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Neoplasms - Top 30 Publications

Short-term outcomes following cytoreductive surgery and heated intra-peritoneal chemotherapy at Waikato.

Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare disease that affects 1-2 per million population per year. Treatment with cytoreductive surgery with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS with IPC) has been well described. The purpose of this study was to look at the short-term outcomes following CRS with IPC for all such patients treated in Waikato.

Appendicitis presenting as the first manifestation of colorectal carcinoma: a 13-year retrospective study.

Appendicitis in older adults may present as the first sign of underlying colorectal cancer. We aim to determine whether there was a difference in the rate of diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma for patients ≥45 years following a presentation with appendicitis, compared with New Zealand standardised rates.

Long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes proliferation and invasion by acting as a ceRNA of miR-101-3p in colorectal cancer cells.

Long non-coding RNAs are associated with a spectrum of biological processes such as gene regulation on transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Increasing evidence indicates that SPRY4-IT1 plays an important role in carcinogenesis, and the mechanisms whereby SPRY4-IT1 induces colorectal carcinoma progression remain largely unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and function of SPRY4-IT1 in colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we analyzed SPRY4-IT1 expression levels in a series of colorectal carcinoma patients by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 by RNA interference was performed to explore its roles in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Our results found that SPRY4-IT1 was upregulated in human primary colorectal carcinoma tissues. Knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 inhibited colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, we confirmed that the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes was modulated through alteration of SPRY4-IT1 expression. SPRY4-IT1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-101-3p in colorectal carcinoma cells. The bioinformatics prediction revealed putative miR-101-3p binding sites within SPRY4-IT1 transcripts. Above all, knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 could represent a rational therapeutic strategy for colorectal carcinoma.

Inhibitory effect of Par-4 combined with cisplatin on human Wilms' tumor cells.

Wilms' tumor is associated with a high treatment success rate, but there is still a risk of recurrence. Cisplatin, which is one of the chemotherapeutic agents used for its treatment, is associated with a very high rate of resistance. Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response 4) is a tumor suppressor, which is capable of sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether combined treatment with Par-4 and cisplatin is effective for inhibiting growth of Wilms' tumor. Wilms' tumor and control cell samples were collected and analyzed by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Total proteins extracted from cultured cells were analyzed using western blotting and flow cytometry. In addition, a mouse xenograft model was established. We discovered significantly low expression of Par-4 in the tumor tissue, which was positively correlated with high expression of GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78). In addition, we found that ectopic Par-4 co-localized with cell surface GRP78 and induced high expression of the endoplasmic reticulum proteins ATF4 and BAX, which activated the endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway. Moreover, treatment with ectopic Par-4 and cisplatin suppressed xenograft growth in nude mice. In conclusion, our results showed that Par-4 overexpression and cisplatin had a synergistic effect on SK-NEP-1 cells, as a result of which cell growth was inhibited and cellular apoptosis was induced. Thus, in vitro and in vivo upregulation of Par-4 expression is indispensable for the trafficking of GRP78 to the cell membrane and subsequent apoptosis of cancer cells.

HPV16 E6/E7 upregulates HIF-2α and VEGF by inhibiting LKB1 in lung cancer cells.

Long-term persistent infection of HPV16 E6/E7 is frequently associated with lung cancers, especially in non-smokers and in Asians. However, molecular mechanisms of HPV16 E6/E7 induction of lung cancer are not fully understood. Using bi-directional genetic manipulation and four well-established lung cancer cell lines, we showed HPV16 E6/E7 downregulated expression of liver kinase B1 at both protein and messenger RNA levels; liver kinase B1 downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α at protein level but not at messenger RNA level, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor at both protein and messenger RNA levels. This is the first study to show hypoxia-inducible factor 2α as a downstream effector of liver kinase B1 in lung cancer cells. Our results indicate that HPV16 E6/E7 indirectly upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by inhibition of liver kinase B1 expression and upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α expression, thus propose a human papillomavirus-liver kinase B1-hypoxia-inducible factor 2α-vascular endothelial growth factor axis for the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. Our study also provides new evidence to support the critical role of liver kinase B1 in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-related lung cancer and suggests novel therapeutic targets.

