PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries.

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries.

Celiac Disease and Autoimmunity - The Missing Ingredient.

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries.

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries.

Pulmonary Embolism Despite Rivaroxaban in an Obese Patient.

Introduction Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is approved for therapy of venous thromboembolism. It is unclear whether the standard dose for patients with a body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m(2) is sufficient. History The 45-year-old patient was admitted because of increasing respiratory distress. She had a history of pulmonary embolism 30 months before the admission, a factor V Leiden mutation and several hospitalisations due to dermatomycoses. The patient briefly took phenprocoumon which was changed to 20 mg rivaroxaban due to a lack of adherence. Six months before admission, the patient paused the rivaroxaban therapy because of dental surgery and suffered a recurrent pulmonary embolism. Findings and Diagnosis The patient presented with increasing difficulty of breathing, morbid obesity with a BMI of 59.3 kg/m(2) and intertrigo of the lower extremities. The ECG showed a right axis deviation, a pulmonary P-wave and an incomplete right bundle branch block. Computed tomography showed pulmonary embolisms of the left lower lobe. The pulmonary artery was dilated, and the right atrium was enlarged. Venous thrombosis of the lower limb could not be certainly ruled out. The D-dimer was elevated with 5.895 mg/L (normal value up to 169 mg/L) and NT-pro-BNP was elevated at 5.580 ng/L (normal value up to 0.5 ng/L). Sixteen hours after the onset of symptoms, 22 hours after the last dose, the serum rivaroxaban level was 137 ng/ml. According to manufacturers, the therapeutic range of rivaroxaban after 2 - 4 hours is 22 - 535 ng/ml, and after 24 hours 6 - 239 ng/ml. Therapy and course After initiation of a therapy with low-molecular weight heparin and subsequent oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon, the symptoms decreased. Conclusions It is highly probable that the pulmonary embolism occurred at a time when the rivaroxaban level was in the therapeutic range. Since there are only few data about safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and other non-vitamin K-oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in severely obese patients, the recommendations of the "International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis" should be followed: Rivaroxaban and other NOACs should not be used in patients with a BMI > 40 kg/m(2) or weight > 120 kg, since only few data on this patient group are available. If NOACs are necessary in these patients, serum concentrations of NOACs should be measured.

Addressing Unmet Needs With Injectable Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Using Combinations of a Basal Insulin and a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist.

This article presents the rationale and data for combining a basal insulin with a GLP-1RA, including as fixed-ratio products.

Addressing Unmet Needs With Injectable Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

Since 2005, four new GLP-1RAs (liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and lixisenatide) and a once-weekly formulation of exenatide were approved for the treatment of persons with T2DM. Another GLP-1RA, semaglutide, is under review by the FDA, as is exenatide administered via an osmotic mini-pump.

Addressing Unmet Needs With Injectable Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Basal insulins.

In healthy humans, the timing and amount of insulin release are exquisitely tied to the body's metabolic demands. Insulin is released at a relatively constant rate over 24 hours to meet the body's basal metabolic needs. In addition, insulin is released in short bursts in response to nutrient intake, as well as in response to changes in peripheral utilization, sensitivity, and endogenous production.To approximate this physiologic state, 2 general types of insulin formulations have been developed. Basal insulins are intended to address the body's basal metabolic needs over 24 hours, and prandial (or bolus) insulins to address the rapid rise in blood glucose in the postprandial state. The quest for a basal insulin with a constant physiologic effect over 24 hours has been challenging, in part because the subcutaneous route of administration remains the most practical, yet physiologically unnatural route for administering insulin.

Addressing Unmet Needs With Injectable Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Role of Injectable Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment.

This article describes the roles of injectable glucose-lowering medications, specifically basal insulin and GLP-1RAs, as recommended in current guidelines and the evidence supporting these recommendations.

Addressing Unmet Needs With Injectable Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Medications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Work in Progress.

Many factors contribute to poor adherence to medications. Some involve the patient, others the health care provider, while others concern limitations with the medications themselves.

Association Among Obesity, Metabolic Health, and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer in the General Population in Korea Using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort.

