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Myocardial Infarction - Top 30 Publications

Patient selection for high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing and diagnosis of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study.

Objective To evaluate how selection of patients for high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing affects the diagnosis of myocardial infarction across different healthcare settings.Design Prospective study of three independent consecutive patient populations presenting to emergency departments.Setting Secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the United Kingdom and United States.Participants High sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 8500 consecutive patients presenting to emergency departments: unselected patients in the UK (n=1054) and two selected populations of patients in whom troponin testing was requested by the attending clinician in the UK (n=5815) and the US (n=1631). The final diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury was independently adjudicated.Main outcome measures Positive predictive value of an elevated cardiac troponin concentration for a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction.Results Cardiac troponin concentrations were elevated in 13.7% (144/1054) of unselected patients, with a prevalence of 1.6% (17/1054) for type 1 myocardial infarction and a positive predictive value of 11.8% (95% confidence interval 7.0% to 18.2%). In selected patients, in whom troponin testing was guided by the attending clinician, the prevalence and positive predictive value were 14.5% (843/5815) and 59.7% (57.0% to 62.2%) in the UK and 4.2% (68/1631) and 16.4% (13.0% to 20.3%) in the US. Across both selected patient populations, the positive predictive value was highest in patients with chest pain, with ischaemia on the electrocardiogram, and with a history of ischaemic heart disease.Conclusions When high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is performed widely or without previous clinical assessment, elevated troponin concentrations are common and predominantly reflect myocardial injury rather than myocardial infarction. These observations highlight how selection of patients for cardiac troponin testing varies across healthcare settings and markedly influences the positive predictive value for a diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Caused by Spontaneous Coronary Thrombosis by Intimal Rupture.

Medical history We report on a 51-year-old male patient with thoracic pain of acute onset with radiation in the left arm. His cardiovascular risk factors include obesity, smoking and arterial hypertension. Investigations ECG showed no signs of ischemia. The blood test revealed increasing troponin (37 pg/ml; Norm < 14 pg/ml). Therefore we performed cardiac catheterization. The RIVA demonstrated a medial filling defect. Use of OCT imaging showed intimal rupture associated with thrombus. Treatment and course The lesion was stented with a drug eluting stent. We initiated a medication with aspirin, ticagrelor, metoprolol and simvastatin. Conclusion Coronary thrombosis of our patient was caused by spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). SCAD is an important differential diagnosis in patients with ACS. Further prospective studies and guideline recommendations are needed in the future.

Is cardiomegaly on chest radiograph representative of true cardiomegaly: a cross-sectional observational study comparing cardiac size on chest radiograph to that on echocardiography.

To determine whether or not cardiomegaly identified on chest radiograph (CXR) is indicative of true cardiomegaly as determined using echocardiography (echo) as the gold standard tool, and therefore whether or not cardiomegaly on CXR should be investigated further.

Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of cardiogenic shock: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

Guidelines recommend that norepinephrine (NA) should be used to reach the target mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cardiogenic shock (CS), rather than epinephrine and dopamine (DA). However, there has actually been few studies on comparing norepinephrine with dopamine and their results conflicts. These studies raise a heat discussion. This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of norepinephrine for treating CS in comparison with dopamine.

Sex differences in long-term mortality among acute myocardial infarction patients: Results from the ISAR-RISK and ART studies.

Mortality rates in females who survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI) exceed those in males. Differences between sexes in age, cardiovascular risk factors and revascularization therapy have been proposed as possible reasons.

Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction.

This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data.

Electrocardiogram in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction due to occlusion of circumflex artery.

