PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Neoplasms - Top 30 Publications

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Genetic profiling of putative breast cancer stem cells from malignant pleural effusions.

A common symptom during late stage breast cancer disease is pleural effusion, which is related to poor prognosis. Malignant cells can be detected in pleural effusions indicating metastatic spread from the primary tumor site. Pleural effusions have been shown to be a useful source for studying metastasis and for isolating cells with putative cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. For the present study, pleural effusion aspirates from 17 metastatic breast cancer patients were processed to propagate CSCs in vitro. Patient-derived aspirates were cultured under sphere forming conditions and isolated primary cultures were further sorted for cancer stem cell subpopulations ALDH1+ and CD44+CD24-/low. Additionally, sphere forming efficiency of CSC and non-CSC subpopulations was determined. In order to genetically characterize the different tumor subpopulations, DNA was isolated from pleural effusions before and after cell sorting, and compared with corresponding DNA copy number profiles from primary tumors or bone metastasis using low-coverage whole genome sequencing (SCNA-seq). In general, unsorted cells had a higher potential to form spheres when compared to CSC subpopulations. In most cases, cell sorting did not yield sufficient cells for copy number analysis. A total of five from nine analyzed unsorted pleura samples (55%) showed aberrant copy number profiles similar to the respective primary tumor. However, most sorted subpopulations showed a balanced profile indicating an insufficient amount of tumor cells and low sensitivity of the sequencing method. Finally, we were able to establish a long term cell culture from one pleural effusion sample, which was characterized in detail. In conclusion, we confirm that pleural effusions are a suitable source for enrichment of putative CSC. However, sequencing based molecular characterization is impeded due to insufficient sensitivity along with a high number of normal contaminating cells, which are masking genetic alterations of rare cancer (stem) cells.

Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that perineural tumour contains a lymphocyte infiltrate but it is difficult to quantitate the different proportions of immune cell subsets and expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, Tim-3 and CTLA-4. Using flow cytometry of excised perineural tumour tissue, we show that a T cell infiltrate is prominent in addition to less frequent B cell, NK cell and NKT cell infiltrates. CD8 T cells are more frequent than other T cells in the tumour tissue. Amongst CD8 T cells, the frequency of Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressing cells was significantly greater in the tumour relative to the blood, a pattern that was repeated for Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 amongst non-CD8 T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-1 and PD-L1-expression could be detected in close proximity amongst perineural tumour tissue. The data suggest that perineural SCC contains a mixture of immune cells with a predominant T cell infiltrate containing CD8 T cells. Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors.

The relationship between diabetes and colorectal cancer prognosis: A meta-analysis based on the cohort studies.

Though a meta-analysis reported the effect of diabetes on colorectal prognosis in 2013, a series of large-scale long-term cohort studies has comprehensively reported the outcome effect estimates on the relationship between diabetes and colorectal prognosis, and their results were still consistent.

Promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism for Lamin A/C silencing in a subset of neuroblastoma cells.

Nuclear lamins support the nuclear envelope and provide anchorage sites for chromatin. They are involved in DNA synthesis, transcription, and replication. It has previously been reported that the lack of Lamin A/C expression in lymphoma and leukaemia is due to CpG island promoter hypermethylation. Here, we provide evidence that Lamin A/C is silenced via this mechanism in a subset of neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, Lamin A/C expression can be restored with a demethylating agent. Importantly, Lamin A/C reintroduction reduced cell growth kinetics and impaired migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent cell growth. Cytoskeletal restructuring was also induced. In addition, the introduction of lamin Δ50, known as Progerin, caused senescence in these neuroblastoma cells. These cells were stiffer and developed a cytoskeletal structure that differed from that observed upon Lamin A/C introduction. Of relevance, short hairpin RNA Lamin A/C depletion in unmethylated neuroblastoma cells enhanced the aforementioned tumour properties. A cytoskeletal structure similar to that observed in methylated cells was induced. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy revealed that Lamin A/C knockdown decreased cellular stiffness in the lamellar region. Finally, the bioinformatic analysis of a set of methylation arrays of neuroblastoma primary tumours showed that a group of patients (around 3%) gives a methylation signal in some of the CpG sites located within the Lamin A/C promoter region analysed by bisulphite sequencing PCR. These findings highlight the importance of Lamin A/C epigenetic inactivation for a subset of neuroblastomas, leading to enhanced tumour properties and cytoskeletal changes. Additionally, these findings may have treatment implications because tumour cells lacking Lamin A/C exhibit more aggressive behaviour.

