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Musculoskeletal Diseases - Top 30 Publications

All That Wheezes….

Osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is a common systemic skeletal disorder resulting in bone fragility and increased fracture risk. However, management of osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies are often not addressed by primary care clinicians, even in older patients with recent fractures. Evidence-based screening strategies will improve identification of patients who are most likely to benefit from drug treatment to prevent fracture. In addition, careful consideration of when pharmacotherapy should be started and choice of medication and duration of treatment will maximize the benefits of fracture prevention while minimizing potential harms of long-term drug exposure.

Brachycephalic dogs - time for action.

RE: Association of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Outbreak of Septic Arthritis Associated with Intra-Articular Injections at an Outpatient Practice - New Jersey, 2017.

On March 6, 2017, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) was notified of three cases of septic arthritis in patients who had received intra-articular injections for osteoarthritic knee pain at a private outpatient practice. The practice voluntarily closed the next day. NJDOH, in conjunction with the local health department and the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners, conducted an investigation and identified 41 cases of septic arthritis associated with intra-articular injections administered during 250 patient visits at the same practice, including 30 (73%) patients who required surgery. Bacterial cultures of synovial fluid or tissue from 15 (37%) patients were positive; all recovered organisms were oral flora. An infection prevention assessment of the practice identified multiple breaches of recommended infection prevention practices, including inadequate hand hygiene, inappropriate use of pharmacy bulk packaged (PBP) products as multiple-dose containers and handling PBP products outside of required pharmacy conditions, and preparation of syringes up to 4 days in advance of their intended use. No additional septic arthritis cases were identified after infection prevention recommendations were implemented within the practice.

Chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the distal tibia: a rare case report.

Chondroblastic osteosarcoma, representing about 25% of osteosarcoma, is a fatal primary malignancy of the skeleton if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. It most commonly occurs in the long bones of the extremities near the metaphyseal growth plates. In this report, we describe the occurrence of chondroblastic osteosarcoma involving the left distal tibia in a 14-year-old male. The diagnosis was confirmed by the histological examination of a surgical biopsy. The patient was treated by both surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. No recurrence was noted at 3 years of follow-up. To our knowledge, only two cases describing chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the distal tibia had been reported through English medical literature. Therefore, the aim of our article is to make the clinician aware of this rare clinical presentation and also to provide a comprehensive review of the literature related to this uncommon malignant tumour.

Dorsolumbar cold abscess revealing Pott's disease.

Tuberculous cold abscesses are a rare and unusual form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We here report the case of a 27-year old patient with a 5-month history of left dorsolumbar swelling presenting with dorsolumbar cold abscess revealing Pott's disease without neurological complications. Examination of pus sample collected at the time the abscess was incised and drained helped to confirm the diagnosis of cold abscesses of TB origin. The patient underwent 12 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment which lead to a faster recovery; the sequelae was slight gibbosity.

Discussion: Head Orthosis Therapy in Positional Plagiocephaly: Influence of Age and Severity of Asymmetry on Effect and Duration of Therapy.

The use of a dorsal double-wing flap without skin grafts for congenital syndactyly treatment: A STROBE compliant study.

Numerous techniques have been developed that use various flaps to treat syndactyly. Skin grafts have often been used to cover remaining surgical defects. The long-term aim of surgery is to find new methods of separating the digits without using skin grafts. This paper describes a new surgical technique for the correction of simple, incomplete, and complete syndactyly. The technique consists of a dorsal double-wing flap to cover the newly created web space and zigzag incisions in the fingers, thus avoiding the use of skin grafts in this space. Overall, 35 web spaces in 24 patients were treated using this technique. Patient follow-up ranged from 6 months to nearly 5 years. There were no complications such as hematoma, infection or flap necrosis, and no fingers needed skin grafts after separation. The average operative time for each web space was approximately 45 minutes. Ninety-seven percent of patients treated with the dorsal double-wing flap procedure achieved good function, and superior cosmetic results following a single surgery. The technique is simple, rapid, safe, and easily performed and does not require the use of skin grafts.

