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Nervous System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

The long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function after spinal surgery for cauda equina syndrome.

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions.

Inheritance patterns of ATCCT repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) expansions.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia disorder, is caused by a non-coding ATTCT microsatellite repeat expansion in the ataxin 10 gene. In a subset of SCA10 families, the 5'-end of the repeat expansion contains a complex sequence of penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs which is followed by a pure tract of tandem ATCCT repeats of unknown length at its 3'-end. Intriguingly, expansions that carry these interruption motifs correlate with an epileptic seizure phenotype and are unstable despite the theory that interruptions are expected to stabilize expanded repeats. To examine the apparent contradiction of unstable, interruption-positive SCA10 expansion alleles and to determine whether the instability originates outside of the interrupted region, we sequenced approximately 1 kb of the 5'-end of SCA10 expansions using the ATCCT-PCR product in individuals across multiple generations from four SCA10 families. We found that the greatest instability within this region occurred in paternal transmissions of the allele in stretches of pure ATTCT motifs while the intervening interrupted sequences were stable. Overall, the ATCCT interruption changes by only one to three repeat units and therefore cannot account for the instability across the length of the disease allele. We conclude that the AT-rich interruptions locally stabilize the SCA10 expansion at the 5'-end but do not completely abolish instability across the entire span of the expansion. In addition, analysis of the interruption alleles across these families support a parsimonious single origin of the mutation with a shared distant ancestor.

Attentional bias modification training for insomnia: A double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial.

Attentional bias toward sleep-related information is believed to play a key role in insomnia. If attentional bias is indeed of importance, changing this bias should then in turn have effects on insomnia complaints. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial we investigated the efficacy of attentional bias modification training in the treatment of insomnia.

Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158) prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI) or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009), pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004), asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036), thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77), depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001) and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020) compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

Comparison of T2*-weighted and QSM contrasts in Parkinson's disease to visualize the STN with MRI.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies investigating optimal protocols for STN visualization using state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown that susceptibility weighted images, which display the magnetic susceptibility distribution, yield better results than T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and T2*-weighted contrasts. However, these findings are based on young healthy individuals, and require validation in elderly individuals and persons suffering from PD. Using 7T MRI, the present study set out to investigate which MRI contrasts yielded the best results for STN visualization in 12 PD patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC). We found that STNs were more difficult to delineate in PD as reflected by a lower inter-rater agreement when compared to HCs. No STN size differences were observed between the groups. Analyses of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) images showed a higher inter-rater agreement reflected by increased Dice-coefficients. The location of the center of mass of the STN was not affected by contrast. Overall, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were higher in QSM than in T2*-weighted images. This can at least partially, explain the higher inter-rater agreement in QSM. The current results indicate that the calculation of QSM contrasts contributes to an improved visualization of the entire STN. We conclude that QSM contrast is the preferred choice for the visualization of the STN in persons with PD as well as in aging HC.

Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process?

The aims of the study were to develop guidelines for prescribing spectacles for patients with moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia and to demonstrate how emmetropization progresses.

Promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism for Lamin A/C silencing in a subset of neuroblastoma cells.

Nuclear lamins support the nuclear envelope and provide anchorage sites for chromatin. They are involved in DNA synthesis, transcription, and replication. It has previously been reported that the lack of Lamin A/C expression in lymphoma and leukaemia is due to CpG island promoter hypermethylation. Here, we provide evidence that Lamin A/C is silenced via this mechanism in a subset of neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, Lamin A/C expression can be restored with a demethylating agent. Importantly, Lamin A/C reintroduction reduced cell growth kinetics and impaired migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent cell growth. Cytoskeletal restructuring was also induced. In addition, the introduction of lamin Δ50, known as Progerin, caused senescence in these neuroblastoma cells. These cells were stiffer and developed a cytoskeletal structure that differed from that observed upon Lamin A/C introduction. Of relevance, short hairpin RNA Lamin A/C depletion in unmethylated neuroblastoma cells enhanced the aforementioned tumour properties. A cytoskeletal structure similar to that observed in methylated cells was induced. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy revealed that Lamin A/C knockdown decreased cellular stiffness in the lamellar region. Finally, the bioinformatic analysis of a set of methylation arrays of neuroblastoma primary tumours showed that a group of patients (around 3%) gives a methylation signal in some of the CpG sites located within the Lamin A/C promoter region analysed by bisulphite sequencing PCR. These findings highlight the importance of Lamin A/C epigenetic inactivation for a subset of neuroblastomas, leading to enhanced tumour properties and cytoskeletal changes. Additionally, these findings may have treatment implications because tumour cells lacking Lamin A/C exhibit more aggressive behaviour.