KIAA1199 promotes migration and invasion by Wnt/β-catenin pathway and MMPs mediated EMT progression and serves as a poor prognosis marker in gastric cancer.

KIAA1199 was upregulated in diverse cancers, but the association of KIAA1199 with gastric cancer (GC), the biological role of KIAA1199 in GC cells and the related molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

Correlation of EGFR or KRAS mutation status with 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT scan in lung adenocarcinoma.

18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality based on glucose metabolism. The correlation between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG PET scanning has not been fully elucidated.

Challenges in enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer using techniques independent of cytokeratin expression.

Given the current postulated plasticity between epithelial and mesenchymal states of migratory cancer cells the detection of non-epithelial CTCs is an important scientific and clinical goal.

Microwave ablation of malignant renal tumours: intermediate-term results and usefulness of RENAL and mRENAL scores for predicting outcomes and complications.

The aim of this study was to evaluate intermediate-term results after microwave ablation (MWA) of renal tumours and determine the association of RENAL and modified RENAL (mRENAL) scores with oncological outcomes and complications. In May 2008-September 2014, 58 patients affected by early-stage RCC (renal cell carcinoma; T1a or T1b) were judged unsuitable for surgery and treated with percutaneous MWA. Follow-up was performed with contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure. Technical success (TS), primary technical effectiveness (PTE), secondary technical effectiveness (STE), the local tumour progression rate (LTPR), the cancer-specific survival rate (CSSR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and safety were recorded. All lesions were evaluated using RENAL and mRENAL scores, and complications were assessed with RENAL scores. The TS rate was 100%, PTE was 93%, STE was 100%, LTPR was 15.7% at 1 year, CSSR was 96.5%, DFS was 87.9% at 5 years, and OS was 80.6%. Mean follow-up was 25.7 months (range 3-72). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) RENAL and mRENAL scores of all treated tumours were 6.7 ± 2.05 (range 4-11) and 7 ± 2.3 (range 4-12), respectively. Major complications occurred in two (2/58) and minor complications in three patients (3/58). Overall complications correlated significantly with RENAL scores; in particular, E and L represent negative predictors for safety and effectiveness. MWA is a valuable alternative for treating RCCs. The correlation with outcomes and complications of RENAL and mRENAL scores could help to customise MWA indications in RCC patients.

Prognostic significance of TRAIL-R3 and CCR-2 expression in tumor epithelial cells of patients with early breast cancer.

Tumor epithelial cells (TEpCs) and spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, of patients with early breast cancer express osteoprotegerin (OPG), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, stromal cell derived factor-1, interleukin-6, macrophage colony stimulating factor, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL-2) and their receptors at significantly higher levels compared with non-neoplastic breast tissues. We evaluated the clinicopathological significance of these ligands and receptors in TEpC and spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, to determine their impact on prognosis of patients with early-stage breast cancer.

Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear.

Contrast-enhanced US with Perfluorobutane(Sonazoid) used as a surveillance test for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in Cirrhosis (SCAN): an exploratory cross-sectional study for a diagnostic trial.

Ultrasonography (US) is widely used as a standard surveillance tool for patients who are at a high risk of having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, conventional B-mode US appears to be insufficient in order to ensure the early detection of HCC. Perfluorobutane allows very stable Kupffer phase imaging for at least 60 min, which is tolerable for examinations of the entire liver. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the added value of contrast-enhanced US using perfluorobutane to that of conventional B-mode US as an HCC surveillance tool for patients with liver cirrhosis.

Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients.

Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy produces clinical durable response in 25-30% of recurrent glioblastoma patients. This group of patients has shown improved survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression associated with response and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.

Cancer Genomics and Important Oncologic Mutations: A Contemporary Guide for Body Imagers.

The field of cancer genomics is rapidly evolving and has led to the development of new therapies. Knowledge of commonly involved cellular pathways and genetic mutations is now essential for radiologists reading oncology cases. Radiogenomics is an emerging area of research that seeks to correlate imaging features with cancer genotypes. Such knowledge may extend the utility of multiparametric imaging to yield information regarding cancer prognosis and likelihood of therapeutic response. To date, only a handful of radiogenomics studies have been performed to evaluate solid tumors of the body, and there is much to explore. Before doing so, however, it behooves us to have adequate background knowledge of clinical cancer genomics to design meaningful radiogenomics projects and explore imaging phenotypes. Herein, an up-to-date, detailed overview is provided of well-known and common mutations of solid body tumors (such as human epithelial growth factor receptor 2, breast cancer susceptibility protein), newer genomic alterations with potential for clinical relevance, and a discussion of known related imaging findings, including existing radiogenomics data and other radiologic patterns of disease. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Radiofrequency versus microwave ablation for treatment of the lung tumours: LUMIRA (lung microwave radiofrequency) randomized trial.