Diagnosis and treatment of hidden lesions in "mild" cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients with apparent symptoms.

Patients with apparent symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) may only show a mild compressive lesion in ordinary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of CSM patients with "hidden" lesions on kinetic MRI and to determine an effective treatment.Thirty-one patients with obvious spinal cord compression only on kinetic MRI were included in our study. A variety of parameters were calculated from MRI of the cervical spine at different postures. The anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) procedure were used for treatment of CSM. To evaluate the effect of surgery, a further 31 age- and gender-matched ordinary CSM patients that received ACDF procedures were enrolled as the control group.The diameter of the cervical cord at the narrowest level in extension was significantly lower than that in the neutral posture (P < .01). The percentage of spinal cord compression was 34.6%. The diameter of the cervical canal at the narrowest level in the extension posture was significantly lower than that in the neutral posture (P < .01). The percentage of cervical canal stenosis was 43.6%. The anteroposterior diameter of the cervical canal in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < .01). However, the recovery rate of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score at final follow-up was comparable between the case group and the control group (P = .53).Kinetic MRI is useful for the diagnosis of CSM with hidden lesions. ACDF is an effective procedure for treatment of CSM.

Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone: A case report.

Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported.

Role of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in the pathogenesis of lumbar disc degeneration.

This study aims to investigate the role of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the pathogenesis of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD).

18F-FDG PET/CT is an ideal imaging modality for the early diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis: A case report.

Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that may affect multiple cartilage throughout the body.

Clinical significance of delta neutrophil index in the differential diagnosis between septic arthritis and acute gout attack within 24 hours after hospitalization.

The most important differential diagnoses of acute monoarticular arthritis are septic arthritis and acute gout attack. Identifying infection is crucial in preventing the devastating outcome of septic arthritis. The delta neutrophil index (DNI) is a value that corresponds to the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes. As DNI reflects the burden of infection, we evaluated this index as a differentiating marker between septic arthritis and acute gout attack.The medical records of 149 patients with septic arthritis and 194 patients with acute gout attack were reviewed. A specific cell analyzer, ADVIA 2120, was used to measure DNI. Clinical and laboratory markers associated with predicting septic arthritis were assessed by using logistic regression.Patients with septic arthritis showed higher levels of DNI than those with acute gout attack (3.3 vs 0.6%, P < .001). Similar results were observed in patients without monosodium urate (MSU) crystal confirmation or those with normouricemia (3.3 vs 0.5 and 3.1 vs 0.7%, respectively; P < .001 for both). A DNI level of 1.9% was determined as the cutoff value for predicting septic arthritis. In the multivariate analysis, DNI was the most powerful independent value for predicting septic arthritis (odds ratio 14.003).This study showed the possibility of using DNI as a differentiating marker between septic arthritis and acute gout attack at the crucial early phase. DNI showed its relevance regardless of confirmation of MSU crystal deposition or serum level of uric acid.

All That Wheezes...

Acral Melanoma and Mechanical Stress on the Plantar Surface of the Foot.

WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IS WELL TOLERATED IN PATIENTS WITH DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that improves musculoskeletal function in movement disorders. The aim of this study was to review the effects of WBVE on functional mobility, bone and muscle in DMD patients.

A Bone Health Intervention for Chinese Immigrants in Santa Clara County.

Among Chinese immigrants, osteoporosis is undertreated, misdiagnosed, and a leading cause of fragility fractures. In orthopaedic surgery departments, prevention education and health behavior change programs are necessary to improve their bone health.

Transgender Individuals and Osteoporosis Prevention.

Risk behaviors and hormone use place transgender individuals (TIs) in jeopardy for osteoporosis.

First in the Nation: One Unit's Journey to Achieving Fragility Fracture Certification.