High expression of SLC34A2 is a favorable prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Dysregulation of SLC34A2 (NaPi2b) in tumors has attracted wide attention, but its expression and function in non-small cell lung cancer remains unclear. By examining its expression in lung adenocarcinoma and correlation to patient outcome, we aimed to explore its prognostic and therapeutic values in this deadly disease. Overall, 175 cases of lung adenocarcinoma sample were included in this study. Histological subtyping of them was diagnosed according to standards of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society in 2011. Protein expression of SLC34A2 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase in these samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were examined using amplification refractory mutation system. Statistical analysis was performed using software of Pearson's correlation coefficient. High expression of SLC34A2 was identified in about 2/3 patients and correlated with significantly better patient's overall survival. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were detected in about 53% of patients with no statistically significant difference to patient's overall survival. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement was found in 8 out of 175 patients, harboring this abnormality leads to shorter overall survival. No correlation has been found between SLC34A2 expression and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma. High expression of SLC34A2 is present in about 3/4 lung adenocarcinoma samples and predicts better outcome. Since it is a membrane protein, antibody-based drugs targeting this marker might bring new resolution to this deadly disease.

MicroRNA-139-5p inhibits bladder cancer proliferation and self-renewal by targeting the Bmi1 oncogene.

MiR-139-5p has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of cancers, but its role in bladder cancer has not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that miR-139-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer and inhibits the cancer stem cell self-renewal by targeting Bmi1 directly. We found that miR-139-5p expression was significantly downregulated in the bladder cancer specimens compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. In vitro, restoration of miR-139-5p expression significantly inhibited the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. Mechanism analysis revealed that miR-139-5p could decrease Bmi1 protein levels by binding to the 3' untranslated region of Bmi1 messenger RNA. Stem cell-related proteins such as c-MYC, NANOG, OCT4, and KLF4 and signaling pathways such as Wnt signaling were suppressed by restoration of miR-139-5p in bladder cancer cells. In addition, miR-139-5p expression also blocked self-renewal of bladder cancer stem cells by inhibiting Bmi1. In summary, our study supports that miR-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer development and suppresses cancer stem cell property of bladder cancer. Our study also suggests that miR-139-5p has the potential to be used as a therapeutic molecule for bladder cancer treatment.

Evaluation of the antitumor activity of platinum nanoparticles in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced in rats.

This study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of platinum nanoparticles compared with cis-platin both in vitro and in vivo in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced in rats. The treatment efficacy of platinum nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring antioxidant activities against oxidative stress caused by diethylnitrosamine in liver tissue. The measurements included reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as malondialdehyde level. Liver function tests were also determined, in addition to the evaluation of serum alpha-fetoprotein, caspase-3, and cytochrome c in liver tissue. Total RNA extraction from liver tissue samples was also done for the relative quantification of B-cell lymphoma 2, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and tumor protein p53 genes. Histopathological examination was also performed for liver tissue. Results showed that platinum nanoparticles are more potent than cis-platin in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats as it ameliorated the investigated parameters toward normal control animals. These findings were well appreciated with histopathological studies of diethylnitrosamine group treated with platinum nanoparticles, suggesting that platinum nanoparticles can serve as a good therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma which should attract further studies.

STYK1 promotes Warburg effect through PI3K/AKT signaling and predicts a poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

STYK1 (Serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, exhibits tumorigenicity in many types of cancers. Our study reveals the important role played by STYK1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. STYK1 is upregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues compared with para-carcinoma. Knockdown of STYK1 inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while ectopic STYK1 expression significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities. In addition, we provided lines of evidence supporting the critical role of STYK1 in the regulation of glycolysis via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Survival analysis reveals that STYK1 level is an independent prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Our results indicate that STYK1 is a promising therapeutic target in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by sponging miR-204 and releasing SIRT1.

Increasing evidence supports the significance of long non-coding RNA in cancer development. Several recent studies suggest the oncogenic activity of long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which MALAT1 modulates hepatocellular carcinoma biological behaviors. We found that microRNA-204 was significantly downregulated in sh-MALAT1 HepG2 cell and 15 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Through bioinformatic screening, luciferase reporter assay, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull-down assay, we identified microRNA-204 as a potential interacting partner for MALAT1. Functionally, wound-healing and transwell assays revealed that microRNA-204 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Notably, sirtuin 1 was recognized as a direct downstream target of microRNA-204 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, si-SIRT1 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration process. These data elucidated, by sponging and competitive binding to microRNA-204, MALAT1 releases the suppression on sirtuin 1, which in turn promotes hepatocellular carcinoma migration and invasion. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which MALAT1 stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma progression and justifies targeting metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

PPFIA1 is upregulated in liver metastasis of breast cancer and is a potential poor prognostic indicator of metastatic relapse.