To investigate the diagnostic value of electrocardiographic (ECG) ST-segment in acute inferior myocardial infarction (AIMI) caused by the left circumflex branch (LCX).A total of 240 clinical cases with AIMI in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. All of them had received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 12 hours after symptom onset. The clinical features, ECG manifestations, and coronary artery lesion characteristics of the patients were collected.The right coronary artery (RCA) was shown to be the infarct-related artery (IRA) in 177 patients, while LCX was responsible for AIMI in 63 cases. There was no significant difference in the risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) (P > .05 for all) between the 2 groups. ST-segment elevation in lead II, III, and AVF could be found in all patients. Moreover, ST-segment depression in lead I (STD I), ST-segment elevation in lead III (STE III), STE III-STE II, STE AVF, STD AVL, STD AVL-STD I and STE v6 lead ST-segment deviation exhibited significant difference in 2 groups (P < .05 for all). The changes of STD I, STE III < STEII, STD AVL < STD I could discriminate between LCX and RCA in AIMI patients with high sensitivity and specificity.ECG may be an effective tool to predict the IRA in patient with AIMI.


We investigated concentrations and roles of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein (IGF1BP-3), growth hormone (GH), insulin, and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to assess any possible association between serum GH/IGF-1 axis following AMI and short-term survival rates. A follow up study was performed in 2010. Study group consisted of 75 patients with Killip I and II class AMI. There were 30 control subjects. Blood samples were obtained within 24 hours of admission and analyzed for the aforementioned hormones. Patients were followed-up during 6 months for new cardiac events. Median GH was higher in AMI (0.96; range 0.6-2.4) than in controls (0.26; p<0.001). IGF-1 was significantly lower in AMI (123 vs. 132; p<0.05), and so was the IGF-1/GH ratio (p<0.001) and IGF1BP-3. Insulin was higher in study group, but without statistical significance. However, we found significant between-group differences in other markers of insulin resistance (HbA1c, glycemia, HOMA-IR) and inflammation. Simple linear correlation showed positive correlation between GH and C-reactive protein. All patients with new cardiac events had IGF-1 below median and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. In conclusion, IGF-1 may affect outcome of AMI. GH resistance might be a result of inflammatory/immune response and therefore it could be a useful prognostic marker.

Mitral Leaflet Changes Following Myocardial Infarction: Clinical Evidence for Maladaptive Valvular Remodeling.

Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is classically ascribed to functional restriction of normal leaflets, but recent studies have suggested post-myocardial infarction (MI) mitral valve (MV) leaflet fibrosis and thickening, challenging valve normality. Progression of leaflet thickness post-MI has not been studied. We hypothesized that excessive MV remodeling post-MI contributes to MR. Our objectives are to characterize MV changes after MI and relate them to MR.

Elevated blood pressure and risk of mitral regurgitation: A longitudinal cohort study of 5.5 million United Kingdom adults.

Mitral regurgitation in people without prior cardiac disease is considered a degenerative disease with no established risk factors for its prevention. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) across its usual spectrum is associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation.

Influence of Intramyocardial Adipose Tissue on the Accuracy of Endocardial Contact Mapping of the Chronic Myocardial Infarction Substrate.

Recent studies have demonstrated that intramyocardial adipose tissue (IMAT) may contribute to ventricular electrophysiological remodeling in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. Using an ovine model of myocardial infarction, we aimed to determine the influence of IMAT on scar tissue identification during endocardial contact mapping and optimal voltage-based mapping criteria for defining IMAT dense regions.

Dietary patterns and mental health after myocardial infarction.

Diet has been associated with better mental health in general populations, but less is known on this association in patients with a history of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and mental health in elderly patients with a history of myocardial infarction.

Comparison of bioavailability and antiplatelet action of ticagrelor in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A prospective, observational, single-centre study.

Data from available studies suggest that the presence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be associated with delayed and attenuated ticagrelor bioavailability and effect compared with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Risk of acute STEMI significantly increased in younger smokers.

Incidence and Outcomes of Myocardial Infarction in Patients Admitted With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Data on the incidence and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are limited. We aim to evaluate the incidence, treatment patterns, and outcomes of AMI in patients with AIS using a nationwide database.