The LUMIRA trial evaluated the effectiveness of radiofrequency (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) in lung tumours ablation and defining more precisely their fields of application. It is a controlled prospective multi-centre random trial with 1:1 randomization. Fifty-two patients in stage IV disease (15 females and 37 males, mean age 69 y.o., range 40-87) were included. We randomized the patients in two different subgroups: MWA group and RFA group. For each group, we evaluated the technical and clinical success, the overall survival and complication rate. Inter-group difference was compared using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA test for continuous variables. For RFA group, there was a significant reduction in tumour size only between 6 and 12 months (p value = 0.0014). For MWA group, there was a significant reduction in tumour size between 6 and 12 months (p value = 0.0003) and between pre-therapy and 12 months (p value = 0.0215). There were not significant differences between the two groups in terms of survival time (p value = 0.883), while the pain level in MWA group was significantly less than in RFA group (1.79 < 3.25, p value = 0.0043). In conclusion, our trial confirms RFA and MWA are both excellent choices in terms of efficacy and safety in lung tumour treatments. However, when compared to RFA therapy, MWA produced a less intraprocedural pain and a significant reduction in tumour mass.

Irreversible electroporation for the treatment of rabbit VX2 breast cancer.

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is considered predominantly as a non-thermal ablative technique that uses electrical fields to permeabilize cell membranes and lead to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of IRE in the rabbit VX2 breast cancer model. Thirty-five female New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated against VX2 breast cancer cells. The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: a control group of 15 rabbits and an IRE treatment group of 20 rabbits. Treatment and treatment outcome were evaluated by computerized tomography (CT) scan (plain or contrast enhanced), tumor growth curves and pathological examination including H&E, TUNEL, PCNA and CD31 staining. All rabbits in the IRE treatment group experienced successful IRE without obvious complications except for thoracic major muscle injury. A focused, complete and well-defined ablation zone where tumor cells have been thoroughly eradicated was detected by H&E staining, along with increasing TUNEL staining. The expression of PCNA and CD31 was down-regulated at the periphery of the ablation region. As of the last follow-up, 10 rabbits (67%) in IRE group demonstrated disease is under control; 2 rabbits (13%) are in stable condition; 3 rabbits (20%) suffered from disease progression; the remaining 5 rabbits were sacrificed for pathological examination halfway through the study. Overall, the efficacy of IRE was demonstrated by the creation of a complete ablation region, with increased apoptosis in the ablation zone and decreased proliferation and microvessel density of tumor tissue at the periphery. IRE is a promising local treatment for breast cancer.

Detection of Histone H3 mutations in cerebrospinal fluid-derived tumor DNA from children with diffuse midline glioma.

Diffuse midline gliomas (including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, DIPG) are highly morbid glial neoplasms of the thalamus or brainstem that typically arise in young children and are not surgically resectable. These tumors are characterized by a high rate of histone H3 mutation, resulting in replacement of lysine 27 with methionine (K27M) in genes encoding H3 variants H3.3 (H3F3A) and H3.1 (HIST1H3B). Detection of these gain-of-function mutations has clinical utility, as they are associated with distinct tumor biology and clinical outcomes. Given the paucity of tumor tissue available for molecular analysis and relative morbidity of midline tumor biopsy, CSF-derived tumor DNA from patients with diffuse midline glioma may serve as a viable alternative for clinical detection of histone H3 mutation. We demonstrate the feasibility of two strategies to detect H3 mutations in CSF-derived tumor DNA from children with brain tumors (n = 11) via either targeted Sanger sequencing of H3F3A and HIST1H3B, or H3F3A c.83 A > T detection via nested PCR with mutation-specific primers. Of the six CSF specimens from children with diffuse midline glioma in our cohort, tumor DNA sufficient in quantity and quality for analysis was isolated from five (83%), with H3.3K27M detected in four (66.7%). In addition, H3.3G34V was identified in tumor DNA from a patient with supratentorial glioblastoma. Test sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (100%) was validated via immunohistochemical staining and Sanger sequencing in available matched tumor tissue specimens (n = 8). Our results indicate that histone H3 gene mutation is detectable in CSF-derived tumor DNA from children with brain tumors, including diffuse midline glioma, and suggest the feasibility of "liquid biopsy" in lieu of, or to complement, tissue diagnosis, which may prove valuable for stratification to targeted therapies and monitoring treatment response.

