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Myocardial Infarction - Top 30 Publications

Shared polymorphisms and modifiable behavior factors for myocardial infarction and high cholesterol in a retrospective population study.

Genetic and environmental (behavior, clinical, and demographic) factors are associated with increased risks of both myocardial infarction (MI) and high cholesterol (HC). It is known that HC is major risk factor that may cause MI. However, whether there are common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with both MI and HC is not firmly established, and whether there are modulate and modified effects (interactions of genetic and known environmental factors) on either HC or MI, and whether these joint effects improve the predictions of MI, is understudied.The purpose of this study is to identify novel shared SNPs and modifiable environmental factors on MI and HC. We assess whether SNPs from a metabolic pathway related to MI may relate to HC; whether there are moderate effects among SNPs, lifestyle (smoke and drinking), HC, and MI after controlling other factors [gender, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension (HTN)]; and evaluate prediction power of the joint and modulate genetic and environmental factors influencing the MI and HC.This is a retrospective study with residents of Erie and Niagara counties in New York with a history of MI or with no history of MI. The data set includes environmental variables (demographic, clinical, lifestyle). Thirty-one tagSNPs from a metabolic pathway related to MI are genotyped. Generalized linear models (GLMs) with imputation-based analysis are conducted for examining the common effects of tagSNPs and environmental exposures and their interactions on having a history of HC or MI.MI, BMI, and HTN are significant risk factors for HC. HC shows the strongest effect on risk of MI in addition to HTN; gender and smoking status while drinking status shows protective effect on MI. rs16944 (gene IL-1β) and rs17222772 (gene ALOX) increase the risks of HC, while rs17231896 (gene CETP) has protective effects on HC either with or without the clinical, behavioral, demographic factors with different effect sizes that may indicate the existence of moderate or modifiable effects. Further analysis with the inclusions of gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions shows interactions between rs17231896 (CETP) and rs17222772 (ALOX); rs17231896 (CETP) and gender. rs17237890 (CETP) and rs2070744 (NOS3) are found to be significantly associated with risks of MI adjusted by both SNPs and environmental factors. After multiple testing adjustments, these effects diminished as expected. In addition, an interaction between drinking and smoking status is significant. Overall, the prediction power in successfully classifying MI status is increased to 80% with inclusions of all significant tagSNPs and environmental factors and their interactions compared with environmental factors only (72%).Having a history of either HC or MI has significant effects on each other in both directions, in addition to HTN and gender. Genes/SNPs identified from this analysis that are associated with HC may be potentially linked to MI, which could be further examined and validated through haplotype-pairs analysis with appropriate population stratification corrections, and function/pathway regulation analysis to eliminate the limitations of the current analysis.

Sex-based differences in quality of care and outcomes in a health system using a standardized STEMI protocol.

Recent data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry indicate that women with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) continue to have higher mortality and reported delays in treatment compared with men. We aimed to determine whether the sex difference in mortality exists when treatment disparities are reduced.

Temporal changes in myocardial infarction incidence rates are associated with periods of perceived psychosocial stress: A SWEDEHEART national registry study.

Psychosocial stress might trigger myocardial infarction (MI). Increased MI incidence coincides with recurrent time periods during the year perceived as particularly stressful in the population.

Efficacy and Safety of Ticagrelor Over Time in Patients With Prior MI in PEGASUS-TIMI 54.

Ticagrelor reduces ischemic risk in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). It remains unclear whether ischemic risk and the benefits of prolonged P2Y12 inhibition in this population remain consistent over time.

Left Atrial Fibrosis and Risk of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

Severity of left atrial (LA) fibrosis is a strong predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation success and has been associated with a history of stroke, hypertension, and heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether more severe LA fibrosis independently increases the risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) among those with AF.

Red meat intake is positively associated with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in the Costa Rica Heart Study.

The adverse effect of red meat consumption on the risk for CVD is a major population health concern, especially in developing Hispanic/Latino countries in which there are clear trends towards increased consumption. This population-based case-control study examined the associations between total, processed and unprocessed red meat intakes and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) in Costa Rica. The study included 2131 survivors of a first non-fatal acute MI and 2131 controls individually matched by age, sex and area of residence. Dietary intake was assessed with a FFQ. OR were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Higher intakes of total and processed red meat were associated with increased odds of acute MI. The OR were 1·31 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·65) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·65) for the highest quintiles of total red meat (median: 110·8 g or 1 serving/d) and processed red meat intake (median: 36·1 g or 5 servings/week), respectively. There were increasing trends in the odds of acute MI with higher total (P trend=0·01) and processed (P trend=0·02) red meat intakes. Unprocessed red meat intake was not associated with increased odds of acute MI. Substitutions of 50 g of alternative foods (fish, milk, chicken without skin and chicken without fat) for 50 g of total, processed and unprocessed red meat were associated with lower odds of acute MI. The positive association between red meat intake and acute MI in Costa Rica highlights the importance of reducing red meat consumption in middle-income Hispanic/Latino populations.