Although the oncogenic role of PPFIA1 (liprin-α1) in breast cancer has been reported, whether its dysregulation is associated with metastasis risk or survival outcomes in breast cancer patients is not clear. Our primary data showed that PPFIA1 expression was significantly higher in liver metastatic breast tumors than in the primary tumors. Then, we tried to pool previous annotated genomic data to assess the prognostic value of PPFIA1 in distant metastasis-free survival, the risk of metastatic relapse, and metastatic relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients by data mining in two large databases, Kaplan-Meier plotter and bc-GenExMiner 4.0. Results from Kaplan-Meier plotter showed that although high PPFIA1 expression was generally associated with decreased distant metastasis-free survival in estrogen receptor+ patients, subgroup analysis only confirmed significant association in estrogen receptor+/N- (nodal negative) group (median survival, high PPFIA1 group vs low PPFIA1 cohort: 191.21 vs 236.22 months; hazard ratio: 2.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-3.5, p < 0.001), but not in estrogen receptor+/N+ (nodal positive) group (hazard ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-3.03, p = 0.12). In estrogen receptor- patients, there was no association between PPFIA1 expression and distant metastasis-free survival, no matter in Nm (nodal status mixed), N-, or N+ subgroups. In bc-GenExMiner 4.0, Nottingham Prognostic Index- and Adjuvant! Online-adjusted analysis validated the independent prognostic value of PPFIA1 in metastatic risks in estrogen receptor+/N- patients. Based on these findings, we infer that high PPFIA1 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator of increased metastatic relapse risk in patients with estrogen receptor+/N- breast cancer, but not in estrogen receptor+/N+ or estrogen receptor- patients.

Cervical cancer cell-derived angiopoietins promote tumor progression.

Metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer has limited treatment options and a high rate of mortality. Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs have shown great promise as a therapeutic target for treatment of advanced cervical cancer, drug resistance and class-specific side effects negate long-term benefits. The identification of alternative anti-angiogenic factors will be critical for future drug development for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this study, we found that angiopoietins and Tie receptors were highly expressed in cervical cancer cells. Tie-2 expression in tumor cells predicted poorer prognosis. Wound closure assay and Transwell assay showed that upregulated or downregulated Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression promoted or reduced cervical cancer cell lines migration and invasion, respectively. In subcutaneous xenograft models of cervical cancer, downregulation of Ang-1 and Ang-2 attenuated tumor growth. The expression of vimentin and endomucin and microvessel density were all significantly decreased in the siAng-1 group and siAng-2 group relative to the infection control group. Our data support that dual inhibition of Ang-1 and Ang-2 may be an alternative target for anti-angiogenic adjuvant therapy in advanced or recurrent cervical squamous cell cancer.

Expression of embryonic stem cell markers in acute myeloid leukemia.

Acute myeloid leukemia is driven by leukemic stem cells which can be identified by cross lineage expression or arrest of differentiation compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. Self-renewal and lack of differentiation are also features of stem cells and have been associated with the expression of embryonic genes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of embryonic antigens (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA3) in hematopoietic stem cell subsets (CD34(+)CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD38(+)) from normal bone marrows and in samples from acute myeloid leukemia patients. We observed an upregulation of the transcription factors OCT4 and SOX2 in leukemic cells as compared to normal cells. Conversely, SSEA1 protein was downregulated in leukemic cells. The expression of OCT4, SOX2, and SSEA3 was higher in CD34(+)CD38(-) than in CD34(+)CD38(+) subsets in leukemic cells. There was no correlation with biological characteristics of the leukemia. We evaluated the prognostic value of marker expression in 69 patients who received an intensive treatment. The rate of complete remission was not influenced by the level of expression of markers. Overall survival was significantly better for patients with high SOX2 levels, which was unexpected because of the inverse correlation with favorable genetic subtypes. These results prompt us to evaluate the potential role of these markers in leukemogenesis and to test their relevance for better leukemic stem cell identification.

