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Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Duration of antiresorptive activity of zoledronate in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized, controlled multidose trial.

Intravenous zoledronate 5 mg annually reduces fracture risk, and 5 mg every 2 years prevents bone loss, but the optimal dosing regimens for these indications are uncertain.

Association of TCM body constitution with insulin resistance and risk of diabetes in impaired glucose regulation patients.

Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) patients have increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identifying relevant risk factors in IGR subjects could facilitate early detection and prevention of IGR progression to diabetes. This study investigated the association between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) body constitution and serum cytokines, and whether body constitution could independently predict diabetes in IGR subjects.

Effectiveness of food supplements in increasing fat-free tissue accretion in children with moderate acute malnutrition: A randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial in Burkina Faso.

Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion.

Clinicopathological features of diabetic and nondiabetic renal diseases in type 2 diabetic patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria.

Heavy proteinuria with or without features of nephrotic syndrome is associated with many primary and systemic diseases. For diabetic patients, distinguishing nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) from diabetic nephropathy (DN) is important in choosing treatment modalities and determining renal prognosis. However, clinical relevance of heavy proteinuria is inconsistent with clinical DN assessments. This study investigated the clinicopathological features and renal outcomes of DN and NDRD in type 2 diabetic patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria.We enrolled 220 cases of type 2 diabetic patients who underwent renal biopsy. They were grouped according to the presence of nephritic-range proteinuria and pathological features. Baseline characteristics, laboratory findings, types of pathological diagnosis, and renal outcomes were analyzed in patients with heavy proteinuria.Upon kidney biopsy, 129 patients (58.6%) showed nephritic-range proteinuria. Patients with heavy proteinuria (an average urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 10,008 ± 7307 mg/gCr) showed lower serum albumin levels and higher total cholesterol levels, but did not show any difference in age, duration of diabetes, renal function, or the presence of retinopathy compared with those with mild-to-moderate proteinuria (an average urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 1581 ± 979 mg/gCr). Renal biopsy revealed that the prevalence of NDRD was 37.2% in patients with heavy proteinuria, which was significantly lower than that in patients with mild-to-moderate proteinuria (63.7%). The most common pathological types of NDRD were membranous nephropathy (41.7%), IgA nephropathy (14.6%), and minimal change disease (10.4%). NDRD patients showed lower prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and better kidney function irrespective of proteinuria. Immunosuppressive treatment was administered more frequently in patients with heavy proteinuria (56.3%) compared with patients with mild-to-moderate proteinuria (20%) because of the pathological differences according to the amount of proteinuria. Renal outcomes were significantly worse in patients with DN than in patients with NDRD.DN patients with heavy proteinuria exhibited different prevalence of NDRD and worse prognosis. Renal biopsy in type 2 diabetic patients should be more extensively considered to accurately diagnose NDRD, guide further management, and predict renal outcomes, especially in patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria.

Influencing factors of glycemic variability in hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients with insulin therapy: A Strobe-compliant article.

Previous studies have shown that glucose fluctuation is closely related to oxidative stress and diabetic complications. However, only few studies have evaluated the influencing factors of glycemic variability (GV) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients so far.This was a cross-sectional study design. A total of 366 cases of hospitalized patients with T2D using insulin therapy, whom received continuous glucose monitoring from January 2014 to December 2016, were enrolled for this study. The evaluation variables of GV included standard deviation of blood glucose, coefficient of variation (CV%), mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, and absolute means of daily differences.In 366 T2D patients with insulin therapy, 148 were used multiple daily injections (MDI) insulin regimen; 144 were on premixed insulin injection; and 74 were treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin injection. Compared with MDI insulin regimen, patients on premixed insulin injection have less insulin dose per day, lower mean blood glucose, and better glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (all P <.05). Generalized linear model showed that family history of diabetes, duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c, and higher level of aspartate aminotransferase and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were positively associated with GV parameters. Otherwise, serum levels of C-peptide, premixed insulin injection, history of cardiovascular disease, and serum concentration of uric acid were inversely associated with GV parameters.Dysfunction of pancreatic β-cell and better insulin sensitivity were independent contributors to the fluctuation of blood glucose. Moreover, premixed insulin therapy may obtain better glucose control and lower within-day and day-to-day glucose variability for Chinese T2D patients with insulin therapy.

Prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of orthostatic hypotension in diabetic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a major clinical sign of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients. Our aim was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of OH in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and assess its prognosis.

Long-term effectiveness of the Diabetes Conversation Map Program: A prepost education intervention study among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan.

Health education is compulsory for patients with chronic and life-threatening disease, especially for those with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to examine the long-term effectiveness of the Diabetes Conversation Map Program (DCMP) among DM patients in Taiwan.A quasi-experimental research design using convenience sampling and nonrandom group assignment was applied to recruit 95 type 2 diabetic subjects from a hospital in Taiwan. In addition to routine care, the experiment group (n = 49) received 7 sessions of DCMP that delivered over 2 months, while the control group (n = 46) received only routine care during the same period. We conducted structured questionnaire survey and reviewed medical record at 3 time points (before DCMP, 3 days after DCMP, and 3 months after DCMP completion) to collect the effectiveness data. The effectiveness was determined using the generalized estimating equation model.We found that improvements in the body mass index, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and diabetic health literacy in the DCMP group compared with controls (all P values <.05), with no significant changes in depressive symptoms. The positive effects were further maintained for 3 months after DCMP.The findings may serve as a reference for helping healthcare professionals provide appropriate interventions to improve adaptation processes and clinical outcomes for DM patients.

Coeliac disease: further evidence that biopsy is not always necessary for diagnosis.

Avoiding biopsy for initial diagnosis for celiac disease: are we there yet?

Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. aqueous extract improves impaired glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed rats by decreasing the inflammatory response.

Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. is a medicinal plant with physiological activities such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and in vitro anti-diabetic activity. However, the effects of aqueous extracts from A. pilosa on insulin-resistant rats have not yet been examined. We investigated the effects of aqueous extract from A. pilosa on impaired glucose metabolism induced by a high-fat diet in rats.

Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome.

Methotrexate Hepatotoxicity and the Impact of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly used to treat individuals with rheumatological and dermatologic disorders. Current American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and American Association of Dermatology (AAD) guidelines identify diabetes and obesity as risk factors for MTX-induced liver injury. Both diabetes and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome, and are also risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD affects approximately 40% of the U.S. population, and those with more advanced NAFLD (i.e., nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis) are likely to develop progressive liver disease. As such, individuals who are treated with MTX may need to be screened for advanced NAFLD, as this may put them at an increased risk of MTX-induced liver injury. In this mini-review, we review the current ACR and AAD guidelines on MTX hepatotoxicity, discuss the evidence (or lack thereof) of the impact of metabolic risk factors on MTX-induced liver injury and highlight the areas that need further research.

Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Untangling the Association.

Current evidence linking vitamin B12 deficiency with metformin use is inconsistent. Hence, there is uncertainty regarding the diagnostic approach in this scenario. Furthermore, this possible association has not been studied in the complete spectrum of patients with diabetes.

Significance of Hyperferritinemia in Hospitalized Adults.

Although high ferritin levels are associated with iron overload, it is known that ferritin is also an acute-phase reactant that may be elevated in conditions associated with acute and chronic inflammation. In addition, an elevated ferritin level is a criterion for the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome (HLH/MAS). Therefore, the significance of elevated serum ferritin is often unclear. As HLH/MAS is a medical emergency, prompt diagnosis is important to guide appropriate treatment.

Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Cardiovascular Events in Diabetics With Coronary Artery Disease.

It has been demonstrated that an elevated ratio of triglycerides (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is also found to be associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the general population. However, its prognostic value in patients with T2DM along with CAD remains to be determined.

The mucopolysaccharidoses: advances in medical care lead to challenges in orthopaedic surgical care.