Trends in the Incidence and In-Hospital Outcomes of Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Thyroid Storm.

Thyroid storm (TS) constitutes an endocrine emergency with an incidence of up to 10% of all admissions for thyrotoxicosis. Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a rare complication of TS and very limited data exists on its incidence and outcomes. We aimed to estimate the national trends in incidence and outcomes of CS among patients admitted to US hospitals with TS.

Effect of Losartan on Mitral Valve Changes After Myocardial Infarction.

After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells.

Evaluation of the impact of statin therapy on the obesity paradox in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A propensity score matching analysis from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

The phenomenon of obesity paradox after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported under strong recommendation of statin therapy. However, the impact of statin therapy on this paradox has not been investigated. This study investigated the impact of statin therapy on 1-year mortality according to obesity after AMI. A total of 2745 AMI patients were included from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry after 1:4 propensity score matching analysis (n = 549 for nonstatin group and n = 2196 for statin group). Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and cardiac death, respectively. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of all-cause (8.4% vs 3.7%) and cardiac (6.2% vs 2.3%) death was higher in nonstatin group than in statin (P < .001, respectively). In nonstatin group, the incidence of all-cause (7.2% vs 9.0%) and cardiac (5.5% vs 6.5%) death did not differ significantly between obese and nonobese patients. However, in statin group, obese patients had lower 1-year rate of all-cause (1.7% vs 4.8%) and cardiac (1.2% vs 2.9%) death (P < .05, respectively), and lower cumulative rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis of all-cause and cardiac death compared with nonobese patients (log-rank P < .05, respectively). The overall risk of all-cause death was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese patients only in statin group (hazard ratio: 0.35; P = .001). After adjusting for confounding factors, obesity was independently associated with decreased risk of all-cause death in statin group. In conclusion, the greater benefit of statin therapy for survival in obese patients is further confirmation of the obesity paradox after AMI.

Procedural Anticoagulation in Myocardial Infarction.

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to Predict Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy Patients Using Late Gadolinium Enhancement Border Zone: Comparison of Four Analysis Methods.

Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) border zone on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed as an independent predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. The purpose was to determine whether size and heterogeneity of LGE predict appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients and to evaluate 4 LGE border-zone algorithms.

Regional Dysfunction After Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

Detailed understanding of regional function after myocardial infarction (MI) is currently incomplete. We aimed at investigating regional myocardial strain and work in post-MI rats with and without heart failure.

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Clinical Outcomes and Risk of Recurrence.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is underdiagnosed and an important cause of myocardial infarction (MI), especially in young women. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes, including recurrent SCAD, are inadequately reported.

Use of Outpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation Among Heart Attack Survivors - 20 States and the District of Columbia, 2013 and Four States, 2015.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States (1). Each year, approximately 790,000 adults have a myocardial infarction (heart attack), including 210,000 that are recurrent heart attacks (2). Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) includes exercise counseling and training, education for heart-healthy living, and counseling to reduce stress. Cardiac rehab provides patients with education regarding the causes of heart attacks and tools to initiate positive behavior change, and extends patients' medical management after a heart attack to prevent future negative sequelae (3). A systematic review has shown that after a heart attack, patients using cardiac rehab were 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41%-62%) less likely to die from any cause and 57% (95% CI = 21%-77%) less likely to experience cardiac-related mortality than were those who did not use cardiac rehab (3). However, even with long-standing national recommendations encouraging use of cardiac rehab (4), the intervention has been underutilized. An analysis of 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data found that only 34.7% of adults who reported a history of a heart attack also reported subsequent use of cardiac rehab (5). To update these estimates, CDC used the most recent BRFSS data from 2013 and 2015 to assess the use of cardiac rehab among adults following a heart attack. Overall use of cardiac rehab was 33.7% in 20 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 2013 and 35.5% in four states in 2015. Cardiac rehab use was underutilized overall and differences were evident by sex, age, race/ethnicity, level of education, cardiovascular risk status, and by state. Increasing use of cardiac rehab after a heart attack should be encouraged by health systems and supported by the public health community.

Association of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio with in-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction.

