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Nervous System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Fixational Saccades and Their Relation to Fixation Instability in Strabismic Monkeys.

To evaluate the contribution of fixational saccades toward fixation instability in strabismic monkeys.

MicroRNA-target cross-talks: Key players in glioblastoma multiforme.

The role of microRNAs in brain cancer is still naive. Some act as oncogene and others as tumor suppressors. Discovery of efficient biomarkers is mandatory to debate that aggressive disease. Bioinformatically selected microRNAs and their targets were investigated to evaluate their putative signature as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in primary glioblastoma multiforme. Expression of a panel of seven microRNAs (hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-326, and hsa-miR-375) and seven target genes ( E2F3, PI3KCA, TOM34, WNT5A, PDCD4, DFFA, and EGFR) in 43 glioblastoma multiforme specimens were profiled compared to non-cancer tissues via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry staining for three proteins (VEGFA, BAX, and BCL2) was performed. Gene enrichment analysis identified the biological regulatory functions of the gene panel in glioma pathway. MGMT ( O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter methylation was analyzed for molecular subtyping of tumor specimens. Our data demonstrated a significant upregulation of five microRNAs (hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-221, and hsa-miR-375), three genes ( E2F3, PI3KCA, and Wnt5a), two proteins (VEGFA and BCL2), and downregulation of hsa-miR-34a and three other genes ( DFFA, PDCD4, and EGFR) in brain cancer tissues. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-34a (area under the curve = 0.927) and miR-17 (area under the curve = 0.900) had the highest diagnostic performance, followed by miR-221 (area under the curve = 0.845), miR-21 (area under the curve = 0.836), WNT5A (area under the curve = 0.809), PDCD4 (area under the curve = 0.809), and PI3KCA (area under the curve = 0.800). MGMT promoter methylation status was associated with high miR-221 levels. Moreover, patients with VEGFA overexpression and downregulation of TOM34 and BAX had poor overall survival. Nevertheless, miR-17, miR-221, and miR-326 downregulation were significantly associated with high recurrence rate. Multivariate analysis by hierarchical clustering classified patients into four distinct groups based on gene panel signature. In conclusion, the explored microRNA-target dysregulation could pave the road toward developing potential therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma multiforme. Future translational and functional studies are highly recommended to better understand the complex bio-molecular signature of this difficult-to-treat tumor.

Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons From Recent Trials and Need for Team Science.

Emerging research highlights the complex interrelationships between sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease, presenting clinical and research opportunities as well as challenges. Patients presenting to cardiology clinics have a high prevalence of obstructive and central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Multiple mechanisms have been identified by which sleep disturbances adversely affect cardiovascular structure and function. Epidemiological research indicates that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increases in the incidence and progression of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. Central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration predicts incident heart failure and atrial fibrillation; among patients with heart failure, it strongly predicts mortality. Thus, a strong literature provides the mechanistic and empirical bases for considering obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration as potentially modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Data from small trials provide evidence that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure improves not only patient-reported outcomes such as sleepiness, quality of life, and mood but also intermediate cardiovascular end points such as blood pressure, cardiac ejection fraction, vascular parameters, and arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale randomized controlled trials do not currently support a role for positive pressure therapies for reducing cardiovascular mortality. The results of 2 recent large randomized controlled trials, published in 2015 and 2016, raise questions about the effectiveness of pressure therapies in reducing clinical end points, although 1 trial supported the beneficial effect of continuous positive airway pressure on quality of life, mood, and work absenteeism. This review provides a contextual framework for interpreting the results of recent studies, key clinical messages, and suggestions for future sleep and cardiovascular research, which include further consideration of individual risk factors, use of existing and new multimodality therapies that also address adherence, and implementation of trials that are sufficiently powered to target end points and to support subgroup analyses. These goals may best be addressed through strengthening collaboration among the cardiology, sleep medicine, and clinical trial communities.

Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses worldwide, January 2016–June 2017.

Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination.

