A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Nervous System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Cannabinoids for Epilepsy - Real Data, at Last.

Rotorua, hydrogen sulphide and Parkinson's disease-A possible beneficial link?

Rotorua city (New Zealand) is known for its 'rotten egg' smell, due to high levels of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) concentrations emitted from local geothermal vents. Studies have shown H2S as potentially toxic if too high in concentration. However, some health benefits have been observed at lower concentrations. This article summarises what is known about effects of H2S on health and postulates whether ambient air inhalation levels of H2S in Rotorua might have a therapeutic role in the management of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD).

CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Strategies to Prevent and Treat Strokes.

Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and a leading cause of serious long-term disability. In the United States, nearly 800,000 strokes occur each year; thus stroke is the fifth leading cause of death overall and the fourth leading cause of death among women (1). Major advances in stroke prevention through treatment of known risk factors has led to stroke being considered largely preventable. For example, in the United States, stroke mortality rates have declined 70% over the past 50 years, in large part because of important reductions in hypertension, tobacco smoking, and more recently, increased use of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (2,3). Although the reduction in stroke mortality is recognized as one of the 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century (4), gains can still be made. Approximately 80% of strokes could be prevented by screening for and addressing known risks with measures such as improving hypertension control, smoking cessation, diabetes prevention, cholesterol management, increasing use of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, and eliminating excessive alcohol consumption (5,6).

The Use of Mannitol and Hypertonic Saline Therapies in Patients with Elevated Intracranial Pressure: A Review of the Evidence.

Patients with increased intracranial pressure generally require pharmacologic therapies and often more definitive treatments, such as surgical intervention. The overall goal of these interventions is to maintain or re-establish adequate cerebral blood flow and prevent herniation. Regardless of the cause of increased intracranial pressure, osmotherapy is considered the mainstay of medical therapy, and should be administered as soon as possible. This article reviews the history of hyperosmolar and hypertonic therapies, the Monro-Kellie hypothesis, and types of cerebral edema. Pharmacologic properties, clinical applications, complications, recommended monitoring during therapy, and risks versus benefits are also discussed.

Non-Mask-based Therapies for Central Sleep Apnea in Patients with Heart Failure.

Central sleep apnea is common in heart failure and contributes to morbidity and mortality. Symptoms are often similar to those associated with heart failure and a high index of suspicion is needed. Testing is typically done in the sleep laboratory, but home testing equipment can distinguish between central and obstructive events. Treatments are limited. Mask-based therapies have been the primary treatment. Oxygen has some data but lacks long-term studies. Neurostimulation of the phrenic nerve is a new technology that has demonstrated improvement. Coordination of care between sleep specialists and cardiologists is important as the field of central sleep apnea continues to develop.

Device Therapy for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Heart Failure.

Pathophysiologic components of upper airway obstruction, reduced tidal volume, and disturbed respiratory drive characterize sleep-disordered breathing. Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices address these components by stabilizing the upper airways (continuous PAP), applying air volumes and mandatory breaths (bilevel PAP), or counterbalancing ventilation (adaptive servoventilation). Although PAP therapies have been shown to improve breathing disturbances, daytime symptoms, and left ventricular function in obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular diseases, the effects on mortality are controversial, especially in heart failure and central sleep apnea. Optimal treatment is selected based on polysomnographic findings and symptoms, and applied based on the underlying pathophysiologic components.

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Arrhythmia in Heart Failure Patients.

Heart failure (HF) treatment remains complex and challenging, with current recommendations aiming at consideration and treatment of comorbidities in patients with HF. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and arrhythmia come into play, as both are associated with quality of life deterioration, and morbidity and mortality increase in patients with HF. Interactions of these diseases are versatile and may appear intransparent in daily practice. Nevertheless, because of their importance for patients' condition and prognosis, SDB and arrhythmia individually, but also through interaction on one another, necessitate attention, following the fact that treatment is requested and desired considering latest research findings and outcomes.

Central Sleep Apnea in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure.

Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are commonly observed breathing patterns during sleep in patients with congestive heart failure. Common risk factors are male gender, older age, presence of atrial fibrillation, and daytime hypocapnia. Proposed mechanisms include augmented peripheral and central chemoreceptor sensitivity, which increase ventilator instability during both wakefulness and sleep; diminished cerebrovascular reactivity and increased circulation time, which impair the normal buffering of Paco2 and hydrogen ions and delay the detection of changes in Paco2 during sleep; and rostral fluid shifts that predispose to hypocapnia.

A Practical Approach to the Identification and Management of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Heart Failure Patients.

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a major health problem affecting much of the general population. Although SDB is responsible for rapid progression of heart failure (HF) and the worsening morbidity and mortality, advanced HF state is associated with accelerated development of SDB. In the face of recent developments in SDB treatment and availability of effective therapeutic options known to improve quality of life, exercise tolerance, and heart function, most HF patients with SDB are left unrecognized and untreated. This article provides an overview of SDB in HF with focus on practical approaches intended to facilitate screening and treatment.