In Korea, the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased and obesity is on a rising trend because of a Westernized lifestyle in men.

Severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis occurring after binge eating in a young bodybuilder: Case report.

Severe hypokalemia can be a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.

Serum levels of uncoupling proteins in patients with differential insulin resistance: A community-based cohort study.

The uncoupling protein (UCP) belongs to a family of energy-dissipating proteins in mitochondria. Increasing evidences have indicated that UCPs have immense impact on glucose homeostasis and are key proteins in metabolic syndrome. For applying the findings to clinical practice, we designed a study to explore the association between serum UCPs 1-3 and insulin resistance. This investigation prospectively recorded demographical parameter and collected blood samples of 1071 participants from 4 districts in Northeastern Taiwan during the period from August 2013 to July 2014. Propensity score matching by age and sex in patients with top and bottom third homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels was performed, and 326 subjects were enrolled for further studies. The mean age of the patients was 59.4 years and the majority of them (65.5%) were females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.5%. Our results demonstrated that serum UCPs 1-3 were significantly associated with differences in HOMA-IR levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that low UCP 1 and features of metabolic syndrome, namely hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein, were independent determinants for high HOMA-IR levels. We thus determined that low serum UCP 1 is a predictor for high resistance to insulin.

The association between diabetes/hyperglycemia and the prognosis of cervical cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The predictive roles of diabetes in the prognosis of many types of cancer have been well studied, but its role in predicting the prognosis of cervical cancer is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between diabetes/hyperglycemia and the prognosis of cervical cancer.

Late presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with rotavirus infection in a term infant with hyperinsulinism on octreotide therapy: A case report.

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy that can cause permanent brain damage. Consequently, optimal management is extremely important. Current pharmacologic and surgical treatment were available that included diazoxide and octreotides.

Effect of Hyperglycemia on Antitumor Activity and Survival in Tumor-bearing Mice Receiving Oxaliplatin and Fluorouracil.

Diabetic patients are at a higher risk of carcinogenesis and death from cancer, including colorectal cancer, than healthy individuals. The efficacy of cancer chemotherapy in the diabetic condition remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of anticancer agents oxaliplatin and fluorouracil in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hyperglycemic mice.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Redox Imbalance as a Diagnostic Marker of "Free Radical Diseases".

The intracellular redox balance (redox status) is a dynamic system that may change via many factors. Mitochondria are one of the most important among them. These organelles are the main intracellular source of energy. They are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis due to regulation of many biochemical processes. The mitochondrial dynamics change during cellular activities and in some cases, can cause an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which encourages the induction of oxidative DNA damage and up- or down-regulation of phosphatases, proliferative/anti-proliferative factors, apoptotic/anti-apoptotic factors, etc. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction and redox imbalance can continuously support and contribute to a wide range of pathologies, termed as "free radical diseases" (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, inflammation, etc.). This review article is focused on the mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular redox status as a hallmark of cell homeostasis and diagnostic marker of cancer. It is intended to broad readership - from students to specialists in the field.

Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging With Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Asymptomatic Individuals With High Calcium Scores.

This study sought to determine the frequency of large lipid-rich plaques (LRP) in the coronary arteries of individuals with high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) and to determine whether the CACS correlates with coronary lipid burden.

Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity - United States, 2005-2014.

Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer.

Toenail selenium levels and prevalence of dyslipidaemia among Korean adults.

Multiple studies have elucidated the antioxidant properties of Se, which are now well known among the nutrition and biomedical science communities. Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the possible association between Se exposure and risk of metabolic disease, such as lipid dysregulation; however, there is limited epidemiological data on this topic. The present study aimed to investigate associations between toenail Se levels and dyslipidaemia or individual lipid levels, and to examine the effect of dietary supplement use on these associations. We analysed baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area, including 232 men and 269 women. Information on demographic, dietary and lifestyle characteristics was obtained through a self-reported questionnaire. Se levels in toenail specimens were measured using neutron activation analysis. Fasting blood lipid levels were measured during medical examinations. After adjusting for multiple confounding variables, we observed no association between toenail Se levels and dyslipidaemia or individual lipid profiles. However, the association was modified by dietary supplement use. Among the supplement users, higher toenail Se levels were associated with a higher prevalence of lipid dysregulation, whereas non-users exhibited a lower prevalence of lipid dysregulation. Associations between toenail Se levels, lipid levels and dyslipidaemia may be influenced by taking dietary supplements. Future large-scale, prospective cohort studies should be conducted to further evaluate the association between Se levels in the body and metabolic health effects in light of increasing rates of dietary supplement use.