The Sheep Grimace Scale as an indicator of post-operative distress and pain in laboratory sheep.

The EU Directive 2010/63/EU changed the requirements regarding the use of laboratory animals and raised important issues related to assessing the severity of all procedures undertaken on laboratory animals. However, quantifiable parameters to assess severity are rare, and improved assessment strategies need to be developed. Hence, a Sheep Grimace Scale (SGS) was herein established by observing and interpreting sheep facial expressions as a consequence of pain and distress following unilateral tibia osteotomy. The animals were clinically investigated and scored five days before surgery and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 17 days afterwards. Additionally, cortisol levels in the saliva of the sheep were determined at the respective time points. For the SGS, video recording was performed, and pictures of the sheep were randomized and scored by blinded observers. Osteotomy in sheep resulted in an increased clinical severity score from days 1 to 17 post-surgery and elevated salivary cortisol levels one day post-surgery. An analysis of facial expressions revealed a significantly increased SGS on the day of surgery until day 3 post-surgery; this elevated level was sustained until day 17. Clinical severity and SGS scores correlated positively with a Pearson´s correlation coefficient of 0.47. Further investigations regarding the applicability of the SGS revealed a high inter-observer reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.92 and an accuracy of 68.2%. In conclusion, the SGS represents a valuable approach for severity assessment that may help support and refine a widely used welfare assessment for sheep during experimental procedures, thereby meeting legislation requirements and minimizing the occurrence of unrecognized distress in animal experimentation.

The evolution of cost-efficiency in neural networks during recovery from traumatic brain injury.

A somewhat perplexing finding in the systems neuroscience has been the observation that physical injury to neural systems may result in enhanced functional connectivity (i.e., hyperconnectivity) relative to the typical network response. The consequences of local or global enhancement of functional connectivity remain uncertain and this is particularly true for the overall metabolic cost of the network. We examine the hyperconnectivity hypothesis in a sample of 14 individuals with TBI with data collected at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months following moderate and severe TBI. As anticipated, individuals with TBI showed increased network strength and cost early after injury, but by one-year post injury hyperconnectivity was more circumscribed to frontal DMN and temporal-parietal attentional control regions. Cost in these subregions was a significant predictor of cognitive performance. Cost-efficiency analysis in the Power 264 data parcellation suggested that at 6 months post injury the network requires higher cost connections to achieve high efficiency as compared to the network 12 months post injury. These results demonstrate that networks self-organize to re-establish connectivity while balancing cost-efficiency trade-offs.

Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.16 to -0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

Low cholesterol level associated with severity and outcome of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Results from Taiwan Stroke Registry.

The relationship between cholesterol level and hemorrhagic stroke is inconclusive. We hypothesized that low cholesterol levels may have association with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) severity at admission and 3-month outcomes. This study used data obtained from a multi-center stroke registry program in Taiwan. We categorized acute spontaneous ICH patients, based on their baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC) measured at admission, into 3 groups with <160, 160-200 and >200 mg/dL of TC. We evaluated risk of having initial stroke severity, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >15 and unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score >2, 3-month mortality) after ICH by the TC group. A total of 2444 ICH patients (mean age 62.5±14.2 years; 64.2% men) were included in this study and 854 (34.9%) of them had baseline TC <160 mg/dL. Patients with TC <160 mg/dL presented more often severe neurological deficit (NIHSS >15), with an adjusted odds ratio [aOR] of 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-2.30), and 3-month mRS >2 (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.78) using patients with TC >200 mg/dL as reference. Those with TC >160 mg/dL and body mass index (BMI) <22 kg/m2 had higher risk of 3-month mortality (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 1.76-8.80). Prior use of lipid-lowering drugs (2.8% of the ICH population) was not associated with initial severity and 3-month outcomes. A total cholesterol level lower than 160 mg/dL was common in patients with acute ICH and was associated with greater neurological severity on presentation and poor 3-month outcomes, especially with lower BMI.

