A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Neoplasms - Top 30 Publications

Osimertinib in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.

Osimertinib in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.

Osimertinib in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.

A case of confirmed primary hyperaldosteronism diagnosed despite normal screening investigations.

Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of hypertension in the adult population. We report a case of histologically and biochemically confirmed hyperaldosteronism related to an adrenal adenoma, where initial screening and biochemical tests were potentially misleading. The case highlights the importance of clinical suspicion in the current diagnostic approach to primary hyperaldosteronism.

The cost of major head and neck cancer surgery.

This study quantified the cost of major head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery.

Abnormal Vaginal Pap Test After Hysterectomy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women.

To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal cytology and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women with no history of abnormal cytologic screening who had a hysterectomy for conditions other than cervical dysplasia and cancer; and to explore the risk factors associated with VAIN and vaginal cancer.

Fluorescein Guidance in Glioblastoma Resection.

Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Cancer.

Analysis of Cancer Deaths at the County Level Pinpoints Hot Spots for Action.

Such localized information can help improve resource allocation.

Extramammary Paget's Disease.

Stabilizing the Mixed Lineage Leukemia Protein.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

LincRNa-p21: function and mechanism in cancer.

In view of the rapid development of gene chips and high-throughput sequencing technology, noncoding RNAs (ncRNas) form a high percentage of the mammalian genome. Two major subgroups of ncRNAs that have been identified are the long ncRNAs (lncRNas) and the microRNAs. A number of studies in the past few years have showed crucial functions for lncRNas in cancer. LincRNa-p21 as a p53-dependent transcriptional target gene and a potential diagnostic marker is involved in proliferation, cell cycle, metabolism and reprogramming. In addition, more researches revealed that lincRNa-p21 is associated with cancer progression and contributed to the treatment and prognosis of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize the function and molecular mechanisms of lincRNa-p21 in cancer and its regulation for the genes expression .

Cognitive-Behavioral Coping, Illness Perception, and Family Adaptability in Oncological Patients with a Family History of Cancer.

Aim. The study investigated the differences between patients with and without a family history of cancer regarding coping strategies, illness perception, and family adaptability to the disease. Material and Methods. A total of 124 patients diagnosed with cancer were included in the research (55 of them with a family history of cancer). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, and the Illness Perception Questionnaire were applied. The data were processed using the SPSS 21 software. Results. Patients with previous records of cancer in the family get significantly higher scores for the illness coherence factor. Family satisfaction is significantly higher for patients with a genetic risk, compared to the one reported by patients who suffer from the disease but have no genetic risk. Cognitive-behavioral coping strategies and family cohesion are factors that correlate with an adaptive perception of the illness in the case of patients with a family history of cancer. Conclusion. Results are important for the construction of strategies used for patients with a family history of cancer.

Clinical Significance of Preoperative Albumin and Globulin Ratio in Patients with Gastric Cancer Undergoing Treatment.

Background. The pretreatment albumin and globulin ratio (AGR) was an inflammation-associated factor which was related to the overall survival in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with gastric cancer. Method. This retrospective study included 862 cases pathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer. All patients were randomly divided into the testing group (431 cases) and validation group (431 cases). The relationships of AGR with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results. In the testing group, the median overall survival was 26.90 months and the cutoff value of AGR was 1.50 based on R language. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower AGR was correlated with poorer overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AGR was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.584, 95% CI = 0.351-0.973, and p = 0.039). In the validation group, the median overall survival was 24.10 months. Lower AGR (≤1.50) also had a significantly poorer overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. According to multivariate analysis, the AGR was also confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.578, 95% CI = 0.373-0.897, and p = 0.015). Conclusions. Our study suggested that the pretreatment AGR could be a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in patients with gastric cancer.

Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Histology Is an Adverse Prognostic Factor on Survival in Patients with Breast Cancer.

Invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) is defined to be an uncommon and different subtype of classical invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). This special variant is characterized by significant cytological atypia and pleomorphism which differs from the cytological uniformity of ILC. IPLC has been shown to have some poor prognostic factors such as axillary node metastasis and higher histological grade which may lead to poor clinical courses including a short relapse time, increased risk of recurrence and a decreased survival. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of IPLC in comparison with ILC and also to evaluate if IPLC is a different clinical entity compared to ILC. A total number of 4418 breast cancer patients treated between 1996 and 2015 in Hacettepe University Cancer Institute, were retrospectively analyzed. Among 4418 patients, 210 were diagnosed with ILC and 23 patients diagnosed with pure IPLC. In this present study, clinicopathological characteristics, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with ILC and IPLC were compared. This study design is one of the rare face to face comparison of pure IPLC and ILC. Patients with IPLC had an increased rate of higher histologic grade, extracapsular extension, lymphovascular invasion and lower percentage of hormone positivity than those of patients with ILC. During the follow-up time, IPLC group experienced 4 cases (17.3%) of recurrence, 5 cases (21.7%) of death and 2 cases (8.7%) of progression in 3 metastatic patients compared to that of 27 cases (12.9%) of recurrence, 29 cases (13,8%) of death and 14 cases (6.7%) of progression in 19 metastatic patients in the ILC group. Patients with IPLC had a worse DFS and OS duration than patients with ILC (P = 0.02 for OS, P = 0.04 for DFS). In conclusion, IPLC is a different and a special breast cancer subtype. This study suggests that IPLC is a distinct clinical entity with an advanced stage and more aggressive clinical course. Patients with IPLC reveal poorer prognostic factors such as higher histological grade, relative lower percentages of hormone positivity, and increased rate of recurrences resulting in poor clinical outcomes and worse survival. Nowadays, it is observed that current treatment methods for IPLC do not seem as successful as in ILC and failed to be effective. Thence, individual therapies including more aggressive surgery and adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy even in the earlier stages of breast cancer should be performed for this distinct variant.

Semi-quantitative analysis of cerebral FDG-PET reveals striatal hypermetabolism and normal cortical metabolism in a case of VGKCC limbic encephalitis.

In the context of delayed autoimmune encephalitis antibody results, functional imaging can support the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCC) antibodies. Here we present a typical case of VGKCC encephalitis in a 69-year-old woman whose symptoms responded to plasmapheresis. A cerebral 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan performed prior to commencing treatment revealed striatal hypermetabolism assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, with normal uptake in the cortex and cerebellum when analysed semi-quantitatively. Repeat FDG-PET imaging performed three months later revealed normalisation of striatal hypermetabolism. Previous case reports have described striatal hypermetabolism and/or cortical hypometabolism in patients with VGKCC encephalitis. However, most of these descriptions were based on qualitative analyses only and may represent the relative change in cortical metabolism compared with striatal metabolism. We recommend semi-quantitative analysis of cerebral FDG-PET, in addition to reporting the qualitative FDG-PET images.

Randomized Trial Comparing a Web-Mediated Follow-up With Routine Surveillance in Lung Cancer Patients.

The use of web-based monitoring for lung cancer patients is growing in interest because of promising recent results suggesting improvement in cancer and resource utilization outcomes. It remains an open question whether the overall survival (OS) in these patients could be improved by using a web-mediated follow-up rather than classical scheduled follow-up and imaging.

The Rise of Radiomics and Implications for Oncologic Management.

Clinical medicine, particularly oncology, is progressing toward personalized care. Whereas the terms genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have dominated personalized medicine for the past couple decades, the concept of radiomics was first described in 2012. This nascent concept has major implications for personalized cancer care and involves extracting hundreds of standardized and quantifiable imaging characteristics from diagnostic computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging images. The central hypothesis of radiomics is that these libraries of quantitative individual voxel-based variables are more sensitively associated with various clinical endpoints compared with the more qualitative radiologic, histopathologic, and clinical data more commonly utilized today. Because radiomics offers immense potential but has not reached a mainstream oncologic audience, the authors discuss herein the role of radiomics in cancer care in the future.

Multiple Roles of APC and its Therapeutic Implications in Colorectal Cancer.

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor gene highly mutated in colorectal cancers (CRC). Mutation and inactivation of this gene is a key and early event almost uniquely observed in colorectal tumorigenesis. Alterations in the APC gene generate truncated gene products, leading to activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and deregulation of multiple other cellular processes. It has been a mystery why most patients with CRC retain a truncated APC protein, but accumulating evidence suggest that these C terminally truncated APC proteins may have gain of function properties beyond the well-established loss of tumor suppressive function. Here, we will review the evidence for both the loss of function and the gain of function of APC truncations and how together they contribute to CRC initiation and progression.

Treatment Restarting After Discontinuation of Adjuvant Hormone Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients.

Over half of breast cancer patients discontinue their adjuvant hormone therapy, permanently or temporarily. We aimed to identify predictors of treatment restarting after discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy and to test the hypothesis that treatment restarting is associated with better breast cancer outcomes.

Intratumoral Cancer Cell Intravasation Can Occur Independent of Invasion into the Adjacent Stroma.