Radial artery neointimal hyperplasia after transradial PCI-Serial optical coherence tomography volumetric study.

Transradial catheterization (TRC) is a dominant access site for coronary catheterization and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in many centers. Previous studies reported higher intimal thickness of the radial artery (RA) wall in patients with a previous history of TRC. In this investigation the aim was to assess the intimal changes of RA using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intravascular imaging in a serial manner.

Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.

Expression of matrix metalloproteinases-12 in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A case-control study.

Matrix metalloproteinases-12 (MMP12) can lead to degradation of elastin resulting in plaque destabilization and rupture. MMP12 also facilitates platelet aggregation, adhesion, and granule secretion. However, evidence in the literature related to the function of MMP12 in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is little. This study investigated the expression of MMP12 in human coronary thrombus and examined the relationship between plasma MMP12 and STEMI.Arterial plasma was obtained from 46 STEMI patients and 52 stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients and 30 controls with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Coronary thrombi were obtained from 26 STEMI patients with a large thrombus burden (LTB). The expression levels of MMP12 in coronary thrombus were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting (WB) and casein zymography. In addition, MMP12 concentration measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and activity measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) were used to assess the levels in plasma.We confirmed the expression of MMP12 in human coronary thrombus. MMP12 was secreted mainly in active form of 45 kDa in coronary thrombus. In plasma samples of the STEMI group, MMP12 concentrations were found to be higher than the SAP group (5.030 ± 2.24 pg/mL vs 3.010 ± 1.99 pg/mL, P < .05) but with lower MMP12 activity (332 ± 77 RFU vs 458 ± 91 RFU, P < .05). Also, the STEMI group demonstrated much higher MMP12 concentrations than the normal coronary artery control group (5.030 ± 2.24 pg/mL vs 1.720 ± 0.51 pg/mL, P < .05) and with lower MMP12 activity (332 ± 77 RFU vs 549 ± 112 RFU, P < .05). In addition, the STEMI group had significantly higher tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) concentration (573.40 ± 270.60 pg/mL) than SAP group (384.50 ± 147.70 pg/mL) and control group (219.90 ± 154.80 pg/mL, P < .05). The imbalance in MMP12/TIMP ratio was observed in the STEMI group compared with SAP and control group (P < .05).This study demonstrated that MMP12 exists in human coronary thrombus. Patients with STEMI have elevated plasma level of MMP12 and the imbalance of MMP12/TIMP1. These data supported that MMP12 might be of potential relevance in STEMI.

Characterization of the Average Daily Ischemic and Bleeding Risk After Primary PCI for STEMI.

The risk of recurrent ischemic and bleeding events after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may not be uniform over time, which may affect the benefit-to-risk ratio of guideline-recommended antithrombotic therapies in different intervals.

Could a New Method to Detect Coronary Inflammation Prevent Heart Attacks?

Age Differences in Hospital Mortality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implications for Hospital Profiling.

Publicly reported hospital risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are calculated for Medicare beneficiaries. Outcomes for older patients with AMI may not reflect general outcomes.

Direct Comparison of Cardiac Myosin-Binding Protein C With Cardiac Troponins for the Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyC) is a cardiac-restricted protein that is more abundant than cardiac troponins (cTn) and is released more rapidly after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated cMyC as an adjunct or alternative to cTn in the early diagnosis of AMI.