Negative Bias in the Perception and Memory of Emotional Information in Alzheimer Disease.

There is some controversy about the ability of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) to experience and remember emotional stimuli. This study aims to assess the emotional experience of patients with AD and the existence of emotional enhancement of memory. We also investigated the influence of affective state on these processes.

Anosognosia and Its Relation to Psychiatric Symptoms in Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD).

Electrophysiological, Morphological, and Ultrastructural Features of the Injured Spinal Cord Tissue after Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells Genetically Modified with the VEGF and GDNF Genes.

In this study, we examined the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), genetically modified with the VEGF and GDNF genes using adenoviral vectors, on posttraumatic regeneration after transplantation into the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Thirty days after SCI, followed by transplantation of nontransduced hUCB-MCs, we observed an improvement in H (latency period, LP) and M(Amax) waves, compared to the group without therapy after SCI. For genetically modified hUCB-MCs, there was improvement in Amax of M wave and LP of both the M and H waves. The ratio between Amax of the H and M waves (Hmax/Mmax) demonstrated that transplantation into the area of SCI of genetically modified hUCB-MCs was more effective than nontransduced hUCB-MCs. Spared tissue and myelinated fibers were increased at day 30 after SCI and transplantation of hUCB-MCs in the lateral and ventral funiculi 2.5 mm from the lesion epicenter. Transplantation of hUCB-MCs genetically modified with the VEGF and GNDF genes significantly increased the number of spared myelinated fibers (22-fold, P > 0.01) in the main corticospinal tract compared to the nontransduced ones. HNA(+) cells with the morphology of phagocytes and microglia-like cells were found as compact clusters or cell bridges within the traumatic cavities that were lined by GFAP(+) host astrocytes. Our results show that hUCB-MCs transplanted into the site of SCI improved regeneration and that hUCB-MCs genetically modified with the VEGF and GNDF genes were more effective than nontransduced hUCB-MCs.

Neural Mobilization Treatment Decreases Glial Cells and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Central Nervous System in Rats with Neuropathic Pain Induced by CCI in Rats.

Background. Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM) technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI. Thalamus and midbrain were analyzed for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microglial cell OX-42, and BDNF using Immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. Results. Thalamus and midbrain of CCI group showed increases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF expression compared with control group and, in contrast, showed decreases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF after NM when compared with CCI group. The decreased immunoreactivity for GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF in ventral posterolateral nucleus in thalamus and the periaqueductal gray in midbrain was shown by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions. These findings may improve the knowledge about the involvement of astrocytes, microglia, and BDNF in the chronic pain and show that NM treatment, which alleviates neuropathic pain, affects glial cells and BDNF expression.

Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients.

Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD's symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH) and Group without Headache (GwoH). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results. Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation) and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities), and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion. This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

Tau phosphorylation induced by severe closed head traumatic brain injury is linked to the cellular prion protein.

Studies in vivo and in vitro have suggested that the mechanism underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathogenesis is initiated by an interaction between the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). This PrP(C)-Aβo complex activates Fyn kinase which, in turn, hyperphosphorylates tau (P-Tau) resulting in synaptic dysfunction, neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. AD transgenic mice lacking PrP(C) accumulate Aβ, but show normal survival and no loss of spatial learning and memory suggesting that PrP(C) functions downstream of Aβo production but upstream of intracellular toxicity within neurons. Since AD and traumatic brain injury (TBI)-linked chronic traumatic encephalopathy are tauopathies, we examined whether similar mechanistic pathways are responsible for both AD and TBI pathophysiologies. Using transgenic mice expressing different levels of PrP(C), our studies investigated the influence and necessity of PrP(C) on biomarker (total-tau [T-Tau], P-Tau, GFAP) levels in brain and blood as measured biochemically following severe TBI in the form of severe closed head injury (sCHI). We found that following sCHI, increasing levels of T-Tau and P-Tau in the brain were associated with the PrP(C) expression levels. A similar relationship between PrP(C) expression and P-Tau levels following sCHI were found in blood in the absence of significant T-Tau changes. This effect was not seen with GFAP which increased within 24 h following sCHI and progressively decreased by the 7 day time point regardless of the PrP(C) expression levels. Changes in the levels of all biomarkers were independent of gender. We further enhanced and expanded the quantitation of brain biomarkers with correlative studies using immunohisochemistry. We also demonstrate that a TBI-induced calpain hyperactivation is not required for the generation of P-Tau. A relationship was demonstrated between the presence/absence of PrP(C), the levels of P-Tau and cognitive dysfunction. Our studies suggest that PrP(C) is important in mediating TBI related pathology.

Bidirectional nucleolar dysfunction in C9orf72 frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

An intronic GGGGCC expansion in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The repeat expansion leads to the generation of sense and antisense repeat RNA aggregates and dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, generated by repeat-associated non-ATG translation. The arginine-rich DPR proteins poly(glycine-arginine or GR) and poly(proline-arginine or PR) are potently neurotoxic and can localise to the nucleolus when expressed in cells, resulting in enlarged nucleoli with disrupted functionality. Furthermore, GGGGCC repeat RNA can bind nucleolar proteins in vitro. However, the relevance of nucleolar stress is unclear, as the arginine-rich DPR proteins do not localise to the nucleolus in C9orf72-associated FTLD/ALS (C9FTLD/ALS) patient brain. We measured nucleolar size in C9FTLD frontal cortex neurons using a three-dimensional, volumetric approach. Intriguingly, we found that C9FTLD brain exhibited bidirectional nucleolar stress. C9FTLD neuronal nucleoli were significantly smaller than control neuronal nucleoli. However, within C9FTLD brains, neurons containing poly(GR) inclusions had significantly larger nucleolar volumes than neurons without poly(GR) inclusions. In addition, expression of poly(GR) in adult Drosophila neurons led to significantly enlarged nucleoli. A small but significant increase in nucleolar volume was also observed in C9FTLD frontal cortex neurons containing GGGGCC repeat-containing RNA foci. These data show that nucleolar abnormalities are a consistent feature of C9FTLD brain, but that diverse pathomechanisms are at play, involving both DPR protein and repeat RNA toxicity.

Effects of host restriction factors and the HTLV-1 subtype on susceptibility to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TSP have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined whether HAM/TSP patients had the disease-specific genomic variants of HTLV-1 by analyzing entire sequences of HTLV-1 proviruses in these patients, including familial cases. In addition, we investigated the genetic variants of host restriction factors conferring antiretroviral activity to determine which mutations may be related to resistance or susceptibility to HAM/TSP.

Frontotemporal dementia as a comorbidity to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH): a short review of literature and an unusual case.

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are neurodegenerative diseases that can present with similar symptoms. These include decline in executive functions, psychomotor slowness, and behavioural and personality changes. Ventricular enlargement is a key radiological finding in iNPH that may also be present in bvFTD caused by the C9ORF72 expansion mutation. Due to this, bvFTD has been hypothesized as a potential comorbidity to iNPH but bvFTD patients have never been identified in studies focusing in clinical comorbidities with iNPH. Here we describe a patient with the C9ORF72 expansion-associated bvFTD who also showed enlarged ventricles on brain imaging. The main clinical symptoms were severe gait disturbances and psychiatric problems with mild cognitive decline. Cerebrospinal fluid removal increased the patient's walking speed, so a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. After insertion of the shunt, there was a significant improvement in walking speed as well as mild improvement in cognitive function but not in neuropsychiatric symptoms relating to bvFTD. Comorbid iNPH should be considered in bvFTD patients who have enlarged ventricles and severely impaired gait.

Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients.

Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy produces clinical durable response in 25-30% of recurrent glioblastoma patients. This group of patients has shown improved survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression associated with response and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.

Females with Unexplained Joint Pain Following Total Joint Arthroplasty Exhibit a Higher Rate and Severity of Hypersensitivity to Implant Metals Compared with Males: Implications of Sex-Based Bioreactivity Differences.

Recent studies indicate that females demonstrate an increased risk of experiencing adverse local tissue reactions, aseptic loosening, and revision after primary metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty compared with males; the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for sex discrepancies in implant failure remain unclear. In addition to anatomical and biomechanical sex differences, there may be inherent immunological disparities that predispose females to more aggressive adaptive immune reactivity to implant debris, i.e., metal sensitivity.

Case 241: Hemiparkinsonism- Hemiatrophy-SPECT with (99m)Tc TRODAT-1 and Muscle MR Imaging Abnormalities.

History A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with a history of progressive mild left-sided weakness and slowness of movements. Symptoms began 4 years earlier, and the patient noticed a progressive decline in his daily routine due to gait difficulties in the past year. There was no history of head trauma, surgery, drug therapy, smoking, or alcohol abuse, nor was there any relevant family history. Examination revealed normal cognition (29 of 30 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 27 of 30 points on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and normal cerebellar, sensory, cranial nerve, and autonomic function. There was mild left-sided weakness involving the upper and lower limbs (medical research council graded muscle strength as 4+ out of 5) that was associated with facial hypomimia and a rigid akinetic syndrome only in the patient's left hemibody (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] part III [motor examination], 23 out of 52 points). Mild atrophy in the left upper and lower limbs without pain, swelling, or skin lesions was noted at physical examination. Routine blood chemistry was normal, as were serum creatine kinase and aldolase levels and thyroid, hepatic, and renal function. T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion- and perfusion-weighted, and contrast material-enhanced brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging results were normal, without basal ganglia hyperintensity, lacunae, calcification, or heavy metal deposits. Muscle MR imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) tropane dopamine transporter (TRODAT)-1 were performed for further evaluation. This patient received levodopa and benserazide (200 and 50 mg, respectively) four times a day and amantadine (100 mg) three times a day without adequate improvement (UPDRS score decreased from 23 to 20 points).

Detection of Histone H3 mutations in cerebrospinal fluid-derived tumor DNA from children with diffuse midline glioma.

Diffuse midline gliomas (including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, DIPG) are highly morbid glial neoplasms of the thalamus or brainstem that typically arise in young children and are not surgically resectable. These tumors are characterized by a high rate of histone H3 mutation, resulting in replacement of lysine 27 with methionine (K27M) in genes encoding H3 variants H3.3 (H3F3A) and H3.1 (HIST1H3B). Detection of these gain-of-function mutations has clinical utility, as they are associated with distinct tumor biology and clinical outcomes. Given the paucity of tumor tissue available for molecular analysis and relative morbidity of midline tumor biopsy, CSF-derived tumor DNA from patients with diffuse midline glioma may serve as a viable alternative for clinical detection of histone H3 mutation. We demonstrate the feasibility of two strategies to detect H3 mutations in CSF-derived tumor DNA from children with brain tumors (n = 11) via either targeted Sanger sequencing of H3F3A and HIST1H3B, or H3F3A c.83 A > T detection via nested PCR with mutation-specific primers. Of the six CSF specimens from children with diffuse midline glioma in our cohort, tumor DNA sufficient in quantity and quality for analysis was isolated from five (83%), with H3.3K27M detected in four (66.7%). In addition, H3.3G34V was identified in tumor DNA from a patient with supratentorial glioblastoma. Test sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (100%) was validated via immunohistochemical staining and Sanger sequencing in available matched tumor tissue specimens (n = 8). Our results indicate that histone H3 gene mutation is detectable in CSF-derived tumor DNA from children with brain tumors, including diffuse midline glioma, and suggest the feasibility of "liquid biopsy" in lieu of, or to complement, tissue diagnosis, which may prove valuable for stratification to targeted therapies and monitoring treatment response.