Osteoporosis is related to more than 2 million fractures and $19 billion in healthcare costs each year (). A fragility fracture (FF) is a low-energy fracture of the distal radius, proximal humerus, ankle, or proximal femur (hip) from minimal trauma such as a fall from a standing height. In addition to cost, FFs often result in the loss of independence and productivity (). In 2015, our orthopaedic unit received the first certification ever awarded for FFs. Fragility fracture certification is a new certification demonstrating that a healthcare facility complies with national patient care standards and uses evidence-based practice guidelines to deliver quality outcomes. Orthopaedic nurses have a critical role in optimizing future bone health and fracture prevention. Our story describes the process and challenges faced becoming the first organization in the nation to be successfully surveyed for The Joint Commission's Fragility Fracture Certification.

Noninvasive Respiratory Care Received by Individuals With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Since 1979.

Tocilizumab for uncontrollable systemic inflammatory response syndrome complicating adult-onset Still disease: Case report and review of literature.

Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by evanescent salmon-pink rash, fever spikes, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy. AOSD usually has a good prognosis, but it can sometimes be fatal, especially when it is complicated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure.

Arthritis secondary to meningococcal disease: A case series of 7 patients.

Arthritis secondary to invasive meningococcemia is rare and has been described as a direct result of bacteremia or as immunoallergic-type arthritis, related to the immune complex. Only a few case series have been reported.This multicenter study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of arthritis secondary to meningococcal infection.We performed a 5-year retrospective study. We included all patients with inflammatory joint symptoms and proven meningococcal disease defined by the identification of Neisseria meningitidis in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or synovial fluid. Septic arthritis was defined by the identification of N meningitidis in joint fluid. Immune-mediated arthritis was considered to be arthritis occurring after at least 1 day of invasive meningococcal disease without positive joint fluid culture.A total of 7 patients (5 males) with joint symptoms and meningococcal disease were identified. The clinical presentation was mainly oligoarticular and the knee was the most frequent joint site. Five patients had septic arthritis and 4 had immune-mediated arthritis; 2 had septic arthritis followed by immune-mediated arthritis. Immune-mediated arthritis occurred 3 to 7 days after meningococcal meningitis, and treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) led to improvement without complications.Physicians must be vigilant to the different clinical presentations in patients with arthritis associated with invasive meningococcal disease. If immune-mediated arthritis is suspected, NSAIDs are usually efficient.

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio could be a good diagnostic marker and predictor of relapse in patients with adult-onset Still's disease: A STROBE-compliant retrospective observational analysis.

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is the proportion of absolute neutrophil count to lymphocytes on routine complete blood count (CBC) tests, and has been studied as a simple marker of the systemic inflammatory response. This study was performed to investigate whether the NLR could be used as a tool to diagnose and predict prognosis in cases of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD).We retrospectively reviewed 164 patients with suspected AOSD. Among 164 patients with suspected AOSD, 37 patients received another diagnosis (such as viral infection) and were compared with the 127 patients who received a diagnosis of AOSD. Laboratory tests including CBCs, ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and the NLR were evaluated.AOSD patients showed higher neutrophil counts, lower lymphocyte counts, higher NLRs, and higher levels of ferritin, ESR, and CRP than non-AOSD patients (all P < .001). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the NLR for diagnosis of AOSD, the area under the curve (AUC) was highest at 0.967 (95% CI = 0.940-0.993) with a cutoff value of 3.08. The cutoff value showed the greatest sensitivity (91.7%), specificity (68.4%), and AUC value (0.967) as a diagnostic tool for AOSD. The NLR and treatment appeared to be significant prognostic factors for relapse, but only age showed a significant relationship with death. Furthermore, the NLR was significantly higher in patients with macrophage activation syndrome than in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) patients (P = .007). In ROC analysis, the NLR with a cutoff value of 5.86 showed a sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of 87.8%, and AUC of 0.794.The NLR can be used as a diagnostic tool and predictor of relapse in AOSD, and for differential diagnosis of HLH.

Anatomic investigation of lumbar transforaminal fenestration approach and its clinical application in far lateral disc herniation.