Transmission of polio poses a threat to military forces when deploying to regions where such viruses are endemic. US-born soldiers generally enter service with immunity resulting from childhood immunization against polio; moreover, new recruits are routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from childhood vaccination, risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission.

Mutations in GPAA1, Encoding a GPI Transamidase Complex Protein, Cause Developmental Delay, Epilepsy, Cerebellar Atrophy, and Osteopenia.

Approximately one in every 200 mammalian proteins is anchored to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. These proteins play important roles notably in neurological development and function. To date, more than 20 genes have been implicated in the biogenesis of GPI-anchored proteins. GPAA1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1) is an essential component of the transamidase complex along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and PIGU (phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis classes K, S, T, and U, respectively). This complex orchestrates the attachment of the GPI anchor to the C terminus of precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we report bi-allelic mutations in GPAA1 in ten individuals from five families. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified two frameshift mutations (c.981_993del [p.Gln327Hisfs(∗)102] and c.920delG [p.Gly307Alafs(∗)11]), one intronic splicing mutation (c.1164+5C>T), and six missense mutations (c.152C>T [p.Ser51Leu], c.160_161delinsAA [p.Ala54Asn], c.527G>C [p.Trp176Ser], c.869T>C [p.Leu290Pro], c.872T>C [p.Leu291Pro], and c.1165G>C [p.Ala389Pro]). Most individuals presented with global developmental delay, hypotonia, early-onset seizures, cerebellar atrophy, and osteopenia. The splicing mutation was found to decrease GPAA1 mRNA. Moreover, flow-cytometry analysis of five available individual samples showed that several GPI-anchored proteins had decreased cell-surface abundance in leukocytes (FLAER, CD16, and CD59) or fibroblasts (CD73 and CD109). Transduction of fibroblasts with a lentivirus encoding the wild-type protein partially rescued the deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins. These findings highlight the role of the transamidase complex in the development and function of the cerebellum and the skeletal system.

De Novo Mutations in Protein Kinase Genes CAMK2A and CAMK2B Cause Intellectual Disability.

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.

High Rate of Recurrent De Novo Mutations in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of conditions characterized by the co-occurrence of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), typically with developmental plateauing or regression associated with frequent epileptiform activity. The cause of DEE remains unknown in the majority of cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 197 individuals with unexplained DEE and pharmaco-resistant seizures and in their unaffected parents. We focused our attention on de novo mutations (DNMs) and identified candidate genes containing such variants. We sought to identify additional subjects with DNMs in these genes by performing targeted sequencing in another series of individuals with DEE and by mining various sequencing datasets. We also performed meta-analyses to document enrichment of DNMs in candidate genes by leveraging our WGS dataset with those of several DEE and ID series. By combining these strategies, we were able to provide a causal link between DEE and the following genes: NTRK2, GABRB2, CLTC, DHDDS, NUS1, RAB11A, GABBR2, and SNAP25. Overall, we established a molecular diagnosis in 63/197 (32%) individuals in our WGS series. The main cause of DEE in these individuals was de novo point mutations (53/63 solved cases), followed by inherited mutations (6/63 solved cases) and de novo CNVs (4/63 solved cases). De novo missense variants explained a larger proportion of individuals in our series than in other series that were primarily ascertained because of ID. Moreover, these DNMs were more frequently recurrent than those identified in ID series. These observations indicate that the genetic landscape of DEE might be different from that of ID without epilepsy.

Sex-Related Differences in Vasomotor Function in Patients With Angina and Unobstructed Coronary Arteries.

Coronary vasomotor dysfunction is an important mechanism for angina in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries.

Mitostasis in Neurons: Maintaining Mitochondria in an Extended Cellular Architecture.