Risk of Cardiovascular Ischemic Events After Surgical Castration and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Purpose Our aim was to determine whether cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) differs between those who receive androgen-deprivation therapy by surgical castration and those who receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy. Patients and Methods By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we analyzed data from 14,715 patients with PCa diagnosed from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2011. The patients were treated with bilateral orchiectomy or GnRHa therapy. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting with propensity scores to adjust for the imbalance in covariate baseline values between these two groups. Cox regression models were used to identify risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke (IS), and cardiac-related complications. Results Overall, 3,578 patients with PCa (24.3%) underwent bilateral orchiectomy and 11,137 patients (75.7%) received GnRHa therapy. Both groups had a similar risk of CV ischemic events (ie, MI or IS; hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.38) during a median follow-up time of 3.3 years. However, during the first 1.5 years of follow-up, there were higher CV ischemic events in the orchiectomy group than in the GnRHa group (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.88), particularly in patients who were ≥ 65 years of age, had hypertension, had a Charlson comorbidity index score ≥ 3, and had a previous history of MI, IS, or coronary heart disease. Conclusion Compared with bilateral orchiectomy, use of GnRHa does not increase the risk of CV ischemic events in patients with PCa. Nonetheless, orchiectomy is associated with higher rates of CV ischemic events in older patients and those with a history of CV comorbidities within 1.5 years of initiating androgen-deprivation therapy. These findings can help clinicians decide on the optimal castration strategy for individual patients.

DPP4 Inhibition Ameliorates Cardiac Function by Blocking the Cleavage of HMGB1 in Diabetic Mice After Myocardial Infarction.

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein, promotes angiogenesis and tissue repair, resulting in restored cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Although dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) degrades certain peptides, it remains unclear as to whether HMGB1 is a substrate of DPP4 and whether DPP4 inhibition prevents the cleavage of HMGB1.In transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of HMGB1 (TG) and wild-type mice (WT), a diabetic state was induced by streptozotocin, and MI was created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. To inhibit DPP4 activity, a DPP4 inhibitor anagliptin was used. The plasma levels of HMGB1, infarct size, echocardiographic data, angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the peri-infarct area were compared among non-diabetic MI WT/TG, diabetic MI WT/TG, and anagliptin-treated diabetic MI WT/TG mice.DPP4 activity was increased in the diabetic state and blocked by anagliptin administration. The HMGB1 plasma levels were reduced in the diabetic TG compared with the non-diabetic TG mice, but DPP4 inhibition with anagliptin increased HMGB1 plasma levels in the diabetic TG mice. The infarct area was significantly larger in the diabetic TG than in the non-diabetic TG mice, and it was reduced by DPP4 inhibition. Cardiac function, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression were impaired in the diabetic TG mice, but they were ameliorated by the DPP4 inhibition to levels similar to those found in the non-diabetic TG mice.The DPP4 inhibitor ameliorated cardiac function by inhibiting the inactivation of HMGB1 in diabetic mice after MI.

Porphyromonas Gingivalis Elevated High-Mobility Group Box 1 Levels After Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses. Epidemiological studies suggested a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells following myocardial infarction (MI), HMGB1 is released, activating an inflammatory reaction. However, it remains unclear whether periodontitis is also involved in myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) after MI in mice.C57BL/6J wild type mice in post-MI were inoculated with P.g. in the infected group (P.g.-inoculated MI group) and with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) in the control group (PBS-injected MI group). Plasma samples and twelve tissue samples from mice hearts after MI were obtained. We determined the expression of HMGB1 by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.The level of HMGB1 protein in the P.g.-inoculated MI group was significantly higher than in the PBS-injected MI group on day 5, but not on day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that HMGB1 was mainly expressed in cardiomyocytes, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the PBS-injected MI group, while HMGB1 was seen broadly in degenerated cardiomyocytes, extracellular fields, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the P.g.-inoculated MI group. A significant increase in the number of HMGB1 positive cells was observed in the P.g.-inoculated MI group compared to the PBS-injected MI group.Infection with P.g. after MI enhanced myocardial HMGB1 expression. There is a possible relationship between periodontitis and post-infarction myocardial inflammation through HMGB-1.

Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation with Conventional Anticoagulation Can Be a Best Solution for Shock Due to Massive PE.