Treating lumbar disease at the intervertebal foramina is controversial because we lack an approach providing sufficient exposure and preserving spinal stability. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the transforaminal fenestration (TFF) approach for treating lumbar disease involving the intervertebal foramina.In the anatomic study of 30 adult cadaveric lumbar spine specimens, the TFF approach was used from L1 to S1. The scope of resection was measured manually and on 3D CT images. 3D CT images of the lumbar spine of 31 adult patients were collected, and the scope of resection needed during the TFF approach was defined and measured from L1 to S1. In total, 30 patients (14 men) with lumbar FLDH underwent microendoscopic discectomy (MED) via the TFF approach. The results were evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 survey (SF-36), and the MacNab scale.In cadavers, the TFF approach provided sufficient exposure to the posterolateral aspect of the disc and the exiting nerve root at all segments. At L1 to L4, a relatively small part of the isthmus and facet joint was resected; at L4 to S1, a relatively large part of the isthmus and facet joint was resected, so luniform fenestration was needed to preserve a more inferior articular process and continuity of the isthmus. Treatment with MED via the TFF approach was successful in the 30 patients with significantly relieved of symptom after operation. In total, 24 patients were followed for a mean of 24 months. The VAS, ODI, SF-36 physical component, and mental component summary scores at the final follow-up improved significantly compared with preoperative data (P < .05), and excellent results were obtained in 19 patients and good results in 6 according to the Macnab scale.The TFF approach can provide sufficient exposure to the lumbar intervertebal foramina with preservation of stability and can be used effectively with MED to treat lumbar FLDH.

Determining the relationship of kinesiophobia with respiratory functions and functional capacity in ankylosing spondylitis.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causes inflammatory lower back pain, and structural and functional disorders, which affect quality of life negatively.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia in AS on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and functional performance.Thirty-one individuals with AS (n = 19 male, n = 12 female) who were suitable on the basis of the Modified New York (MNY) criteria were included in the study. The participants were given the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), in addition to the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TKS), PFTs, respiratory muscle strength, pain evaluation, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT).The mean values were found as the following: TKS, 41.65 ± 7.59; pain visual analog scale (VAS) score, 6.23 ± 2.86; forced vital capacity (%) (FVC), 75.35% ± 17.92%; forced expiratory volume in first second (%) (FEV1), 73.45% ± 17.20%; FEV1/FVC (%), 75.58% ± 15.99%; peak expiratory flow (%) (PEF), 54,90% ± 20.21%; forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% (FEF25-75), 77.71% ± 27.05%; maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), 62.06 ± 31.68; maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), 95.94 ± 36.60; 6MWT, 445.88 ± 99.48. The scores obtained in TKS were found related to the values of FVC (%), FEV1 (%), chest expansion, BASFI, modified Schober test, lumbar lateral flexion, cervical rotation, and total BASMI score (r = -0.43, -0.36, -0.41, 0.42, -0.49, -0.56, -0.52, 0.56, respectively; P < .05).Kinesiophobia is a condition that may arise in individuals with AS, which has negative effects. Physiotherapists have a responsibility to eliminate kinesiophobia beliefs and prefer therapy method in line with this responsibility.

Total knee arthroplasty conversion after a failed lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with knee hyperextension and secondary ankle degeneration: A case report.

High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used widely for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis to correct the deformity and relieve symptoms, especially in young patients who are willing to maintain the high activity level. However, the change of bone morphology, ligament imbalance, limb malalignment, and other complications may influence the short-term outcomes of HTO. Some cases may even require conversion to TKA shortly after HTO because of the loss of correction or pain due to accelerated osteoarthritis.

Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study.

The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery.In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared.The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively.PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period, and financial support, if compared with lumbar internal fixation operation. Radiographic parameters reflect lumber structure changes, which could be observed immediately after surgery in both methods; however, the recoveries on nerve function and pain relief required a longer time, especially after PLIF operation.

Effects of sealing the intramedullary femoral canal in total knee arthroplasty: A randomized study.

This study investigates the clinical effects of sealing the femoral canal by intramedullary alignment instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Severe Plantar Warts in an Immunocompromised Patient.