Neurons have more extended and complex shapes than other cells and consequently face a greater challenge in distributing and maintaining mitochondria throughout their arbors. Neurons can last a lifetime, but proteins turn over rapidly. Mitochondria, therefore, need constant rejuvenation no matter how far they are from the soma. Axonal transport of mitochondria and mitochondrial fission and fusion contribute to this rejuvenation, but local protein synthesis is also likely. Maintenance of a healthy mitochondrial population also requires the clearance of damaged proteins and organelles. This involves degradation of individual proteins, sequestration in mitochondria-derived vesicles, organelle degradation by mitophagy and macroautophagy, and in some cases transfer to glial cells. Both long-range transport and local processing are thus at work in achieving neuronal mitostasis-the maintenance of an appropriately distributed pool of healthy mitochondria for the duration of a neuron's life. Accordingly, defects in the processes that support mitostasis are significant contributors to neurodegenerative disorders.

Regulation of mRNA Translation in Neurons-A Matter of Life and Death.

Dynamic regulation of mRNA translation initiation and elongation is essential for the survival and function of neural cells. Global reductions in translation initiation resulting from mutations in the translational machinery or inappropriate activation of the integrated stress response may contribute to pathogenesis in a subset of neurodegenerative disorders. Aberrant proteins generated by non-canonical translation initiation may be a factor in the neuron death observed in the nucleotide repeat expansion diseases. Dysfunction of central components of the elongation machinery, such as the tRNAs and their associated enzymes, can cause translational infidelity and ribosome stalling, resulting in neurodegeneration. Taken together, dysregulation of mRNA translation is emerging as a unifying mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders.

Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2016-June 2017.

In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. The >99.99% decline worldwide in polio cases since the launch of the GPEI is attributable to the extensive use of the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and comprehensive national routine immunization programs. Despite its well-established safety record, OPV use can be associated with rare emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (2). VDPVs can also emerge among persons with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) can replicate for years in some persons with PIDs. In addition, circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) can emerge very rarely among immunologically normal vaccine recipients and their contacts in areas with inadequate OPV coverage and can cause outbreaks of paralytic polio. This report updates previous summaries regarding VDPVs (3). During January 2016-June 2017, new cVDPV outbreaks were identified, including two in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (eight cases), and another in Syria (35 cases), whereas the circulation of cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) in Nigeria resulted in cVDPV2 detection linked to a previous emergence. The last confirmed case from the 2015-2016 cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) outbreak in Laos occurred in January 2016. Fourteen newly identified persons in 10 countries were found to excrete iVDPVs, and three previously reported patients in the United Kingdom and Iran (3) were still excreting type 2 iVDPV (iVDPV2) during the reporting period. Ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), isolates that cannot be classified definitively, were found among immunocompetent persons and environmental samples in 10 countries. Cessation of all OPV use after certification of polio eradication will eliminate the risk for new VDPV infections.

Sonography used in the infantile desmoid fibromatosis of postcricoid area: A case report.

Infantile desmoid fibromatosis of the postcricoid area is a rare disease and is characterized by a proliferation of fibrous tissue with non-metastasis, local infiltration, and a high rate of recurrence after surgical resection. Currently, ultrasound is scarcely used in the hypopharynx and larynx area.

Rehabilitation for a patient with anti-Yo antibody-positive paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration caused by breast cancer: A case report and literature review.

Rehabilitation for paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) has been indicated as necessary. However, there are only a few reports on rehabilitation in PCD. We describe the course of physical and cognitive functions and activities of daily living (ADL) in a patient with PCD and examine the effect of rehabilitation, along with a review of relevant literature.

Sudden onset of static equilibrium dysfunction in patients receiving a cochlear implant.

We investigated the sudden onset of static equilibrium dysfunction caused by cochlear implantation (CI) in congenital hearing loss patients.

Relevance of urinary S100B protein levels as a short-term prognostic biomarker in asphyxiated infants treated with hypothermia.