MicroRNA-613 is downregulated in HCMV-positive glioblastoma and inhibits tumour progression by targeting arginase-2.

Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant tumour that occurs primarily in nervous system and has a high morbidity. Research on glioblastoma has recently focused on human cytomegalovirus, belonging to the beta subfamily of Herpesviridae that plays crucial roles in cancer development and progression. This study aimed to investigate the role of human cytomegalovirus-associated microRNA-613 in glioblastoma. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-613 expression was frequently reduced in human cytomegalovirus-positive glioblastoma specimens/cells compared with human cytomegalovirus-negative glioblastoma tissue/cells, and a significant correlation was observed between the reduction in microRNA-613 expression and the presence of unfavourable variables, including tumour size (p = 0.0118), World Health Organization stage (p = 0.0169), the overall survival (p = 0.0107) and disease-free (p = 0.0159) survival of patients. Overexpression of microRNA-613 in the glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U251 retarded cell growth and induced cell apoptosis. Upregulation of microRNA-613 inhibited glioblastoma cell clone formation, invasion and migration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arginase-2 was directly regulated by microRNA-613 and played an essential role in mediating the biological effects of microRNA-613 in glioblastoma. Re-expression of arginase-2 markedly reversed the inhibitory properties of microRNA-613 in glioblastoma cells. Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence that human cytomegalovirus reduced the level of microRNA-613 which functions as an anti-onco-miRNA in glioblastoma, primarily by downregulating the expression of arginase-2.

Downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase inhibits tumor growth via G2/M arrest in human endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, about 80% of which is endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. Dysregulation of spindle assembly checkpoint plays a vital role in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to explore how tyrosine threonine kinase, a spindle assembly checkpoint-related protein, promotes the endometrial endometrioid carcinoma progression. We found that both messenger RNA and protein levels of tyrosine threonine kinase in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tissues are higher than those in normal endometrial tissues, and its expression is associated with tumor stages. Genetic depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase by RNA interference in two endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell lines significantly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Mechanistically, depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and triggers caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Collectively, tyrosine threonine kinase is significantly upregulated in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, and downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase can suppress endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via G2/M cell cycle arrest. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine threonine kinase can be a potential therapeutic target for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma treatment.

RIZ1 and histone methylation status in pituitary adenomas.

RIZ1 displays strong tumor-suppressive activities, which has a potential histone methyltransferase activity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level and the methylation status of RIZ1 and analyze its association with clinicopathological features and the histone in the pituitary adenomas. We found that RIZ1-positive cases were 11/50 and H-Scores 22.75 ± 11.83 in invasive pituitary adenomas and 26/53 and 66.3 ± 21.7 in non-invasive pituitary adenomas (χ(2) = 8.182, p = 0.004). RIZ1 and C-myc showed the opposite trend in these cases. The methylation levels of RIZ1 were more than 50% in 30.4% (7/23) CpG sites through MALDI-TOF Mass array. There was significant difference (p < 0.01) in 4 CpG sites between invasive pituitary adenoma group and non-invasive pituitary adenoma group; furthermore, the relieved methylation levels of H3K4/H3K9 and enhanced methylation levels of H3K27 in the patients' serum were found. Furthermore, there was statistic difference of H3K4 and H3K27 methylation between invasive pituitary adenoma and non-invasive pituitary adenoma group (p < 0.01). The average progression-free survival in high RIZ1 group was 52.63 ± 7.62 months and 26.06 ± 4.23 months in low RIZ1 group (p < 0.05). Promoter region methylation of RIZ1 may play an important role in the epigenetic silencing of RIZ1 expression in pituitary adenomas, which may translate into important diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

EMP3 is induced by TWIST1/2 and regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells.