Women Epidemiology Lung Cancer (WELCA) study: reproductive, hormonal, occupational risk factors and biobank.

Lung cancer aetiology and clinical aspects have been mainly studied in men, although specific risk factors probably exist in women. Here we present the rationale, design and organization of the WELCA study (Women Epidemiology Lung CAncer) that has been launched to investigate lung cancer in women, focusing particularly on hormonal and occupational factors.

Prognostic value of pretreatment standardized uptake value of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in patients with gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.

F-18- fluorodeoxyglucose Positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) has been widely used in clinical practice. However, the prognostic value of the pretreatment standardized uptake value (SUV) for patients with gastric cancer remains controversial.

The treatment of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a two decades monocentric experience with 98 patients.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the most suitable first-line approach and the best combination treatment for primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) as they have been matter of debate for at least two decades.

Evaluation of the association between quantitative mammographic density and breast cancer occurred in different quadrants.

To investigate the relationship between mammographic density measured in four quadrants of a breast with the location of the occurred cancer.

NaviCom: a web application to create interactive molecular network portraits using multi-level omics data.

Human diseases such as cancer are routinely characterized by high-throughput molecular technologies, and multi-level omics data are accumulated in public databases at increasing rate. Retrieval and visualization of these data in the context of molecular network maps can provide insights into the pattern of regulation of molecular functions reflected by an omics profile. In order to make this task easy, we developed NaviCom, a Python package and web platform for visualization of multi-level omics data on top of biological network maps. NaviCom is bridging the gap between cBioPortal, the most used resource of large-scale cancer omics data and NaviCell, a data visualization web service that contains several molecular network map collections. NaviCom proposes several standardized modes of data display on top of molecular network maps, allowing addressing specific biological questions. We illustrate how users can easily create interactive network-based cancer molecular portraits via NaviCom web interface using the maps of Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN) and other maps. Analysis of these molecular portraits can help in formulating a scientific hypothesis on the molecular mechanisms deregulated in the studied disease.

Neuron-restrictive silencer factor-mediated downregulation of μ-opioid receptor contributes to the reduced morphine analgesia in bone cancer pain.

Bone cancer pain has been reported to have unique mechanisms and is resistant to morphine treatment. Recent studies have indicated that neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) plays a crucial role in modulating the expression of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) gene. The present study elucidates the regulatory mechanisms of MOR and its ability to affect bone cancer pain. Using a sarcoma-inoculated murine model, pain behaviors that represent continuous or breakthrough pain were evaluated. Expression of NRSF in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn was quantified at the transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to detect NRSF binding to the promoter of MOR. Furthermore, NRSF was genetically knocked out by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, and the expression of MOR and the effect of morphine were subsequently analyzed. Our results indicated that in a sarcoma murine model, NRSF expression is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and the expression of NRSF mRNA is significantly negatively correlated with MOR mRNA expression. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that NRSF binding to the neuron-restrictive silencer element within the promoter area of the MOR gene is promoted with a hypoacetylation state of histone H3 and H4. Furthermore, genetically knocking down NRSF with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide rescued the expression of MOR and potentiated the systemic morphine analgesia. The present results suggest that in sarcoma-induced bone cancer pain, NRSF-induced downregulation of MOR is involved in the reduction of morphine analgesia. Epigenetically, up-regulation of MOR could substantially improve the effect of system delivery of morphine.

Death Within 1 Month of Diagnosis in Childhood Cancer: An Analysis of Risk Factors and Scope of the Problem.