Multi-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of maternal anaemia and adverse birth outcomes in a high-altitude area: a prospective cohort study in rural Tibet of China.

Anaemia during pregnancy, characterised by Hb <110 g/l, is a specific risk factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of daily antenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with folic acid (FA) on the occurrence of anaemia among pregnant women and their infants' health in a high-altitude area. A prospective cohort study was carried out in two rural counties in Tibet from 2007 to 2012. A total of 1149 eligible pregnant women were allocated daily supplementation with FA in one county and MMN containing a recommended allowance of twenty-three vitamins and minerals in another county starting ≤24 weeks of gestation and continuing until delivery. Compared with the FA group, prenatal supplementation with MMN was significantly associated with reduced odds of anaemia in the third trimester. This was demonstrated in the primary outcome, with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 0·63; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·88 and P=0·007 and also reduced odds of preterm delivery (AOR: 0·31; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·61; P=0·001). There was no difference between MMN and FA groups in mean birth weight (adjusted mean difference: 36·78; 95 % CI -19·42, 92·98 g; P=0·200), whereas MMN supplementation significantly reduced the odds of low-birth weight (LBW) babies (AOR: 0·58; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·91; P=0·019). In conclusion, the antenatal MMN supplementation in rural Tibet is associated with a reduction of maternal anaemia in the third trimester, and may potentially decrease the risk of preterm delivery and LBW babies.

Peptide-Based Regulation of Metabolism as Related to Obesity.

Currently there are few, if any, approved and effective medicines for the attenuation of obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. This commentary addresses a communication describing the effect on glucose dynamics and obesity of a peptide monoclonal antibody for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c). The general lack of suitable, effective drugs is discussed, as is the treatment potential of FGF family receptors. The FGFR1c monoclonal antibody developed by the authors lowers body weight gain, blood glucose, and adipose tissue weight. It also enhances glucose uptake by fat cells [white adipose tissue (WAT) and 3T3-L1]. The robust weight loss, fat loss, and lower blood glucose were attributed to an observed potential futile cycle of continuous lipogenesis and lipolysis and adenosine triphosphate use in WAT.

Anti-TCRβ mAb in Combination With Neurogenin3 Gene Therapy Reverses Established Overt Type 1 Diabetes in Female NOD Mice.

Insulin-producing β cells in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are destroyed by T lymphocytes. We investigated whether targeting the T-cell receptor (TCR) with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) abrogates T-cell response against residual and newly formed islets in overtly diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mice with blood glucose levels of 250 to 350 mg/dL or 350 to 450 mg/dL were considered as new-onset or established overt diabetes, respectively. These diabetic NOD mice were transiently treated with an anti-TCR β chain (TCRβ) mAb, H57-597, for 5 days. Two weeks later, some NOD mice with established overt diabetes further received hepatic gene therapy using the islet-lineage determining gene Neurogenin3 (Ngn3), in combination with the islet growth factor gene betacellulin (Btc). We found that anti-TCRβ mAb (50 µg/d) reversed >80% new-onset diabetes in NOD mice for >14 weeks by reducing the number of effector T cells in the pancreas. However, anti-TCRβ mAb therapy alone reversed only ∼20% established overt diabetes in these mice. Among those overtly diabetic NOD mice whose diabetes was resistant to anti-TCRβ mAb treatment, ∼60% no longer had diabetes when they also received Ngn3-Btc hepatic gene transfer 2 weeks after initial anti-TCRβ mAb treatment. This combination of Ngn3-Btc gene therapy and anti-TCRβ mAb treatment induced the sustained formation of periportal insulin-producing cells in the liver of overtly diabetic mice. Therefore, directly targeting TCRβ with a mAb potently reverses new-onset T1D in NOD mice and protects residual and newly formed gene therapy-induced hepatic neo-islets from T-cell‒mediated destruction in mice with established overt diabetes.