Rehabilitation of Cardiovascular Disorders and Sleep Apnea.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is present in more than 50% of patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation units. However, it has been under-recognized in patients after stroke and heart failure. Those with concurrent OSA have a worse clinical course. Early treatment of coexisting OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) results in improved rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life. Possible mechanisms by which CPAP may improve recovery include decreased blood pressure fluctuations associated with apneas, and improved left ventricular function, cerebral blood flow, and oxygenation. Early screening and treatment of OSA should be integral components of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation units.

Sleep and the Cardiovascular System in Children.

Subspecialty pediatric practice provides comprehensive medical care for a range of ages, from premature infants to children, and often includes adults with complex medical and surgical issues that warrant multidisciplinary care. Normal physiologic variations involving different body systems occur during sleep and these vary with age, stage of sleep, and underlying health conditions. This article is a concise review of the cardiovascular (CV) physiology and pathophysiology in children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) contributing to CV morbidity, congenital and acquired CV pathology resulting in SDB, and the relationship between SDB and CV morbidity in different clinical syndromes and systemic diseases in the expanded pediatric population.

The Effects of Insomnia and Sleep Loss on Cardiovascular Disease.

Sleep loss has negative impacts on quality of life, mood, cognitive function, and heath. Insomnia is linked to poor mood, increased use of health care resources, decreased quality of life, and possibly cardiovascular risk factors and disease. Studies have shown increase in cortisol levels, decreased immunity, and increased markers of sympathetic activity in sleep-deprived healthy subjects and those with chronic insomnia. The literature shows subjective complaints consistent with chronic insomnia and shortened sleep can be associated with development of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This article explores the relationship between insufficient sleep and insomnia with these health conditions.

Fluorescein Guidance in Glioblastoma Resection.

Bystander Efforts and 1-Year Outcomes in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

The effect of bystander interventions on long-term functional outcomes among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has not been extensively studied.

The Failure of Solanezumab - How the FDA Saved Taxpayers Billions.

Back to the History.

Mitochondrial DNA mutations in Parkinson's disease brain.

Medication Management for People with Dementia.

: This article is the fourth in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The fourth video can be accessed at

PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment in Adolescents: Examining Psychometrics Using Self-Report and Actigraphy.

The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has self-reported health measures available for both pediatric and adult populations, but no pediatric measures are available currently in the sleep domains.

Characteristics and Correlates of Caregivers' Perceptions of Their Family Members' Memory Loss.

Understanding caregiver's perceptions of their family member's memory loss is a necessary step in planning nursing interventions to detect and address caregiver burden.

New Clinical Guideline for Low Back Pain Says Try Nondrug Therapies First.

Most such pain resolves on its own.

Laundry Detergent Pods Linked to Increased Eye Injuries in Children.

Pods are responsible for over a quarter of toddlers' chemical ocular burns.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Ocrelizumab in Primary Progressive and Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Motor neurone disease: progress and challenges.

Major progress has been made over the past decade in the understanding of motor neurone disease (MND), changing the landscape of this complex disease. Through identifying positive prognostic factors, new evidence-based standards of care have been established that improve patient survival, reduce burden of disease for patients and their carers, and enhance quality of life. These factors include early management of respiratory dysfunction with non-invasive ventilation, maintenance of weight and nutritional status, as well as instigation of a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, general practitioners and allied health professionals. Advances in technology have enhanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of MND considerably, with implications for patients, their families and clinicians. Recognition of extra-motor involvement, particularly cognitive dysfunction, has identified a spectrum of disease from MND through to frontotemporal dementia. Although riluzole remains the only disease-modifying medication available in clinical practice in Australia, several new therapies are undergoing clinical trials nationally and globally, representing a shift in treatment paradigms. Successful translation of this clinical research through growth in community funding, awareness and national MND research organisations has laid the foundation for closing the research-practice gap on this debilitating disease. In this review, we highlight these recent developments, which have transformed treatment, augmented novel therapeutic platforms, and established a nexus between research and the MND community. This era of change is of significant relevance to both specialists and general practitioners who remain integral to the care of patients with MND.

Prevalence of microcephaly in an Australian population-based birth defects register, 1980-2015.

To describe the prevalence and characteristics of microcephaly in a geographically defined Australian population.

Risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates for stroke: evidence from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (AuSCR).

Hospital data used to assess regional variability in disease management and outcomes, including mortality, lack information on disease severity. We describe variance between hospitals in 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) for stroke, comparing models that include or exclude stroke severity as a covariate.

Overexpression of the Cytokine BAFF and Autoimmunity Risk.

Genomewide association studies of autoimmune diseases have mapped hundreds of susceptibility regions in the genome. However, only for a few association signals has the causal gene been identified, and for even fewer have the causal variant and underlying mechanism been defined. Coincident associations of DNA variants affecting both the risk of autoimmune disease and quantitative immune variables provide an informative route to explore disease mechanisms and drug-targetable pathways.

Physical Abuse of Children.