In recent years, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) has become a novel indirect marker of inflammation, which has been demonstrated to be associated with poor prognosis of oncology and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between LMR on admission and in-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).A total of 306 STEMI patients were enrolled and grouped according to tertiles of LMR from the blood samples obtained in the emergency room on admission. Total white blood cell count, differential count of neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and other factors were evaluated.The median follow-up period was 21 months (1-36 months). As the LMR decreased, in-hospital nonfatal myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality increased (P = .002, P = .009, respectively). And long-term stroke/TIA, TVR, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality also increased with decreasing LMR (P = .012, P = .001, P = .003, P = .002, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of LMR for predicting MACCE showed the sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 78% and the optimal cut-off value was determined as 2.62. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounders, LMR was an independent predictor of in-hospital and long-term MACCE (odds ratio [OR] 1.192 [1.069-1.315] P < .001, OR 1.239 [1.125-1.347] P < .001, respectively).The LMR is an independent predictor of in-hospital and long-term MACCE in patients with STEMI after primary PCI. Our results suggest that this simple, inexpensive, relatively available inflammatory marker may have significant effects on the treatment and prognosis in patients with STEMI.

Effect of charted mental illness on reperfusion therapy in hospitalized patients with an acute myocardial infarction in Florida.

Patients with mental illness carry risk factors that predispose them to excess cardiovascular mortality from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with AMI and charted mental illness (CMI) received less reperfusion therapy following an AMI, compared to AMI patients without CMI in a recent sample population from Florida.A secondary analysis of data was conducted using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FL-AHCA) hospital discharge registry. Adults hospitalized with an AMI from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2015 were included for the analysis. The dependent variable was administration of reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], and coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]), and the independent variable was the presence of CMI (depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, race, health insurance, and comorbidities.The database included 61,614 adults (31.3% women) hospitalized with AMI in Florida. The CMI population comprised of 1036 patients (1.7%) who were on average 5 years younger than non-CMI (60.2 ±12.8 versus 65.2 ±14.1; P < .001). Compared with patients without CMI, patients with CMI had higher proportions of women, governmental health insurance holders, and those with more comorbidities. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that patients with CMI were 30% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with those without CMI (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.8). Within the AMI population including those with and without CMI, women were 23% less likely to receive therapy than men; blacks were 26% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than whites; and those holding government health insurances were between 20% and 40% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than those with private health insurance.Patients with AMI and CMI were statistically significantly less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with patients without CMI. These findings highlight the need to implement AMI management care aimed to reduce disparities among medically vulnerable patients (those with CMI, women, blacks, and those with governmental health insurance).

Neuropathic pain attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury through β2-adrenergic pathway.

The relationship between neuropathic pain and myocardial infarction (MI) was uncertain because of some medication or underlying diseases. This study investigated the impact of neuropathic pain on ischemia reperfusion injury using isolated rat hearts and cardiomyocytes.

Identification of Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction Using a High-Sensitivity Troponin I Assay in Patients Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI), a rare complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), is associated with worse outcome. According to the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2), MI is defined by an increase in cardiac troponin (cTn) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) levels; however, many patients show periprocedurally elevated cTn without clinical evidence of MI. The aims of this study were to establish reference values of cardiac troponin I measured with a high-sensitivity assay (hs-cTnI) and to assess the periprocedural diagnostic value of this biomarker in patients who underwent TAVI. Hs-cTnI and CK-MB levels were assessed before and up to 3 days after transfemoral (TF) or transapical (TA) TAVI in 515 patients. A high proportion (61.2%) of patients had elevated hs-cTnI at baseline. According to VARC-2 criteria, almost all TA-patients (99.5%) showed an MI based on hs-cTnI compared with 4.2% based on CK-MB. In TF-patients, 81.1% had an MI based on hs-cTnI compared with 9.0% based on CK-MB. Only 10 patients (2%), however, had a type 1 MI. The ninety-ninth percentile for hs-cTnI was 285 ng/L in the TAVI cohort. After applying a TAVI-specific cutoff the frequency of MI was lower and more realistic (TF: 5% vs 81.1%; p <0.001; TA: 22.2% vs 99.5%; p <0.001). In conclusion, the VARC-2 definition leads to an overestimation of periprocedural MI. Our new TAVI-specific reference values yield a more realistic estimation of the myocardial ischemic risk. hs-cTnI, however, does not seem to be the biomarker of choice for MI detection in this setting.

Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

The efficacy and safety of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors via intracoronary (IC) route versus the intravenous (IV) route are not well known. We conducted this meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluating the role of IC versus IV glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The analysis included 14 trials with a total of 3,754 patients. The primary outcome of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) had no statistically significant difference between the IC and the IV groups (relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.10). Subgroup analysis showed that short-term MACE (i.e., ≤3 months) was reduced in the IC compared with the IV group; however, long-term MACE (>3 months) was not. IC group was superior in achievement of post-procedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11), myocardial blush grade II to III (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.23), ST-segment resolution rates (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.29; p = 0.01), and improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (standardized mean difference = 4.32, 95% CI 0.91 to 7.74). There was a trend for lower stent thrombosis with IC route (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.03). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in all-cause mortality, re-infarction, and major bleeding. In conclusion, despite lack of significant difference in overall MACE outcome, IC glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors may improve short -term MACE, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow, myocardial blush grade II- to III rates, ST-segment resolution, and left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the IV route.

Association Between Health Insurance Status and In-Hospital Outcomes After ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Lack of health insurance is associated with adverse clinical outcomes; however, association between health insurance status and outcomes in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2003 to 2014, hospitalizations with STEMI in patients 18 years of age and older were extracted. Based on health insurance status, patients were categorized into insured and uninsured groups. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Adjusted analysis using inverse probability weighting with multivariable regression was performed to identify independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Of 2,710,375 patients included in the final analysis, 220,770 patients were uninsured. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was lower in uninsured patients (5.1% vs 9.3%; p <0.001). Adjusted analysis showed that lack of health insurance was associated with the worst in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72 to 1.82; p <0.001). Other independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were low household income (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.09; p <0.001), acute stroke (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 2.80 to 2.95; p <0.001), acute kidney injury (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 2.57 to 2.64; p <0.001), cardiac arrest (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 8.77 to 8.99; p <0.001), cardiogenic shock (OR = 5.81, 95% CI 5.74 to 5.88; p <0.001), requirement of pericardiocentesis (OR = 10.54, 95% CI 9.64 to 11.52; p <0.001), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.54; p <0.001), and pneumonia (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.45; p <0.001). The multivariate model demonstrated good statistical discrimination (c-statistic = 0.89). In conclusion, lack of health insurance is independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with STEMI.

Frequency and Prognostic Significance of Abnormal Liver Function Tests in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock.

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), as well as early changes of LFTs and their impact on outcome in CS. We measured LFTs in 178 patients in CS from serial blood samples taken at 0 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The associations of LFT abnormalities and their early changes with all-cause 90-day mortality were estimated using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was abnormal in 58% of the patients, more frequently in nonsurvivors. Abnormalities in other LFTs analyzed (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin) were not associated with short-term mortality. An increase in ALT of >20% within 24 hours (ΔALT>+20%) was observed in 24% of patients. ΔALT>+20% was associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality compared with those with stable or decreasing ALT (70% and 28%, p <0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed that ΔALT>+20% was associated with increased 90-day mortality independent of other known risk factors. In conclusion, an increase in ALT in the initial phase was seen in 1/4 of patients in CS and was independently associated with 90-day mortality. This finding suggests that serial ALT measurements should be incorporated in the clinical assessment of patients in CS.

Clinical Use of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin in Patients With Suspected Myocardial Infarction.

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have been used clinically by thousands of physicians in many countries throughout the world since their clinical introduction 7 years ago. In the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI), beyond doubt, the most important indication of hs-cTn assays, these simple, inexpensive, and highly reproducible tools complement detailed clinical assessment including chest pain characteristics and the electrocardiogram. Hs-cTn assays for the first time allowed the precise quantification of cardiomyocyte injury around the 99th percentile and thereby substantially increased the accuracy of MI detection from blood obtained at presentation to the emergency department (ED). Higher accuracy at ED presentation enabled the development and extensive validation of early hs-cTn-based diagnostic algorithms, which substantially reduced the time required for the safe rule-out or rule-in of MI. This review summarizes key principles underlying the safe and effective use of hs-cTn in the ED in patients with suspected MI.

59-Year-Old Man with Infarction-Related Cardiogenic Shock.

Cangrelor Versus Clopidogrel on a Background of Unfractionated Heparin (from CHAMPION PHOENIX).

Cangrelor is approved for use during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is administered with different parenteral anticoagulants. We examined the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in the subgroup of patients who received unfractionated heparin (UFH) during PCI in the modified intention-to-treat population of the randomized CHAMPION PHOENIX trial (cangrelor vs clopidogrel; n = 10,939). The primary efficacy end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis (ST) at 48 hours. The key secondary efficacy end point was ST. UFH was used in 69.2% (7,569/10,939) of patients. In the UFH subgroup, cangrelor reduced the primary composite efficacy end point at 48 hours compared with clopidogrel (4.8% vs 5.9%; odds ratio [OR] 0.80 [0.65 to 0.98]; p = 0.03). Cangrelor consistently reduced ST at 2 hours (0.7% vs 1.3%; OR 0.56 [0.35 to 0.90]; p = 0.01) and 48 hours (0.9% vs 1.4%; OR 0.70 [0.45 to 1.07]; p = 0.10). There was no difference in GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries)-defined severe or life-threatening bleeding (0.1% vs 0.1%; OR 1.24 [0.33 to 4.61]; p = 0.75) or blood transfusion requirement at 48 hours (0.4% vs 0.2%; OR 1.87 [0.83 to 4.21]; p = 0.12). In conclusion, cangrelor reduces early ischemic periprocedural complications without increasing severe bleeding compared with clopidogrel in patients undergoing PCI with UFH.