The initial diagnosis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is based on nervous system clinical manifestations. The use of biomarkers to monitor brain injury and evaluate neuroprotective effects allows early intervention and treatment. This study was designed to determine the short-term prognostic significance of urinary S100B calcium-binding protein (S100B) in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.An observational prospective study was conducted over a period of 5 years in 31 newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A (13 newborns with a normal neurological examination before discharge) and Group B (18 newborns who died during admission or had an abnormal neurologic examination before discharge). Urinary S100B was the main variable, serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were considered as secondary variables, and all of them were assessed on the first 3 days of life. The newborns were subsequently divided into groups with normal and abnormal electrophysiological and imaging findings.Mean urinary S100B levels were significantly higher in group B than group A on day 1 (10.58 ± 14.82 vs 4.65 ± 9.16 μg/L, P = .031) and day 2 (5.16 ± 7.63 vs 0.88 ± 2.53, P = .002). The optimal cutoff for urinary S100B on day 1 was >1.11 μg/L of (sensitivity, 100%; specificity 60%) for the prediction of neonatal death and < 0.66 μg/L (sensitivity 83% and specificity 70%) for the prediction of a normal neurological examination before discharge. It was not possible to calculate cutoffs with a similar accuracy for serum S100B or NSE. Urinary S100B on day 1 was higher in patients with abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings (7.89 ± 8.09 vs 4.49 ± 9.14, P = .039) and abnormal positron emission tomography findings (8.60 ± 9.29 vs 4.30 ± 8.28, P = .038). There were no significant differences in S100B levels between patients with normal and abnormal electroencephalography results.Urinary S100B measured in the first days of life can predict neonatal death and short-term prognosis in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia. The method is convenient, noninvasive, and has a higher sensitivity and specificity than measurement of serum S100B or NSE.

A comparison between oral chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM), a major subtype of grade IV glioma, is rather poor nowadays. The efficiency of chemotherapy serving as the adjunct to radiotherapy (RT) for treating GBM is still controversial. In this study, we aim to investigate the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed GBM received RT plus chemotherapy or with RT alone.Literatures were searched from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library between January 2001 and June 2015. Study selection was conducted based on the following criteria: randomized clinical trial (RCT) of adjuvant RT plus chemotherapy versus RT alone; studies comparing OS and/or PFS; and studies including cases medically confirmed of newly diagnosed GBM.Five RCTs (1655 patients) were eligible in this study. The meta-analysis showed a significant improvement in OS of patients treated with RT plus oral chemotherapy compared with that of RT alone (hazard ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.88, P = .002).Adjuvant chemotherapy confers a survival benefit in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

Ischemic stroke due to intracranial arterial dolichoectasia coexisting with spontaneous dissection of the basilar artery: A case report.

We present a rarely seen case of cerebral infarction due to intracranial dolichoectasia coexisting with spontaneous dissection of the basilar artery. A definition of dolichoectasia, its pathology, and imaging findings, as well as the clinical management and prognosis are briefly reviewed.

Outcome and risk factors associated with extent of central nervous system injury due to exertional heat stroke.

To explore the relationship between the extent of central nervous system (CNS) injury and patient outcomes meanwhile research the potential risk factors associated with neurologic sequelae. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 117 consecutive patients (86 survivors, 31 nonsurvivors) with exertional heat stroke (EHS) who had been admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at 48 Chinese hospitals between April 2003 and July 2015. Extent of CNS injury was dichotomized according to Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score (severe 3-8, not severe 9-15). We then assessed differences in hospital mortality based on the extent of CNS injury by comparing 90-day survival time between the patient groups. Exploring the risk factors of neurologic sequelae. The primary outcomewas the 90-day survival ratewhich differed between the 2 groups (P = .023). The incidence of neurologic sequelae was 24.4%. For its risk factors, duration of recurrent hyperthermia (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.20-2.49, P = .003), duration of CNS injury (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.85, P = .025), and low GCS in the first 24 hours after admission (OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.11-5.15, P = .025) were selected by multivariable logistic regression. Cooling effect was eliminated as a factor (OR = 2641.27, 95% CI 0.40-1.73_107, P = .079). Significant differences in 90-day survival ratewere observed based on the extent of CNS injury in patients with EHS, and incidence was 24.4% for neurologic sequelae. Duration of recurrent hyperthermia, duration of CNS injury, and low GCS score in the first 24 hours following admission may be independent risk factors of neurologic sequelae. Cooling effect should be validated in the further studies.