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders with clinical manifestations relevant to the orthopaedic surgeon. Our aim was to review the recent advances in their management and the implications for surgical practice. The current literature about MPSs is summarised, emphasising orthopaedic complications and their management. Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of MPSs include the recognition of slowly progressive, late presenting subtypes, developments in life-prolonging systemic treatment and potentially new indications for surgical treatment. The outcomes of surgery in these patients are not yet validated and some procedures have a high rate of complications which differ from those in patients who do not have a MPS. The diagnosis of a MPS should be considered in adolescents or young adults with a previously unrecognised dysplasia of the hip. Surgeons treating patients with a MPS should report their experience and studies should include the assessment of function and quality of life to guide treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1132-9.

Living kidney transplantation between brothers with unrecognized renal amyloidosis as the first manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever: a case report.

Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and polyserositis and by the onset of reactive amyloid-associated amyloidosis. Amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever can lead to end-stage renal disease, culminating in kidney transplantation for some patients. In this study, we report the clinical outcome of two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever who were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. Subsequently, they were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis secondary to familial Mediterranean fever and were successfully treated with anakinra and colchicine.

Pathologic Involvement of Glutamatergic Striatal Inputs From the Cortices in TAR DNA-Binding Protein 43 kDa-Related Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

In frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), recent studies have presumed relationships between cognitive declines and striatal dysfunctions. The striatum contributes to socio-cognitive functions by receiving glutamatergic inputs from the cerebral cortices. However, the vulnerability of these cortico-striatal inputs is unclear in these diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the glutamatergic inputs to the striatum from the cerebral cortices in patients with sporadic TDP-43-related FTLD (FTLD-TDP) and ALS (ALS-TDP). We examined 46 consecutively autopsied patients (31 FTLD-TDP and 15 ALS patients) and 10 normal controls. The axon terminals of the glutamatergic cortico-striatal projection neurons were quantified at the striatum using antivesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT-1) immunohistochemistry. In results, all FTLD-TDP patients displayed marked depletion of VGLUT-1-positive axon terminals in the caudate head and putamen. Particularly, the patients with type C pathology showed a severe loss. The nondemented ALS patients displayed loss of VGLUT-1-positive axon terminals in the putamen, but those were relatively spared in the caudate head. Confocal microscopy revealed TDP-43 aggregations within VGLUT-1-positive axon terminals in a subset of the patients. Our results indicate marked involvement of glutamatergic striatal inputs from the cerebral cortices in association with socio-cognitive declines in a disease spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathy.

Amygdala TDP-43 Pathology in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Motor Neuron Disease.

TDP-43-positive inclusions are present in the amygdala in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and motor neuron disease (MND) including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Behavioral abnormalities, one of the chief symptoms of FTLD, could be, at least partly, related to amygdala pathology. We examined TDP-43 inclusions in the amygdala of patients with sporadic FTLD/MND (sFTLD/MND), FTLD/MND with mutation of the C9ORF72 (FTLD/MND-C9) and FTLD with mutation of the progranulin (FTLD-GRN). TDP-43 inclusions were common in each one of these subtypes, which can otherwise be distinguished on topographical and genetic grounds. Conventional and immunological stainings were performed and we quantified the numerical density of inclusions on a regional basis. TDP-43 inclusions in amygdala could be seen in 10 out of 26 sFTLD/MND cases, 5 out of 9 FTLD/MND-C9 cases, and all 4 FTLD-GRN cases. Their numerical density was lower in FTLD/MND-C9 than in sFTLD/MND and FTLD-GRN. TDP-43 inclusions were more numerous in the ventral region of the basolateral nucleus group in all subtypes. This contrast was apparent in sporadic and C9-mutated FTLD/MND, while it was less evident in FTLD-GRN. Such differences in subregional involvement of amygdala may be related to the region-specific neuronal connections that are differentially affected in FTLD/MND and FTLD-GRN.

Diabetes mellitus carries a risk of esophageal cancer: A meta-analysis.

Many studies have showed that diabetes mellitus (DM) might be a risk factor for certain types of cancers. However, there are still inconsistent results on the effects of DM on the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). The objective of this study is to investigate the association and to quantify the correlation between DM and EC by a meta-analysis.