Purpose Despite advances in childhood cancer care, some patients die soon after diagnosis. This population is not well described and may be under-reported. Better understanding of risk factors for early death and scope of the problem could lead to prevention of these occurrences and thus better survival rates in childhood cancer. Methods We retrieved data from SEER 13 registries on 36,337 patients age 0 to 19 years diagnosed with cancer between 1992 and 2011. Early death was defined as death within 1 month of diagnosis. Socioeconomic status data for each individual's county of residence were derived from Census 2000. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for the association between early death and demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic factors. Results Percentage of early death in the period was 1.5% (n = 555). Children with acute myeloid leukemia, infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, hepatoblastoma, and malignant brain tumors had the highest risk of early death. On multivariable analysis, an age younger than 1 year was a strong predictor of early death in all disease groups examined. Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were both risk factors for early death in multiple disease groups. Residence in counties with lower than median average income was associated with a higher risk of early death in hematologic malignancies. Percentages of early death decreased significantly over time, especially in hematologic malignancies. Conclusion Risk factors for early death in childhood cancer include an age younger than 1 year, specific diagnoses, minority race and ethnicity, and disadvantaged socioeconomic status. The population-based disease-specific percentages of early death were uniformly higher than those reported in cooperative clinical trials, suggesting that early death is under-reported in the medical literature. Initiatives to identify those at risk and develop preventive interventions should be prioritized.

Reversion of BRCA1/2 Germline Mutations Detected in Circulating Tumor DNA From Patients With High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Purpose Germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) are associated with favorable responses to chemotherapy. However, secondary intragenic (reversion) mutations that restore protein function lead to clinically significant rates of acquired resistance. The goal of this study was to determine whether reversion mutations could be found in an unbiased manner in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to predict treatment response in HGSC. Patients and Methods Plasma and tumor samples were obtained from 30 patients with HGSC with either BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation. Two cohorts were ascertained: patients with a malignancy before undergoing primary HGSC debulking surgery (n = 14) or patients at disease recurrence (n = 16). Paired tumor and plasma samples were available for most patients (24 of 30). Targeted amplicon, next-generation sequencing was performed using primers that flanked germline mutations, whose design did not rely on prior knowledge of reversion sequences. Results Five patients were identified with intragenic mutations predicted to restore BRCA1/2 open reading frames, including two patients with multiple independent reversion alleles. Reversion mutations were only detected in tumor samples from patients with recurrent disease (five of 16) and only in cfDNA from patients with a tumor-detected reversion (three of five). Findings from a rapid autopsy of a patient with multiple independent reversions indicated that reversion-allele frequency in metastatic sites is an important determinant of assay sensitivity. Abundance of tumor-derived DNA in total cell-free DNA, as measured by TP53 mutant allele frequency, also affected assay sensitivity. All patients with reversions detected in tumor-derived DNA were resistant to platin- or poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor-based chemotherapy. Conclusion Reversion mutations can be detected in an unbiased analysis of cfDNA, suggesting clinical utility for predicting chemotherapy response in recurrent HGSC.

Genetically engineered mouse models of craniopharyngioma: an opportunity for therapy development and understanding of tumor biology.

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is the commonest tumor of the sellar region in childhood. Two genetically engineered mouse models have been developed and are giving valuable insights into ACP biology. These models have identified novel pathways activated in tumors, revealed an important function of paracrine signalling and extended conventional theories about the role of organ-specific stem cells in tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize these mouse models, what has been learnt, their limitations and open questions for future research. We then discussed how these mouse models may be used to test novel therapeutics against potentially targetable pathways recently identified in human ACP.

Proteomics in pediatric cystic craniopharyngioma.

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is still often burdened by a poor prognosis in children as far as the risk of recurrence and the quality of life are concerned. Therefore, many efforts are now dedicated to investigate the molecular characteristics of this tumor aiming at finding new therapeutic options. ACP is prevalently a cystic lesion so that an increasing number of researches are focused on the analysis of its cystic content. In the present article, the main results of the current proteomic analysis (PA) on the ACP fluid are summarized. Both "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches have been utilized. In the bottom-up approach, proteins and peptides are enzymatically or chemically digested prior to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. The bottom-up approach pointed out several proteins of the inflammation (namely, α2-HS-glycoprotein, α1-antichymotrypsin and apolipoproteins) as possibly involved in the genesis and growth of the cystic component of ACP. The top-down strategy analyzes proteins and peptides in the intact state, making it particularly suitable for the identification of peptides and low molecular weight proteins and for the characterization of their possible isoforms and post-translational modifications. The top-down approach disclosed the presence of the thymosin β family. Thymosin β4, in particular, which is involved in the cytoskeleton organization and migration of several tumors, could play a role in the progression of ACP. Finally, PA was utilized to investigate alterations in cyst fluid character after treatment with interferon-α. The analyzed samples showed a progressive reduction of the levels of α-defensins (proteins involved in the inflammatory-mediated response) after the intracystic injection of interferon-α, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to ACP cyst pathogenesis. Additional studies on the solid component of ACP are still necessary to further validate the previous results and to identify possible markers for targeted therapy.