Muscle ultrasound: A useful tool in newborn screening for infantile onset pompe disease.

Our study aimed to evaluate the utility of muscle ultrasound in newborn screening of infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) and to establish a system of severity grading. We retrospectively selected 35 patients with initial low acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) activity and collected data including muscle ultrasound features, GAA gene mutation, activity/performance, and pathological and laboratory findings. The echogenicity of 6 muscles (the bilateral vastus intermedius, rectus femoris, and sartorius muscles) was compared to that of epimysium on ultrasound and rated either 1 (normal), 2 (mildly increased), or 3 (obviously increased). These grades were used to divide patients into 3 groups. IOPD was present in none of the grade-1 patients, 5 of 9 grade-2 patients, and 5 of 5 grade-3 patients (P < .001). Comparing grade-2 plus grade-3 patients to grade-1 patients, muscle ultrasound detected IOPD with a sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.2%-100%) and 84.0% (95% CI: 63.9%-95.5%), respectively. The mean number of affected muscles was larger in grade-3 patients than in grade-2 patients (4.2 vs. 2.0, P = .005). Mean alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were differed significantly different between grade-3 and grade-1 patients (P < .001). Because it permits direct visualization of injured muscles, muscle ultrasound can be used to screen for IOPD. Our echogenicity grades of muscle injury also correlate well with serum levels of muscle-injury biochemical markers.

Pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in an adolescent male patient: A case report and literature review.

Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases.

Sildenafil Is Associated With Reduced Device Thrombosis and Ischemic Stroke Despite Low-Level Hemolysis on Heart Mate II Support.

Persistent low-level hemolysis (LLH) during continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support is associated with subsequent thrombosis. Free hemoglobin from ongoing hemolysis scavenges nitric oxide (NO) to create an NO deficiency which can augment platelet function leading to a prothrombotic state. The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, potentiates NO signaling to inhibit platelet function. Accordingly, we investigated the association of sildenafil administration and thrombotic events in patients with LLH during Heart Mate II support.

Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal B disease in Australia, 1999-2015: priority populations for vaccination.

To describe trends in the age-specific incidence of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Australia, 1999-2015.

Nusinersen versus Sham Control in Infantile-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is caused by an insufficient level of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modifies pre-messenger RNA splicing of the SMN2 gene and thus promotes increased production of full-length SMN protein.

Single-Dose Gene-Replacement Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is a progressive, monogenic motor neuron disease with an onset during infancy that results in failure to achieve motor milestones and in death or the need for mechanical ventilation by 2 years of age. We studied functional replacement of the mutated gene encoding survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) in this disease.

The Dilemma of Two Innovative Therapies for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

Growth and Final Height Among Children With Phenylketonuria.

Growth is an important criterion to evaluate health in childhood and adolescence, especially in patients depending on special dietary treatment. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited disease of amino acid metabolism. Patients with PKU depend on a special phenylalanine-restricted diet, low in natural protein. The study aimed to evaluate growth, growth rate, and target height in 224 patients with PKU.

Choline transporter mutations in severe congenital myasthenic syndrome disrupt transporter localization.

The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection.

Insomnia is associated with road accidents. Further evidence from a study on truck drivers.

Sleep-related problems are known risk factors for road accidents. However, very few studies have investigated the role played by insomnia and its components, and no data are available for a population of occupational drivers at risk, such as the truck driver category.

Pain Management in Older Adults.

Treating pain in older adults can be complex because of the age-related physiologic changes, comorbidities, and polypharmacy. Thus, an individualized, multimodal treatment approach is recommended. Treatment plans should include pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies. Several important clinical guidelines and expert panel statements are available to guide health care providers in the best practices for treating pain in older adults. This article provides evidence-based recommendations for pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management in older adults.