In this study, we aimed to explore new downstream effectors of TWIST1/2 in inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer. Bioinformatic data mining was performed using data in The Cancer Genome Atlas Stomach Adenocarcinoma. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier plotter. Gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and SGC-7901) were used as in vitro cell model to investigate the regulative effect of TWIST1/2 on epithelial membrane protein 3 expression and the progression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Results showed that TWIST1 and TWIST2 are usually co-upregulated in patients with primary gastric cancer. High TWIST1 expression is associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.49; p = 0.007) and also worse first progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.82; p < 0.0001). Similarly, high TWIST2 expression is associated with unfavorable overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval = 1.32-2.22; p < 0.0001) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.99; 95% confidence interval = 1.45-2.72; p < 0.0001). Epithelial membrane protein 3 is negatively correlated to CDH1 expression (Pearson's r = -0.46) but is positively correlated to VIM expression (Pearson's r = 0.83). Knockdown of epithelial membrane protein 3 significantly increased E-cadherin but significantly decreased Vimentin expression in AGS cells. Gastric cancer patients with metastasis have significantly higher epithelial membrane protein 3 expression than the cases without metastasis. In addition, high epithelial membrane protein 3 expression is associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.59; 95% confidence interval = 2.06-3.26; p < 0.0001) and also worse progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 2.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.78-2.74; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, epithelial membrane protein 3 is a downstream effector of TWIST1/2 in inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer. Epithelial membrane protein 3 upregulation might be associated with gastric cancer metastasis and is a potential indicator of unfavorable overall survival and progression-free survival in gastric cancer patients.

Cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete FGF-1 to promote ovarian proliferation, migration, and invasion through the activation of FGF-1/FGFR4 signaling.

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, due to its high propensity for metastasis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts, as the dominant component of tumor microenvironment, are crucial for tumor progression. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ovarian cancer cells by cancer-associated fibroblasts remain little known. Here, we first isolated cancer-associated fibroblasts from patients' ovarian tissues and found that cancer-associated fibroblasts promoted SKOV3 cells' proliferation, migration, and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor-1 was identified as a highly increased factor in cancer-associated fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (~4.6-fold, p < 0.01) and ELISA assays (~4-fold, p < 0.01). High expression of fibroblast growth factor-1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts either naturally or through gene recombination led to phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in SKOV3 cells, which is followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-associated gene Snail1 and MMP3 expression. Moreover, treatment of SKOV3 cell with fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor PD173074 terminated cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, reduced the phosphorylation level of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, and suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. In addition, the expression level of Snail1 and MMP3 was reduced, while the expression level of E-cadherin increased. These observations suggest a crucial role for cancer-associated fibroblasts and fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 signaling in the progression of ovarian cancer. Therefore, this fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 axis may become a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Screening of specific nucleic acid aptamers binding tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients and identification of their activities.

Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnostic methods, the status of early detection was not achieved. So, a new diagnostic method is needed. The aim of this study is to obtain the highly specific nucleic acid aptamers with strong affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients for targeting the serum. Aptamers specifically binding to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients were screened from the random single-stranded DNA library with agarose beads as supports and the serum as a target by target-substituting subtractive SELEX technique and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Subsequently, the secondary single-stranded DNA library obtained by 10 rounds of screening was amplified to double-stranded DNA, followed by high-throughput genome sequence analysis to screen aptamers with specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Finally, six aptamers obtained by 10 rounds of screening were identified with high specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Compared with other five aptamers, the aptamer 43 was identified both with the highest specificity to bind target molecule and without any obvious affinity to non-specific proteins. The screened aptamers have relatively high specificity to combine tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients, which provides breakthrough points for early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

MiR-592 functions as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting IGFBP2.

A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNA-592 is involved in tumor initiation and development in several types of human cancers. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanism of microRNA-592 in glioma remain unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of microRNA-592 in glioma as well as the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results proved that microRNA-592 expression was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines (p < 0.01). Functional assays revealed that overexpression of microRNA-592 dramatically reduced the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced cell arrest at G1/G0 phase in vitro. Mechanistic investigations defined insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 as a direct and functional downstream target of microRNA-592, which was involved in the microRNA-592-mediated tumor-suppressive effects in glioma cells. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that microRNA-592 overexpression produced the smaller tumor volume and weight in nude mice. In summary, these results elucidated the function of microRNA-592 in glioma progression and suggested a promising application of it in glioma treatment.

Changes in the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and the relative telomere length in the process of canceration induced by omethoate.

Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs), with high efficiency, broad-spectrum and low residue, are widely used in China. Omethoate is a broad category of organophosphorous pesticides and is more domestically utilized which has chronic toxic effect on human health caused by long-term, low-dose exposure to Ops, recently its potential genotoxicity has attracted wide attention which can cause chromosomal DNA damage. Thus, the aim of this study is screen susceptible biomarkers and explore the mechanism of canceration induced by omethoate. 180 long-term organophosphorus pesticide-exposed workers and 115 healthy controls were recruited. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was applied to determine the relative telomere length in peripheral lymphocyte DNA as well as p53 and p21 gene expression levels. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the effects of exposure, expression levels, and polymorphisms in genes on the telomere length. The results showed the relative telomere lengths in the exposure group were significantly longer than that in the control group. The messenger RNA expression levels of p53 and p21 in exposure group were significantly lower than that in the control group; telomere lengths of the CA genotype individuals of p21 rs1801270 polymorphism locus were significantly longer than that of the CC genotype in the control group that were estimated using the Bonferroni method; and bivariate correlation analysis showed that the messenger RNA expression level of gene p53 was negatively correlated with telomere length, and the messenger RNA expression level of gene p21 was positively correlated with telomere length. Multivariate analysis found that p53 messenger RNA and p21 messenger RNA had an impact on telomere length. These results demonstrated that the messenger RNA expression levels of p53 and p21 may have a relationship with the changes in telomere length induced by omethoate and provided strong evidence for the mechanism of canceration induced by poison.

Hook1 inhibits malignancy and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hook1 is a member of the hook family of coiled-coil proteins, which is recently found to be associated with malignant tumors. However, its biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma is yet unknown. Here, we evaluated the Hook1 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples and matched peritumoral tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Small interfering RNA knockdown and a transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition model were employed to investigate the biological effects of Hook1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results indicated that Hook1 levels were significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than in the peritumoral tissues. In addition, Hook1 expression was significantly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy. Hook1 was downregulated after transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, Hook1 knockdown promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition and attenuated the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to doxorubicin. In summary, our results indicate that downregulation of Hook1 plays a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression via epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hook1 may be used as a novel marker and therapeutic molecular target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

MiR-143 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion by targeting DNMT3A in gastric cancer.

Increasing evidence has suggested that MircroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulated in pathogenesis and tumorigenicity in human cancers including gastric cancer (GC). MiR-143 had been reported to function as tumor suppressor in GC progression, however, the underlying function of miR-143 in GC still need to be well known. In the study, we revealed that miR-143 was significantly down-regulated in GC cell lines. Upregulation of miR-143 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, S phase cell proportion and cell cycle related protein levels of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 in GC. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that DNMT3A was a direct target of miR-143 and Upregulation of miR-143 inhibited the DNMT3A mRNA and protein expression levels in GC cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that DNMT3A knockdown rescued the promoting effect of miR-143 inhibitor on cell proliferation in GC. Thus, these results demonstrated that miR-143 targeted DNMT3A in GC cells and inhibit GC tumorigenesis and progression, which may provide a novel therapeutic target of GC.

Remodeling of extracellular matrix of the lamina propria in the uninvolved human rectal mucosa 10 and 20 cm away from the malignant tumor.

In recent years, it has been demonstrated that malignancy arises and advances through the molecular interplay between tumor cells and non-malignant elements of the tumor stroma, that is, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. However, in contrast to the mounting evidence about the role of tumor stroma in the genesis and progression of the malignant disease, there are very few data regarding the uninvolved stromal tissue in the remote surrounding of the tumor. Using the objective morphometric approach in patients with adenocarcinoma, we demonstrate the remodeling of extracellular matrix of the lamina propria in the uninvolved rectal mucosa 10 and 20 cm away from the neoplasm. We show that the representation of basic extracellular matrix constituents (reticular and collagen fibers and ground substance) is decreased. Also, the diameter of empty spaces that appear within the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria is increased. These spaces do not represent the blood or lymphatic vessel elements. Very likely, they reflect the development of tissue edema in the remote, uninvolved lamina propria of the mucosa in patients with the malignant tumor of the rectum. We hypothesize that the remodeling of extracellular matrix in lamina propria of the rectal mucosa may increase its stiffness, modulating the mechano-signal transduction, and thus promote the progression of the malignant disease.