Intravasation, active entry of cancer cells into the circulation, is often considered to be a relatively late event in tumor development occurring after stromal invasion. Here, we provide evidence that intravasation can be initiated early during tumor development and proceed in parallel to or independent of tumor invasion into surrounding stroma. By applying direct and unbiased intravasation-scoring methods to two histologically distinct human cancer types in live-animal models, we demonstrate that intravasation takes place almost exclusively within the tumor core, involves intratumoral vasculature, and does not involve vasculotropic cancer cells invading tumor-adjacent stroma and migrating along tumor-converging blood vessels. Highlighting an additional role for EGFR in cancer, we find that EGFR is required for the development of an intravasation-sustaining intratumoral vasculature. Intratumoral localization of intravasation supports the notion that overt metastases in cancer patients could be initiated much earlier during cancer progression than appreciated within conventional clinical tumor staging systems.

Hepatocellular Carcinomas Originate Predominantly from Hepatocytes and Benign Lesions from Hepatic Progenitor Cells.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive primary liver cancer. However, its origin remains a debated question. Using human data and various hepatocarcinogenesis mouse models, we show that, in early stages, transformed hepatocytes, independent of their proliferation status, activate hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) expansion. Genetic lineage tracing of HPCs and hepatocytes reveals that, in all models, HCC originates from hepatocytes. However, whereas in various models tumors do not emanate from HPCs, tracking of progenitors in a model mimicking human hepatocarcinogenesis indicates that HPCs can generate benign lesions (regenerative nodules and adenomas) and aggressive HCCs. Mechanistically, galectin-3 and α-ketoglutarate paracrine signals emanating from oncogene-expressing hepatocytes instruct HPCs toward HCCs. α-Ketoglutarate preserves an HPC undifferentiated state, and galectin-3 maintains HPC stemness, expansion, and aggressiveness. Pharmacological or genetic blockage of galectin-3 reduces HCC, and its expression in human HCC correlates with poor survival. Our findings may have clinical implications for liver regeneration and HCC therapy.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

Reevaluating Eligibility Criteria - Balancing Patient Protection and Participation in Oncology Trials.

Genetic profiling of putative breast cancer stem cells from malignant pleural effusions.

A common symptom during late stage breast cancer disease is pleural effusion, which is related to poor prognosis. Malignant cells can be detected in pleural effusions indicating metastatic spread from the primary tumor site. Pleural effusions have been shown to be a useful source for studying metastasis and for isolating cells with putative cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. For the present study, pleural effusion aspirates from 17 metastatic breast cancer patients were processed to propagate CSCs in vitro. Patient-derived aspirates were cultured under sphere forming conditions and isolated primary cultures were further sorted for cancer stem cell subpopulations ALDH1+ and CD44+CD24-/low. Additionally, sphere forming efficiency of CSC and non-CSC subpopulations was determined. In order to genetically characterize the different tumor subpopulations, DNA was isolated from pleural effusions before and after cell sorting, and compared with corresponding DNA copy number profiles from primary tumors or bone metastasis using low-coverage whole genome sequencing (SCNA-seq). In general, unsorted cells had a higher potential to form spheres when compared to CSC subpopulations. In most cases, cell sorting did not yield sufficient cells for copy number analysis. A total of five from nine analyzed unsorted pleura samples (55%) showed aberrant copy number profiles similar to the respective primary tumor. However, most sorted subpopulations showed a balanced profile indicating an insufficient amount of tumor cells and low sensitivity of the sequencing method. Finally, we were able to establish a long term cell culture from one pleural effusion sample, which was characterized in detail. In conclusion, we confirm that pleural effusions are a suitable source for enrichment of putative CSC. However, sequencing based molecular characterization is impeded due to insufficient sensitivity along with a high number of normal contaminating cells, which are masking genetic alterations of rare cancer (stem) cells.

Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that perineural tumour contains a lymphocyte infiltrate but it is difficult to quantitate the different proportions of immune cell subsets and expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, Tim-3 and CTLA-4. Using flow cytometry of excised perineural tumour tissue, we show that a T cell infiltrate is prominent in addition to less frequent B cell, NK cell and NKT cell infiltrates. CD8 T cells are more frequent than other T cells in the tumour tissue. Amongst CD8 T cells, the frequency of Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressing cells was significantly greater in the tumour relative to the blood, a pattern that was repeated for Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 amongst non-CD8 T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-1 and PD-L1-expression could be detected in close proximity amongst perineural tumour tissue. The data suggest that perineural SCC contains a mixture of immune cells with a predominant T cell infiltrate containing CD8 T cells. Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors.

The relationship between diabetes and colorectal cancer prognosis: A meta-analysis based on the cohort studies.

Though a meta-analysis reported the effect of diabetes on colorectal prognosis in 2013, a series of large-scale long-term cohort studies has comprehensively reported the outcome effect estimates on the relationship between diabetes and colorectal prognosis, and their results were still consistent.