Comparative assessment of the efficacy and safety of acarbose and metformin combined with premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

This study, a subgroup analysis of the data from the Organization Program of DiabEtes INsulIN ManaGement study, aimed to compare the efficacy and safety profiles of acarbose and metformin used in combination with premixed insulin.This analysis included 80 and 192 patients taking only 1 oral antidiabetic drug, classified into acarbose (treated with acarbose + insulin) and metformin groups (treated with metformin + insulin), respectively. The efficacy and safety data were analyzed for within- and between-group differences. The clinical trial registry number was NCT01338376.The percentage of patients who achieved target hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <7% in the acarbose and metformin groups were 38.75% and 30.73%, respectively, after a 16-week treatment. The average HbA1c levels in the acarbose and metformin groups were comparable at baseline and decreased significantly in both groups at the end of the study. All 7 blood glucose decreased significantly in both groups at endpoint compared with that at baseline. Insulin consumption was higher in the metformin group in terms of total daily amount and units/kg body weight. Incidences of hypoglycemia were similar in both groups. Body weight changed significantly in both groups from baseline to endpoint, but with no significant difference between the groups. Mean scores of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale improved in both groups at endpoint.Combination of insulin with acarbose or metformin could improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose and metformin were found to be comparable in terms of efficacy, weight gain, and incidence of hypoglycemia.

Laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy: A 5-year veterans affairs review.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in a VA population.SG has recently gained popularity as a definitive bariatric surgery procedure. Data are lacking on long-term outcomes, particularly in a Veterans Affairs population.We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients who underwent SG for morbid obesity between January 2009 and June 2014. Data on length of stay, complications, interval weight loss, comorbidities, and number of therapies preoperatively and at long-term follow-up were collected.There were 164 males and 59 females who underwent SG. The mean body mass index was 45.4 kg/m. Mean excess weight loss at 1 year was 62.9%, and 47.0% at 5 years. Weight loss continued until 12 to 18 months, when there was a nadir in weight loss (P < .001). There were 4 deaths and 4 staple-line leaks, with 3 deaths related to late cardiac events. One early death occurred in a very high-risk patient. All staple-line leaks were managed nonoperatively. Of the 223 patients, 193 had hypertension, 137 diabetes, 158 hyperlipidemia, 119 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and 125 had gastroesophageal reflux disease. Preoperatively, patients were on a mean of 1.9 antihypertensive and 0.9 hyperlipidemic, anti-reflux and oral hypoglycemic agents. Fifty percent of patients with diabetes were on insulin and 68% with OSA used continuous positive airway pressure/bilevel positive airway pressure (CPAP/BiPAP). We found significant absolute reductions in mean antihypertensive medications (-0.8), hyperlipidemic agents (-0.4), antireflux agents (-0.4), oral hypoglycemics (-0.6), insulin use (-25%), and use of CPAP/BiPAP (-55%) (all P < .001).Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective bariatric surgery procedure, resulting in significant early weight loss up to 18 months and long-term improvement in all major obesity-related comorbid conditions.

Evaluation of the impact of statin therapy on the obesity paradox in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A propensity score matching analysis from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

The phenomenon of obesity paradox after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported under strong recommendation of statin therapy. However, the impact of statin therapy on this paradox has not been investigated. This study investigated the impact of statin therapy on 1-year mortality according to obesity after AMI. A total of 2745 AMI patients were included from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry after 1:4 propensity score matching analysis (n = 549 for nonstatin group and n = 2196 for statin group). Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and cardiac death, respectively. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of all-cause (8.4% vs 3.7%) and cardiac (6.2% vs 2.3%) death was higher in nonstatin group than in statin (P < .001, respectively). In nonstatin group, the incidence of all-cause (7.2% vs 9.0%) and cardiac (5.5% vs 6.5%) death did not differ significantly between obese and nonobese patients. However, in statin group, obese patients had lower 1-year rate of all-cause (1.7% vs 4.8%) and cardiac (1.2% vs 2.9%) death (P < .05, respectively), and lower cumulative rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis of all-cause and cardiac death compared with nonobese patients (log-rank P < .05, respectively). The overall risk of all-cause death was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese patients only in statin group (hazard ratio: 0.35; P = .001). After adjusting for confounding factors, obesity was independently associated with decreased risk of all-cause death in statin group. In conclusion, the greater benefit of statin therapy for survival in obese patients is further confirmation of the obesity paradox after AMI.