HBXIP suppression reduces cell proliferation and migration and its overexpression predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that the high expression of HBXIP has been correlated with many cancers. With evaluation of the functional role of HBXIP in non-small-cell lung cancer, the primary aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between HBXIP expression and the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients. The protein levels of HBXIP were detected using western blotting in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Cell proliferation and migration assays were measured to evaluate the function of HBXIP in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. A total of 120 non-small-cell lung cancer patients with strict follow-up and 60 adjacent non-tumor lung tissues were selected for immunohistochemical staining of the HBXIP protein. The localization of the HBXIP protein was detected in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cells using immunofluorescence staining. The correlation between HBXIP expression and the clinicopathological features of non-small-cell lung cancer patients was analyzed by a chi-squared and Fisher's exact test. The overall survival rates of all of the non-small-cell lung cancer patients were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. In function, we showed that suppression of HBXIP decreased A549 cell proliferation and migration. HBXIP protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic staining pattern in non-small-cell lung cancer using immunohistochemical staining in paraffin-embedded non-small-cell lung cancer tissues and immunofluorescence staining in A549 cells. The HBXIP protein had strong positive staining in the non-small-cell lung cancer tissues, which was significantly higher than the percentage of adjacent non-tumor tissues. The overexpression of HBXIP was closely correlated with histological grade, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and lower overall survival rates of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Moreover, multivariate analysis suggested that HBXIP emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor along with clinical stage in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. In conclusion, a high level of expression of HBXIP is associated with the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer and may be a useful biomarker for poor prognostic evaluation and a potential molecular therapy target for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion through regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common urologic malignancy. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) has been suggested as serving pivotal roles in tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance and biological role of CCAT2 in ccRCC remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to identify the function of CCAT2 in ccRCC and its possible molecular mechanism. Expression of CCAT2 was analyzed in 61 ccRCC tissues and two ccRCC cell lines (786-O and ACHN) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The functional roles of CCAT2 in ccRCC were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometric analysis. The influence of CCAT2 on tumorigenesis was monitored by in vivo mice xenograft model. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was evaluated by the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assay and western blot assay. CCAT2 expression was markedly higher in ccRCC cell lines and tissues, being positively associated with tumor size and tumor stage in ccRCC patients. Patients with higher CCAT2 expression had a markedly poorer overall survival than did patients with low CCAT2 expression. Knocking down CCAT2 expression led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of ccRCC cells in vitro as well as the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and CCAT2 overexpression remarkably enhanced these oncogenic properties. In vivo mice xenograft model also showed that knocking CCAT2 expression inhibited the growth of ccRCC xenografts. In conclusion, these results indicated that CCAT2 may play a critical role in ccRCC progression and will be further considered as a biomarker for predicting the survival of ccRCC patients and a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC intervention.

TMEM88, CCL14 and CLEC3B as prognostic biomarkers for prognosis and palindromia of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most mortal and prevalent cancers with increasing incidence worldwide. Elucidating genetic driver genes for prognosis and palindromia of hepatocellular carcinoma helps managing clinical decisions for patients. In this study, the high-throughput RNA sequencing data on platform IlluminaHiSeq of hepatocellular carcinoma were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas with 330 primary hepatocellular carcinoma patient samples. Stable key genes with differential expressions were identified with which Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards test in R language. Driver genes influencing the prognosis of this disease were determined using clustering analysis. Functional analysis of driver genes was performed by literature search and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Finally, the selected driver genes were verified using external dataset GSE40873. A total of 5781 stable key genes were identified, including 156 genes definitely related to prognoses of hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on the significant key genes, samples were grouped into five clusters which were further integrated into high- and low-risk classes based on clinical features. TMEM88, CCL14, and CLEC3B were selected as driver genes which clustered high-/low-risk patients successfully (generally, p = 0.0005124445). Finally, survival analysis of the high-/low-risk samples from external database illustrated significant difference with p value 0.0198. In conclusion, TMEM88, CCL14, and CLEC3B genes were stable and available in predicting the survival and palindromia time of hepatocellular carcinoma. These genes could function as potential prognostic genes contributing to improve patients' outcomes and survival.