Metformin Affects Cortical Bone Mass and Marrow Adiposity in Diet-Induced Obesity in Male Mice.

Obesity during maturation can affect the growing skeleton directly and indirectly, although these effects and the mechanisms behind them are not fully understood. Our objective was to determine how a high-fat diet with or without metformin treatment affects skeletal development. We also sought to characterize changes that occur in white adipose tissue, circulating metabolites, lipids, and gut microbiota. A diet-induced obesity C57BL/6J mouse model was used to test the effects of obesity and metformin on bone using bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone marrow adipose tissue was quantified with osmium tetroxide microcomputed tomography and histology. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze body composition. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to assess changes in white adipose depots, mass spectrometry was used for circulating lipids and protein metabolite analysis, and ribosomal RNA sequencing was used for gut microbiome analysis. Mice fed a high fat-diet since wean displayed increased medullary areas and decreased osteoblast numbers in the long bones; this phenotype was partially normalized by metformin. Marrow and inguinal adipose expansion was also noted in obese mice, and this was partially normalized by metformin. A drug-by-diet interaction was noted for circulating lipid molecules, protein metabolites, and gut microbiome taxonomical units. Obesity was not detrimental to trabecular bone in growing mice, but bone marrow medullary expansion was observed, likely resulting from inhibition of osteoblastogenesis, and this was partially reversed by metformin treatment.

Hexarelin, a Growth Hormone Secretagogue, Improves Lipid Metabolic Aberrations in Nonobese Insulin-Resistant Male MKR Mice.

Despite the occurrence of dyslipidemia and its contribution to the development of insulin resistance in obese subjects, a growing number of studies have described abnormal lipid profiles among leaner persons. For example, individuals with an abnormal paucity or distribution of fat (lipodystrophy) develop severe insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Deranged adipocyte metabolism and differentiation contribute to ectopic fat deposition and consequent development of insulin resistance. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been shown to correct body composition abnormalities in some lipodystrophy patients. However, little is known about the effects of GH-releasing peptides in this regard. Hexarelin, a GH secretagogue, has recently been shown to have beneficial effects on fat metabolism via the CD36 receptor. In this study, the effects of twice daily intraperitoneal injections of hexarelin (200 μg/kg body weight) were examined in nonobese insulin-resistant MKR mice and corresponding wild-type FVB mice for 12 days. Hexarelin treatment significantly improved glucose and insulin intolerance and decreased plasma and liver triglycerides in MKR mice. These beneficial metabolic effects could be due to the improved lipid metabolism and enhanced adipocyte differentiation of white adipose tissue with hexarelin treatment. Interestingly, although food intake of hexarelin-treated MKR mice was significantly increased, this did not change total body weight. Moreover, hexarelin treatment corrected the abnormal body composition of MKR mice, as demonstrated by a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean mass. Our results suggest a possible application of hexarelin in treatment of lipid disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Association of 5-HT2C (rs3813929) and UCP3 (rs1800849) gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes in obese women candidates for bariatric surgery.

Obesity can cause systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) factor that is also influenced by genetic variability. The present study aims to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms related with obesity on the prevalence of SAH and DM2 in the preoperative period and 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

The role of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in mediating the relationship between central adiposity and immunometabolic profile in postmenopausal women.

To analyze the role of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in mediating the relationship between central adiposity and immune and metabolic profile in postmenopausal women.

Effect of Post-Cesarean Delivery Oral Cephalexin and Metronidazole on Surgical Site Infection Among Obese Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown.

Analysis of SNP-SNP interactions and bone quantitative ultrasound parameter in early adulthood.

Osteoporosis individual susceptibility is determined by the interaction of multiple genetic variants and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to conduct SNP-SNP interaction analyses in candidate genes influencing heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameter in early adulthood to identify novel insights into the mechanism of disease.