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNx group) 4 weeks before myocardial infarction experiments, and sham-operated rats served as controls (Sham group). Infarct size as a percentage of area at risk after ischemia/reperfusion was significantly larger in the SNx group than in the Sham group (56.3 ± 4.6 vs. 41.4 ± 2.0%). In SNx group, myocardial p-Akt-Thr308 level at baseline was elevated, and reperfusion-induced phosphorylation of p-Akt-Ser473, p-p70s6K and p-GSK-3β was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation upon reperfusion by Ku-0063794 significantly increased infarct size in the Sham group but not in the SNx group. There was no difference between the two groups in activities of mTORC2 and PDK1 and protein level of PTEN. However, the PP2A regulatory subunit B55α, which specifically targets Akt-Thr308, was reduced by 24% in the SNx group. Knockdown of B55α by siRNA increased baseline p-Akt-Thr308 and blunted Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in H9c2 cells. A blunted response of Akt-Ser473 to IGF-1 was also observed in HEK293 cells transfected with a p-Thr308-mimetic Akt mutant (T308D). These results indicate that increased Akt-Thr308 phosphorylation by down-regulation of B55α inhibits Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation upon reperfusion in CKD and that the impaired Akt activation by insufficient Ser473 phosphorylation upon reperfusion contributes to infarct size enlargement by CKD.

Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear.

Early dialysis initiation does not improve clinical outcomes in elderly end-stage renal disease patients: A multicenter prospective cohort study.

The optimal timing for initiating dialysis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is controversial, especially in the elderly.

Dividing CKD stage 3 into G3a and G3b could better predict the prognosis of IgA nephropathy.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 was divided into stage G3a and stage G3b in the 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Whether it is appropriate to regard 45 mL/min/per 1.73 m2 as the threshold value of G3a/G3b staging and whether dividing CKD stage 3 into G3a/G3b plays a useful role in assessing the prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) remain unknown. Three hundred and ninety patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Peking University First Hospital diagnosed with IgAN in CKD stage 3 were enrolled and successfully followed up. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze hazard ratios of reaching the composite endpoints (doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <15 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 or renal replacement therapy, or death) for patients with different eGFR and risk factors affecting composite endpoints. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative renal survival rate of patients. When eGFR was lower than 45 ml/min/per 1.73 m2, the hazard ratio increased sharply for patients in CKD stage 3 who reached the composite endpoints. Renal injury and prognosis were significantly different between patients in the G3a and G3b groups. Stage G3b was a major risk factor affecting prognosis. A threshold value of 45 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 appears appropriate to assess the prognosis of IgAN patients with CKD stage 3. Dividing IgAN patients with CKD stage 3 into G3a and G3b is very useful to help understand disease conditions and for predicting the risk for disease progression.

Genome-wide DNA methylation measurements in prostate tissues uncovers novel prostate cancer diagnostic biomarkers and transcription factor binding patterns.

Current diagnostic tools for prostate cancer lack specificity and sensitivity for detecting very early lesions. DNA methylation is a stable genomic modification that is detectable in peripheral patient fluids such as urine and blood plasma that could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer.

Postoperative Surveillance for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Postoperative surveillance is an integral part of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) care. However, evidence supporting the practice is lacking. RCC guidelines offer disparate recommendations leading to variation in care. Recently, the effectiveness of guidelines has been questioned and a debate has ignited over whether current protocols merit optimization. Guidelines show limitations in RCC risk assessment, protocol stratification, and definition of duration of follow-up. Alternative strategies have addressed some of these limitations, but further analysis is warranted. Until challenges with assessing a survival benefit are negotiated, efforts should be made to optimize and standardize guidelines and learn of more tangible benefits to surveillance.

Salvage Surgery After Renal Mass Ablation.

Thermal ablative techniques represent treatment options for patients with small renal masses who are not candidates for surgery. The oncologic efficacy of ablation has not been compared in a randomized fashion with nephron-sparing surgery, and the urologist must be knowledgeable regarding the workup and treatment of patients with suspected residual or recurrent tumor following these therapies. Surveillance of patients with tumor recurrence after ablation may be indicated in select circumstances. When patients are deemed appropriate for salvage therapy, most undergo a repeat course of the same ablative modality. Salvage surgery is possible but often complicated by the prior ablative techniques.

Neoadjuvant Targeted Molecular Therapy Before Renal Surgery.