Zinc transporter ZIP13 suppresses beige adipocyte biogenesis and energy expenditure by regulating C/EBP-β expression.

Given the relevance of beige adipocytes in adult humans, a better understanding of the molecular circuits involved in beige adipocyte biogenesis has provided new insight into human brown adipocyte biology. Genetic mutations in SLC39A13/ZIP13, a member of zinc transporter family, are known to reduce adipose tissue mass in humans; however, the underlying mechanisms remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Zip13-deficient mouse shows enhanced beige adipocyte biogenesis and energy expenditure, and shows ameliorated diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that an accumulation of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β) protein, which cooperates with dominant transcriptional co-regulator PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) to determine brown/beige adipocyte lineage, is essential for the enhanced adipocyte browning caused by the loss of ZIP13. Furthermore, ZIP13-mediated zinc transport is a prerequisite for degrading the C/EBP-β protein to inhibit adipocyte browning. Thus, our data reveal an unexpected association between zinc homeostasis and beige adipocyte biogenesis, which may contribute significantly to the development of new therapies for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Porphyria.

Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

In a randomized, controlled trial that compared liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk who were receiving usual care, we found that liraglutide resulted in lower risks of the primary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and death. However, the long-term effects of liraglutide on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown.

Safety and effectiveness of antireflux surgery in obese patients.

Introduction The incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and obesity has increased significantly in recent years. The number of antireflux procedures being carried out on people with a higher body mass index (BMI) has been rising. Evidence is conflicting for outcomes of antireflux surgery in obese patients in terms of its safety and efficacy. Given the contradictory reports, this meta-analysis was undertaken to establish the outcomes of antireflux surgery (ARS) in obese patients and its associated safety. Methods A systematic electronic search was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE(®), Ovid(®), Cochrane Library and Google Scholar™ databases to identify studies that analysed the effect of BMI on the outcomes of ARS. A meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. The intraoperative and postoperative outcomes that were examined included operative time, conversion to an open procedure, mean length of hospital stay, recurrence of acid reflux requiring reoperation and wrap migration. Results A total of 3,772 patients were included in 13 studies. There was no significant difference in procedure conversion rate, recurrence of reflux requiring reoperation or wrap migration between obese and non-obese patients. However, both the mean operative time and mean length of stay were longer for obese patients. Conclusions ARS in obese patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is safe and outcomes are comparable with those in patients with a BMI in the normal range. A high BMI should therefore not be a deterrent to considering ARS for appropriate patients.

HEXANE EXTRACT OF Dacryodes edulis FRUITS POSSESSES ANTI-DIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDAEMIC POTENTIALS IN ALLOXAN DIABETES OF RATS.

The fruit extract of Dacryodes edulis (D. edulis), the African pear or plum, a tree indigenous to the humid tropics has been used for managing wounds, skin diseases, sickle cell anaemia, dysentery and fever in some African nations. In South Eastern Nigeria, 'herbal doctors' include its marshed fruit in decoctions administered to diabetic patients. However no scientific substantiation of their claim and use exist in literature. Hence, the need to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic activity of hexane extracts of D. edulis fruit in alloxanised animal model.

METABOLIC EFFECTS OF TULBAGHIA VIOLACEA HARV. IN A DIABETIC MODEL.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a cluster of metabolic diseases with chronic hyperglycemia as a defining feature, associated with long-term organ damage and dysfunction. In this study we examined the effect of Tulbaghia violacea rhizome methanolic extract on blood glucose and lipids in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

THE EFFECTS OF Syzygium aromaticum-DERIVED TRITERPENES ON GASTROINTESTINAL GHRELIN EXPRESSION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS.

Diabetic polyphagia has been associated with elevated plasma ghrelin levels in experimental type 1 diabetes. This increase in food consumption contributes to chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes thus contributing to the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. We have reported that plant-derived oleanolic acid (OA) and maslinic acid (MA) reduce blood glucose levels, in part, through the inhibition of intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes and glucose transporters. However, their effects on food intake and plasma ghrelin concentrations are unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of these triterpenes on food intake and ghrelin expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.