CMR Native T1 Mapping Allows Differentiation of Reversible Versus Irreversible Myocardial Damage in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An OxAMI Study (Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction).

CMR T1 mapping is a quantitative imaging technique allowing the assessment of myocardial injury early after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We sought to investigate the ability of acute native T1 mapping to differentiate reversible and irreversible myocardial injury and its predictive value for left ventricular remodeling.

Cardiovascular susceptibility to in vivo ischemic myocardial injury in male and female rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) following prenatal hypoxia exposure leads to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Our aim was to evaluate cardiac susceptibility and its pathophysiological mechanisms following acute myocardial infarction (MI) in adult rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. Male and female rat offspring, which experienced normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (11% O2) in utero underwent sham or MI surgery at 12 weeks of age. Echocardiographic data revealed that both sexes had systolic dysfunction following MI surgery, independent of prenatal hypoxia. Male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia, however, had left ventricular dilatation, global dysfunction, and signs of diastolic dysfunction following MI surgery as evident by increased left ventricular internal diameter (LVID) during diastole (MI effect, P<0.01), Tei index (MI effect, P<0.001), and E/E' ratio (prenatal hypoxia or MI effect, P<0.01). In contrast, diastolic dysfunction in female offspring was not as evident. Cardiac superoxide levels increased only in prenatal hypoxia exposed male offspring. Cardiac sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase2a (SERCA2a) levels, a marker of cardiac injury and dysfunction, decreased in both male and female MI groups independent of prenatal hypoxia. Prenatal hypoxia increased cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) protein levels, while MI reduced RYR2 in only male offspring. In conclusion, male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia had an increased susceptibility to ischemic myocardial injury involving cardiac phenotypes similar to heart failure involving diastolic dysfunction in adult life compared with both offspring from healthy pregnancies and their female counterparts.

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry Predicts Regional Functional Outcome After Experimental Myocardial Infarction.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium-based contrast agents has established as gold standard for tissue characterization after myocardial infarction (MI). Beyond accurate diagnosis, the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict the outcome after MI has yet to be substantiated.

Comparison of 30-Day Readmission Rates After Hospitalization for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Men Versus Women.

Readmission after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) significantly contributes to preventable morbidity and health-care costs. Outcomes after AMI vary by sex but the relationship of sex to readmissions warrants further exploration. Using the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database, we identified patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of AMI and stratified all-cause 30-day readmissions by sex and age. Of 214,824 patients, 44% were 18 to 64 years of age, 56% were ≥65 years, and 28% and 45%, respectively, were female. For patients 18 to 64 years, the readmission rate was 14% for women and 10% for men (p <0.001). For patients ≥65 years, the readmission rate was 18% for women and 16% for men (p <0.001). After adjusting for co-morbidities, women had a significantly higher risk of 30-day readmission compared with men, an effect that was strongest in younger women (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.39, for ages 18 to 44; OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.18, for ages 45 to 64; OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19, for ages 65 to 74, interaction p <0.001). The procedure rates during the index hospitalization were significantly lower for women. The most common readmission diagnoses were recurrent AMI, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Costs associated with readmissions after AMI totaled $447,506,740, of which $176,743,622 were attributed to readmissions of women. In conclusion, women are at higher risk of short-term readmission after an AMI hospitalization than men, particularly younger women. Sex-specific strategies to reduce these readmissions may be warranted.

Autophagosome formation is required for cardioprotection by chloramphenicol.

Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad spectrum antibiotic, was shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. CAP also induces autophagy, however, it is not known whether CAP-induced cardioprotection is mediated by autophagy. Therefore, here we aimed to assess whether activation of autophagy is required for the infarct size limiting effect of CAP and to identify which component of CAP-induced autophagy contributes to cardioprotection against I/R injury.

Fibrogenic Potential of PW1/Peg3 Expressing Cardiac Stem Cells.

Pw1 gene expression is a marker of adult stem cells in a wide range of tissues. PW1-expressing cells are detected in the heart but are not well characterized.