Neoadjuvant targeted molecular therapy may benefit select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The primary use of this therapy in patients with metastatic disease is to reduce tumor burden, prevent distant metastasis, and increase overall survival. Neoadjuvant therapy may reduce tumor size and tumor complexity, facilitate partial nephrectomy rather than radical nephrectomy, downstage tumor thrombus facilitating thrombectomy, and make unresectable tumors resectable when applied to selected patients. These potential benefits of neoadjuvant therapy require further clinical trials to better define the renal function and oncological and survival outcomes in patients receiving each active agent.

Complications of Renal Surgery.

The incidence of the small renal mass continues to increase owing to the aging population and the ubiquity imaging. Most of these tumors are stage I tumors. Management strategies include surveillance, ablation, and extirpation. There is a wide body of literature favoring nephron-sparing approaches. Although nephron-sparing surgery may yield decreased long-term morbidity, it is not without its drawbacks, including a higher rate of complications. Urologists must be attuned to the complications of surgery and develop strategies to minimize risk. This article reviews expected complications of surgery on renal masses and risk stratification schema.

Lymph Node Dissection for Small Renal Masses.

Because the majority of small renal masses (SRMs; <4 cm) demonstrate low metastatic potential and can be effectively treated with radical or partial nephrectomy, the role of lymph node dissection (LND) at the time of surgery is unclear. A randomized trial demonstrated no survival benefit of LND in clinically localized renal cell carcinoma. Thus, LND is not recommended routinely for SRMs. For patients with high-risk features or radiographic evidence of lymphadenopathy, however, LND may improve local staging and potentially provide a survival benefit. If performed, a LND template should be based on the known lymphatic drainage of the kidneys.

Comparative Effectiveness of Surgical Treatments for Small Renal Masses.

In the management of small renal masses (SRMs), treatment options include partial nephrectomy (PN), radical nephrectomy (RN), ablation, renal biopsy, and active surveillance. Large series retrospective and meta-analyses demonstrate PN may confer greater preservation of renal function, overall survival, and equivalent cancer control when compared with RN. As newer therapies emerge, we should critically evaluate the risks and benefits associated with the surgical management of SRMs among patients with competing comorbidities, complex tumors, and high-risk disease. Among younger patients with SRMs amenable to resection, optimization of postoperative patient health should be prioritized.

Renal Ischemia and Functional Outcomes Following Partial Nephrectomy.

Renal function after renal cancer surgery is a critical component of survivorship. Quantity and quality of preserved parenchyma are the most important determinants of functional recovery; type and duration of ischemia play secondary roles. Several studies evaluated surgical techniques to minimize ischemia; however, long-term outcomes and potential benefits over clamped partial nephrectomy (PN) have not been consistently demonstrated. Analysis of acute kidney injury (AKI) after PN suggest that most kidneys recover strongly even if AKI is experienced after surgery. Ongoing study is required to evaluate long-term implications of AKI after PN and further assess impact of ischemia on functional outcomes.

Surgical Techniques in the Management of Small Renal Masses.

This article provides a review and outline of the various surgical techniques for small renal masses. It covers surgical approaches and compares outcomes of open versus minimally invasive surgery. The article discusses renal nephrometry scoring and renal ischemia at time of resection. Techniques for controlling the renal hilum and controlling blood flow to the kidney are described. Extirpative techniques for small renal masses are reviewed along with a comparison of outcomes. With careful adherence to key oncologic and surgical principles, negative margins, no complications, and no or minimal decline in renal functional outcomes can be achieved.

Ablative Therapy for Small Renal Masses.

The management of small renal masses has become an important public health topic. The increased use of cross-sectional imaging and ultrasound has led to a downward stage migration for the detection of small renal masses. Cancer-specific survival, however, has not reflected this trend accordingly. Although partial nephrectomy has been the mainstay of treatment of small renal masses less than 4 cm, there is growing interest in ablative therapies, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation, due to decreased morbidity. Oncologic outcomes are limited by methodology and length of follow-up, but short-term recurrence rates are low.

Active Surveillance for the Small Renal Mass: Growth Kinetics and Oncologic Outcomes.

Active surveillance for small renal masses (SRMs) is an accepted management strategy for patients with prohibitive surgical risk. Emerging prospectively collected data support the concept that a period of initial active surveillance in an adherent patient population with well-defined criteria for delayed intervention is safe. This article summarizes the literature describing growth kinetics of SRMs managed initially with observation and oncologic outcomes for patients managed with active surveillance. Existing clinical tools to determine and contextualize competing risks to mortality are explored. Finally, current prospective clinical trials with defined eligibility criteria, surveillance schema, and triggers for delayed intervention are highlighted.

Current Role of Renal Biopsy in Urologic Practice.

Most small renal masses (SRMs) are indolent. In fact, only approximately 80% of SRMs are malignant. Furthermore, SRMs are commonly detected in elderly and comorbid patients. Therefore, opportunities for better care intensity calibration exist. Renal mass biopsy (RMB), when appropriately used, is a valuable clinical tool to help with critical clinical decision-making in patients with SRM. This article summarizes the role of modern RMB in helping gauge care for patients with SRM.

Risk Assessment in Small Renal Masses: A Review Article.

The incidence of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been steadily increasing, in large part because of the increased use of imaging. Optimizing the management of localized RCC has become one of the leading priorities and foremost challenges within the urologic-oncologic community. Adequate risk stratification of patients following the diagnosis of localized RCC has become meaningful in deciding whether to treat, how to treat, and how intensively to treat. This article characterizes the existing risk assessment models that can be useful as treatment decision aids for patients with localized RCC.

Renal Tumor Anatomic Complexity: Clinical Implications for Urologists.

Anatomic tumor complexity can be objectively measured and reported using nephrometry. Various scoring systems have been developed in an attempt to correlate tumor complexity with intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Nephrometry may also predict tumor biology in a noninvasive, reproducible manner. Other scoring systems can help predict surgical complexity and the likelihood of complications, independent of tumor characteristics. The accumulated data in this new field provide provocative evidence that objectifying anatomic complexity can consolidate reporting mechanisms and improve metrics of comparisons. Further prospective validation is needed to understand the full descriptive and predictive ability of the various nephrometry scores.

Current Trends in Renal Surgery and Observation for Small Renal Masses.

There has been a rising incidence of small renal masses and concomitant downward stage migration. This has led to an evolution in the management of kidney cancer from radical nephrectomy to nephron-sparing treatment options including observation. The adoption of partial nephrectomy continues to increase but is still incomplete leading to significant disparities in the delivery of care throughout the country. Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice for small kidney cancers; however, ablative therapies and active surveillance are emerging as reasonable options for select patients. With continued refinements in treatment options and improvements in ability to risk stratify SRMs, the current treatment trends will likely continue to evolve.

Hereditary Kidney Cancer Syndromes and Surgical Management of the Small Renal Mass.

The management of patients with hereditary kidney cancers presents unique challenges to clinicians. In addition to an earlier age of onset compared with patients with sporadic kidney cancer, those with hereditary kidney cancer syndromes often present with bilateral and/or multifocal renal tumors and are at risk for multiple de novo lesions. This population of patients may also present with extrarenal manifestations, which adds an additional layer of complexity. Physicians who manage these patients should be familiar with the underlying clinical characteristics of each hereditary kidney cancer syndrome and the suggested surgical approaches and recommendations of genetic testing for at-risk individuals.

Epidemiology of the Small Renal Mass and the Treatment Disconnect Phenomenon.

The incidence of kidney cancer has steadily increased over recent decades, with most new cases now found when lesions are asymptomatic and small. This downward stage migration relates to the increasing use of abdominal imaging. Three public health epidemics-smoking, hypertension, and obesity-also play roles in the increase. Treatment mirrors the rise in incidence, with increasing interest in nephron-sparing therapies. Despite earlier detection and increasing treatment, the mortality rate has not decreased. This treatment disconnect phenomenon highlights the need to decrease unnecessary treatment of indolent tumors and address modifiable risk factors to reduce incidence and mortality.

Knowledge-based treatment planning: An inter-technique and inter-system feasibility study for prostate cancer.

Helical Tomotherapy (HT) plans were used to create two RapidPlan knowledge-based (KB) models to generate plans with different techniques and to guide the optimization in a different treatment planning system for prostate plans. Feasibility and performance of these models were evaluated.

Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum and associated factors of serofast status in early syphilis patients: Identified novel genotype and cytokine marker.