Evaluation of epigenetic inactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

The aim of this study was to determine the methylation status of the genes encoding the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and to evaluate the usefulness of VEGFR methylation as a prognostic indicator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. VEGFR messenger RNA expression and promoter methylation were examined in a panel of cell lines via quantitative reverse transcription and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Promoter methylation was compared with clinical characteristics in 128 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma samples. The normalized methylation values for the VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 promoters tended to be higher in the tumour cell lines than in normal tonsil samples, whereas amounts of VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 messenger RNA were significantly higher. Methylation of the VEGFR1 promoter (p = 0.003; 66/128 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma samples, 52%) and VEGFR3 promoter (p = 0.043; 53/128 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma samples, 41%) significantly correlated with recurrence, whereas methylation of the VEGFR2 promoter significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.046; 47/128 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma samples, 37%). Concurrent methylation of the VEGFR1 and VEGFR3 promoters significantly correlated with reduced disease-free survival (log-rank test, p = 0.009). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, methylation of the VEGFR1, VEGFR3 and both the VEGFR1 and VEGFR3 promoters independently predicted recurrence (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 3.19, 1.51-6.75 (p = 0.002); 2.24, 1.06-4.76 (p = 0.035); and 2.56, 1.09-6.05 (p = 0.032), respectively). Methylation of the VEGFR promoters predicts poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

The association of miR-126-3p, miR-126-5p and miR-664-3p expression profiles with outcomes of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with bevacizumab.

MicroRNAs regulate the expression of genes involved in several important cancer-related processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, and tumour angiogenesis. Bevacizumab is routinely used in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, but, so far, no reliable biomarker predicting response to bevacizumab has been established. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the association of miR-126-3p, miR-126-5p and miR-664-3p tumour expression levels with outcomes of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with bevacizumab. The study included 63 patients. For the assessment of microRNA expression, gene-specific TaqMan assays were used. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with low tumour expression of miR-126-3p were 8.8 and 20.6 months versus 13.5 months and median overall survival was not reached for patients with high expression ( p = 0.0064 and p = 0.0027), respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with low tumour expression of miR-126-5p were 9.0 and 22.2 months versus 12.0 and 23.4 months for patients with high expression ( p = 0.2113 and 0.6858), respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with low tumour expression of miR-664-3p were 9.1 and 22.5 months versus 8.8 and 23.4 months for patients with high expression ( p = 0.2542 and p = 0.1922), respectively. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model revealed that miR-126-3p expression was significantly associated with progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 0.28, p = 0.0053) and also with overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.18, p = 0.0046). In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the expression of miR-126-3p in the tumour tissue was associated with outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab.

Screening key genes and miRNAs in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma by RNA-sequencing.

Colon adenocarcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths across the world, developing novel and non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the early-stage colon adenocarcinoma at molecular level is essential. In our study, RNA-sequencing was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma compared to tissues of precancerous lesions, colonic intraepithelial neoplasia. The DEmiRNA-target interaction network was constructed and functional annotation of targets of DEmiRNAs was performed. The Cancer Genome Atlas was used to verify the expression of selected differentially expressed genes. The receiver operating characteristic analyses of selected differentially expressed genes was performed. In total, 865 differentially expressed genes, 26 DEmiRNAs, and 329 DEmiRNA-target pairs were obtained. Based on the early-stage colon adenocarcinoma network, miR-548c-5p, miR-548i, and miR-548am-5p were the top three DEmiRNAs that covered most differentially expressed genes. NTRK2, DTNA, and BTG2 were the top three differentially expressed genes regulated by most DEmiRNAs. Cancer and colorectal cancer pathways were two significantly enriched pathways in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma. The common differentially expressed genes in both the pathways were AXIN2, Smad2, Smad4, PIK3R1, and BCL2. The expression levels of eight differentially expressed genes (NTRK2, DTNA, BTG2, COL11A1, Smad2, Smad4, PIK3R1, and BCL2) in The Cancer Genome Atlas database were compatible with our RNA-sequencing. All these eight differentially expressed genes and AXIN2 had the potential diagnosis value for Colon adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, a total of ten differentially expressed genes (NTRK2, DTNA, BTG2, COLCA1, COL11A1, AXIN2, Smad2, Smad4, PIK3R1, and BCL2) and four DEmiRNAs (miR-548c-5p, miR-548i, mir-424-5p, and miR-548am-5p) may be involved in the pathogenesis of early-stage colon adenocarcinoma which may make a contribution for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for early-stage colon adenocarcinoma.