While most of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) cases can be managed by thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy, massive PE remains a life-threatening disease. Although surgical embolectomy can be a curative therapy for massive PE, peri-operative mortality for hemodynamically collapsed PE is extremely high. We present a case of hemodynamically collapsed massive PE. We avoided either thrombolytic therapy or surgical embolectomy, because the patient had recent cerebral contusion. Therefore, we managed the patient with the combination of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) and conventional anticoagulation, which dramatically improved the patient's hemodynamics. In conclusion, the combination of V-A ECMO and conventional anticoagulation may be the preferred first line therapy for the patients with cardiogenic shock following massive PE.

Impact of Postprocedural TIMI Flow on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical prognostic implications of postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow in acute myocardial infarction patients. A total of 2796 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 1720 non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated in 8 hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea and Chonnam National University Hospital were analyzed. The study populations were divided according to the final TIMI flow. The primary outcome were the major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of cardiac deaths (CD), nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR). Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years (minimum 2 to maximum 5 years), MACE and CD occurred more frequently in STEMI patients with TIMI ≤ 2 group than those with TIMI 3 (MACE: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.962; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.513 to 2.546, P < 0.001, CD: aHR, 3.154, CI 2.308 to 4.309, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two subgroups in NSTEMI (aHR, 0.932; 95% CI 0.586 to 1.484, P = 0.087). In STEMI patients, good postprocedural TIMI flow after PCI was associated with favorable clinical outcomes. And the effect of poor TIMI flow in STEMI was on death, not the components of MACE. Meanwhile, postprocedural TIMI flow had no effect on long-term outcomes in NSTEMI patients.

Impact of Double Loading Regimen of Clopidogrel on Final Angiographic Results, Incidence of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with STEMI Undergoing Primary Coronary Intervention.

This study tested the therapeutic impact of double-loading dose (i.e., 600 mg) versus standard-loading dose (i.e., 300 mg) of clopidogrel on ST-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary-coronary-intervention (PCI).Between January 2005 and December 2013, a total of 1461 STEMI patients undergoing PCI were consecutively enrolled into the study and categorized into group 1 (600 mg/clopidogrel; n = 508) and group 2 (300 mg/clopidogrel; n = 953). We assessed angiographic thrombolysis-in-myocardial-infarction (TIMI) flow in the infarct-related-artery, 30-day mortality and upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding (UGIB) within 30 days as primary-endpoints and later incidents of UGIB as secondary-endpoints.The results showed that the incidences of advanced Killip score (defined as ≥ score 3) upon presentation (23.8% versus 24.6%) and advanced heart failure (defined as ≥ NYHAFc-3) (10.2% versus 10.4%) did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.4). Primary-endpoints, which were final TIM-3 flow (91.3% versus 91.7%) in the infarct-related-artery, incidences of 30-day mortality (5.8% vs. 7.1%), and UGIB ≤ 30 day (7.8% versus 8.9%) did not differ between group 1 and group 2 (all P > 0.33). The secondary-endpoints which were incidences of ≥ 30-day < one-year (5.2% versus 4.7) and > one-year (8.9% versus 10.1%) UGIB did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.45). One-year mortality did not differ between two groups (10.74% versus 12.9%) (P > 0.25). Multiple-stepwise-logistic-regression analysis showed that age and advanced-Killip score were independently predictive of 30-day mortality (all P < 0.001).Double-loading dose of clopidogrel did not confer an additional benefit to the final angiograph results, 30-day/one-year clinical outcomes; and age and advanced Killip-score were powerful predictors of 30-day mortality.

FK506 protects heart function via increasing autophagy after myocardial infarction in mice.

To investigate the effect of tacrolimus (FK506) on myocardial infarction, and to further explore its function mechanism.

Saffron (Crocus sativus) intake provides nutritional preconditioning against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in Wild Type and ApoE((-/-)) mice: Involvement of Nrf2 activation.

Saffron is an antioxidant herbal derivative; however, its efficacy as a nutritional cardioprotective agent has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the cardioprotective properties of a standardized saffron aqueous extract (SFE) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in Wild-Type (WT) and ApoE((-/-)) mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms.