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Musculoskeletal Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Psoriatic Arthritis.

Psoriatic Arthritis.

Psoriatic Arthritis.

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome as a Complication of Fluid Resuscitation.

Fluid resuscitation is a primary concern of nurse clinicians. Excessive resuscitation with crystalloids places patients at particular risk for many subsequent complications that carry associated increases in mortality and morbidity. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are deadly complications of third spacing and capillary leak that occur secondary to excessive fluid resuscitation. Careful consideration is necessary when achieving fluid balance in acutely ill patients, including reducing the use of crystalloids, implementing damage control resuscitation, and establishing measurable resuscitation endpoints. Nurse clinicians are capable of reducing mortality in intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome patients by incorporating the latest evidence in fluid resuscitation techniques.

Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis.

Back to the History.

Prevalence of microcephaly in an Australian population-based birth defects register, 1980-2015.

To describe the prevalence and characteristics of microcephaly in a geographically defined Australian population.

Case 13-2017. A 41-Year-Old Man with Hearing Loss, Seizures, Weakness, and Cognitive Decline.

Adalimumab plus Methotrexate for Uveitis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Adalimumab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody, is effective in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We tested the efficacy of adalimumab in the treatment of JIA-associated uveitis.

Thromboelastography Utilization in Delayed Recurrent Coagulopathy after Severe Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Envenomation.

Venomous snakebites are fairly common in the United States and can present with a wide range of symptoms. A 48-year-old man presented after Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake envenomation. His hospital course was complicated by right leg compartment syndrome and delayed recurrent coagulopathy, requiring multiple doses of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) antivenom and transfusions. Thromboelastography was used as an adjunct to standard coagulation studies in monitoring his delayed recurrent coagulopathy.

Osteopetrosis.

The long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function after spinal surgery for cauda equina syndrome.

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions.

Transforming growth factor β1 enhances heme oxygenase 1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts by inhibiting microRNA 519b synthesis.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a secreted homodimeric protein, possesses unique and potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties in many cell types. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible anti-inflammatory and stress responsive enzyme that has been proven to prevent injuries caused by many diseases. Despite the similar anti-inflammatory profile and their involvement in the pathogenesis of arthritic diseases, no studies have as yet explored the possibility of any association between the expression of TGF-β1 and HO-1.

Genetic profiling of putative breast cancer stem cells from malignant pleural effusions.

A common symptom during late stage breast cancer disease is pleural effusion, which is related to poor prognosis. Malignant cells can be detected in pleural effusions indicating metastatic spread from the primary tumor site. Pleural effusions have been shown to be a useful source for studying metastasis and for isolating cells with putative cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. For the present study, pleural effusion aspirates from 17 metastatic breast cancer patients were processed to propagate CSCs in vitro. Patient-derived aspirates were cultured under sphere forming conditions and isolated primary cultures were further sorted for cancer stem cell subpopulations ALDH1+ and CD44+CD24-/low. Additionally, sphere forming efficiency of CSC and non-CSC subpopulations was determined. In order to genetically characterize the different tumor subpopulations, DNA was isolated from pleural effusions before and after cell sorting, and compared with corresponding DNA copy number profiles from primary tumors or bone metastasis using low-coverage whole genome sequencing (SCNA-seq). In general, unsorted cells had a higher potential to form spheres when compared to CSC subpopulations. In most cases, cell sorting did not yield sufficient cells for copy number analysis. A total of five from nine analyzed unsorted pleura samples (55%) showed aberrant copy number profiles similar to the respective primary tumor. However, most sorted subpopulations showed a balanced profile indicating an insufficient amount of tumor cells and low sensitivity of the sequencing method. Finally, we were able to establish a long term cell culture from one pleural effusion sample, which was characterized in detail. In conclusion, we confirm that pleural effusions are a suitable source for enrichment of putative CSC. However, sequencing based molecular characterization is impeded due to insufficient sensitivity along with a high number of normal contaminating cells, which are masking genetic alterations of rare cancer (stem) cells.

Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158) prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI) or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009), pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004), asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036), thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77), depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001) and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020) compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

An unusual location of gouty panniculitis: A case report.

Gouty panniculitis, characterised by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in subcutaneous tissue, is a rare clinical manifestation of gout.

The management and surgical intervention timing of enchondromas: A 10-year experience.

Enchondroma, reportedly the most common primary tumor of the long bones of the hand, usually develops during the first till fourth decades of life. However, there has no consensus been reached regarding the surgical intervention timing for these patients. We aim to evaluate the optimal surgical intervention timing for the patients with fractures due to enchondromas, investigate the impact of pathological fractures on the treatment and outcomes in these patients.Medical records and X-rays of patients treated for enchondroma of the hand from 2005 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. We collected 148 cases in total and 92 of them had complete information including X-rays, medical records, and files of follow up.There were no significant differences in terms of consolidation time after surgery, recurrence rate, and DASH scores between the groups with and without fractures; the treatment costs were higher in the group with fractures than those without fractures; however, patients without fractures were able to resume work earlier than those with fractures.The pathological fractures associated with enchondromas have no significant impact on the treatment outcomes compared to those with simple nonfractured enchondromas. Although the cost was more expensive for patients treated primarily with pathological fractures due to enchondromas, these patients could resume their work normally much earlier than those treated by delayed surgery. Early surgical intervention is recommended for better results and no increased risks for patients with pathological fractures caused by enchondromas.

The use of anticoagulants for prevention and treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A systematic review.

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a progressive disease, which mainly affects young adults and often necessitates total hip arthroplasty (THA), so early interventions are critical to successfully protect hip joint from THA. In this review, our purpose was to determine the effects of anticoagulants for preventing and treating the primary and secondary ONFH, respectively, before the collapse stage or before the pathology of necrosis.

Crystalglobulinemia manifesting as chronic arthralgia and acute limb ischemia: A clinical case report.

Crystalglobulinemia is a rare disease caused by monoclonal immunoglobulins, characterized by irreversible crystallization on refrigeration. It causes systemic symptoms including purpura, arthralgia, and vessel occlusive conditions to be exacerbated by exposure to cold. We report a patient with crystalglobulinemia associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) manifesting as chronic arthralgia and recurrent acute arterial occlusion.

Immunohistological analysis of active sacroiliitis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

The sacroiliac joints (SIJs) are one of the most common sites involved in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and there are few studies on the histopathology of the SIJ in this group of patients.Mononuclear cell infiltrates in the bone marrow and fibrous tissue resembling a pannus formation were the pathological features of early sacroiliitis in our previous study. We undertook a further immunohistological evaluation of these features in patients with axSpA.Biopsy specimens from the SIJ of 6 patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 13 patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) were analyzed. An immunohistological method was performed to examine the macrophages (CD163), T cells (CD3), and B cells (CD20).Mononuclear cell infiltrates in the bone marrow were observed in only 6 patients with nr-axSpA. Fibrous tissue was observed in all patients with established AS and 9 patients with nr-axSpA. Macrophage, T cell, and B cell infiltrates could be detected in both the bone marrow and fibrous tissue. All bone marrow specimens from 6 nr-axSpA patients exhibited CD163+ macrophage infiltrates; of these, 5 exhibited CD20+ B cell infiltrates and 3 exhibited CD3+ T cell infiltrates. Among the fibrous tissue specimens, all exhibited macrophage infiltrates, 9 exhibited B cell infiltrates, and 4 exhibited T cell infiltrates.In addition to macrophages and T cells, B cells are also involved in active sacroiliitis in patients with axSpA.

Multilevel cervical disc replacement versus multilevel anterior discectomy and fusion: A meta-analysis.

Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has been developed as an alternative surgical procedure to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of single-level cervical degenerative disc disease. However, patients with multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease (MCDDD) are common in our clinic. Multilevel CDR is less established compared with multilevel ACDF. This study aims to compare the outcomes and evaluate safety and efficacy of CDR versus ACDF for the treatment of MCDDD.

Correction of sagittal imbalance in treatment for adult degenerative scoliosis with thoracic lordosis and lumbar kyphosis: A case report.

Lumbar degenerative scoliosis (LDS) is a common spinal disease for senior citizens. However, LDS accompanied with thoracic lordosis and lumbar kyphosis (LK) is rare in clinic. No reports have reported LDS with thoracic lordosis and LK.

Impact of pain on cognitive functions in primary Sjögren syndrome with small fiber neuropathy: 10 cases and a literature review.

Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by xerophthalmia, xerostomia, and potential peripheral or central neurological involvement. In pSS, the prevalence of cognitive disorders is generally sparse across literature and the impact of pain on cognitive profile is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between pain, cognitive complaint, and impairment in a very homogenous population of 10 pSS patients with painful small fiber neuropathy (PSFN) and spontaneous cognitive complaint. Neurological exam, neuropsychological assessment, clinical evaluation measuring pain level, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and cognitive complaint were performed. Our results showed that 100% of patients had cognitive dysfunction especially in executive domain (80%). The most sensitive test was the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), abnormal in 70% of our population. Moreover, we found clear cut significant correlations between pain levels and 3 measures of WCST: the number of errors (R = -0.768, P = .0062), perseverations (R = 0.831, P = .0042), and categories (R = 0.705, P = .02). In the literature review, the impact of pain is underexplored and results could be discordant. In a homogeneous cohort of pSS patients with PSFN, a cognitive complaint seems to be a valid reflection of cognitive dysfunction marked by a specific executive profile found with the WCST. In this preliminary study, this profile is linked to the level of pain and highlights that an appropriate management of pain control and a cognitive readaptation in patients could improve the quality of life.

Growth characteristics and endocrine abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) has a wide range of clinical features including endocrine abnormalities. We aimed to characterize growth patterns, hypoparathyroidism, and thyroid dysfunction of individuals with 22q11.2DS. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were obtained from the charts of 48 individuals (males=28, 8.0±6.8 visits/participant) followed at a national 22q11.2DS clinic between 2009 and 2016. Age at diagnosis was 4.3±4.9 years and age at last evaluation 11.2±7.2 years. Median height-SDS was negative at all ages. Height-SDS at last visit was correlated to the midparental height-SDS (r=0.52 P=0.002). Yet, participants did not reach their target height, with a difference of 1.06±1.07 SD (P <0.0001). Height-SDS at last visit of participants with a heart defect was lower compared to participants with a normal heart (-1.5±1.4 vs. -0.6±0.8, P=0.036), with lower height-SDS in the subgroup of participants with severe heart defects (-2.1±1.6, P=0.009). Mean IGF1-SDS was low (-0.99±1.68) but was not correlated with height-SDS. Thirteen patients (27%) had hypoparathyroidism: 10 presented during infancy and 3 during adolescence. Five patients (10.4%, female=4) had thyroid abnormalities. In conclusions, individuals with 22q11.2 DS have a distinct growth pattern consisting of growth restriction at all ages, resulting in final adult height in the low-normal range. Hypoparathyroidism is common and may present during the neonatal period as well as later in life. Thyroid abnormalities may present during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood.

Detection of Urine Metabolites in a Rat Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome before and after Exercise.

Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise. Results. A total of 20 metabolites were detected in CFS rats before and after exercise. Three metabolic pathways (TCA cycle; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; steroid hormone biosynthesis) were significantly impacted before and after exercise, while sphingolipid metabolism alone exhibited significant alterations after exercise only. Conclusion. In addition to metabolic disturbances involving some energy substances, alterations in steroid hormone biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism were detected in CFS rats. Sphingosine and 21-hydroxypregnenolone may be key biomarkers of CFS, potentially offering evidence in support of immune dysfunction and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity in patients with CFS.

Molecular Abnormalities Underlying Bone Fragility in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Prevention of bone fractures is one goal of therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), as indicated by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. CKD patients, including those on hemodialysis, are at higher risk for fractures and fracture-related death compared to people with normal kidney function. However, few clinicians focus on this issue as it is very difficult to estimate bone fragility. Additionally, uremia-related bone fragility has a more complicated pathological process compared to osteoporosis. There are many uremia-associated factors that contribute to bone fragility, including severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone, and bone mineralization disorders. Uremia also aggravates bone volume loss, disarranges microarchitecture, and increases the deterioration of material properties of bone through abnormal bone cells or excess oxidative stress. In this review, we outline the prevalence of fractures, the interaction of CKD-MBD with osteoporosis in CKD patients, and discuss possible factors that exacerbate the mechanical properties of bone.

Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients.

Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD's symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH) and Group without Headache (GwoH). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results. Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation) and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities), and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion. This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

CK2.1, a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type Ia mimetic peptide, repairs cartilage in mice with destabilized medial meniscus.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee involves degeneration of articular cartilage of the diarthrodial joints. Current treatment options temporarily relieve the joint pain but do not restore the lost cartilage. We recently designed a novel bone morphogenetic protein receptor type I (BMPRI) mimetic peptide, CK2.1, that activates BMPRIa signaling in the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Our previous research demonstrated that CK2.1 induced chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo; however, it is unknown if CK2.1 restores damaged articular cartilage in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that CK2.1 induced articular cartilage (AC) repair in an OA mouse model.

Culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells attenuate cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat osteoarthritis model.

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 μL PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1β-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on OA chondrocytes are at least part of the mechanism by which ADSCs exert their therapeutic activity.

Cone-beam computed tomography with automated bone subtraction in preoperative embolization for pelvic bone tumors.

To evaluate the usefulness of cone-beam computed tomography with automated bone subtraction (CBCT-ABS) in the preoperative embolization of hypervascular tumors located in the pelvic bone.