Serofast, a persistent nontreponemal serological response observed in early syphilis patients after conventional treatment, remains a concern of clinicians and syphilis patients. No consensus has been established, however, that defines an effective treatment strategy and clarifies the pathogenesis. In this study, 517 patients with early syphilis were enrolled and treated. Twelve months after treatment, 79.3% (410/517) of patients achieved serological cure, 20.1% (104/517) were serofast, and 0.6% (3/517) were serological failures. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that older age (>40 years) and lower baseline RPR titer (≤ 1:8) were associated with serofast status. We also identified 21 T. pallidum molecular subtypes among early syphilis patients and detected a new subtype, 14i/a. We found that the proportion of 14i/a type in serofast patients was significantly higher than that in patients with serological cure, predicting an increasing risk of serofast status. Levels of chemerin were higher in the serum of serofast cases than serological cure cases, potentially indicating a novel cytokine marker for serofast in early syphilis patients after therapy. We hope that these results contribute to improve guidelines for the management of syphilis patients who experience serofast.

Plasma from patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease could recognize microbial peptides.

Infection has long been suspected as a trigger of autoimmune diseases, and molecular mimicry mechanism was hypothesized in this study. Microbe originated peptides were searched from the Uniprot database based on a previous defined critical amino acid motif within α3129-150, isoleucine137, tryptophan140, glycine142, phenylalanine 143 and phenylalanine 145. 23826 microbial peptides were identified using our searching strategy, among which seven were related with human infections. Circulating IgG and IgM antibodies against the seven microbial peptides were detected using ELISA in 76 patients with anti-GBM disease. Four peptides were recognized by both IgG and IgM antibodies, and one peptide was recognized by IgG antibodies only. Peptides from Bacteroides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Bifidobacterium thermophilum possessed the highest recognition frequency with the prevalence of 73.7%, 61.8% and 67.1% for IgG, 56.6%, 44.7% and 67.1% for IgM in anti-GBM patients. Patients with antibodies against these microbial peptides showed more severe kidney injury, including higher serum creatinine and higher percentage of crescent formation. In conclusion, antibodies against microbial peptides were identified in the circulation of anti-GBM patients, implying its etiological role in eliciting autoimmune response against α3(IV)NC1 through molecular mimicry.

The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL.

The aim of this study was to develop nomograms for predicting prostate cancer and its zonal location using prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives. A total of 928 consecutive patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 20.0 ng/mL, who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 12-core prostate biopsy at West China Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly split into training cohort (70%, n = 650) and validation cohort (30%, n = 278). Predicting models and the associated nomograms were built using the training cohort, while the validations of the models were conducted using the validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Then, new nomograms were generated based on multivariate regression coefficients. The discrimination power and calibration of these nomograms were validated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. The potential clinical effects of these models were also tested using decision curve analysis. In total, 285 (30.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Among them, 131 (14.1%) and 269 (29.0%) had transition zone prostate cancer and peripheral zone prostate cancer. Each of zone-adjusted derivatives-based nomogram had an AUC more than 0.75. All nomograms had higher calibration and much better net benefit than the scenarios in predicting patients with or without different zones prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives have important roles in detecting prostate cancer and its zonal location for patients with PSA 2.5-20.0 ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nomogram using these parameters to predict outcomes of 12-core prostate biopsy. These instruments can help clinicians to increase the accuracy of prostate cancer screening and to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy.

Prevalence of varicocoele and its association with body mass index among 39,559 rural men in eastern China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

Varicocoele is a common cause of male infertility. We undertook a population-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of varicocoele among rural men in eastern China and its association with body mass index. A total of 39,559 rural men in six counties in Beijing, Guangdong and Shandong provinces were recruited from 2011 to 2012. The presence and severity of varicocoele were measured by physical examinations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between varicocoele and body mass index after adjusting for possible confounders. Varicocoele was diagnosed in 1911 of 39,559 participants with an overall prevalence of 4.83%. The prevalence of varicocoele was highest in underweight (6.29%) and lowest in obese patients (3.71%, p < 0.05). The prevalence also decreased as body mass index increased in all three varicocoele grades. In multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for region, age, height, occupation, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, body mass index was still inversely and independently associated with varicocoele (p < 0.001). Compared with normal weight men, underweight men (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10-1.63) were more likely to have varicocoele, whereas overweight men (OR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.99) and obese men (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97) were less likely to have varicocoele. This study revealed that the prevalence of varicocoele was 4.83% among rural men in eastern China; body mass index was inversely and independently associated with the presence of varicocoele. Future efforts should be made to validate the risk factors for varicocoele and strengthen the prevention and treatment of varicocoele, especially in underweight men.