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Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes: meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials.

Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity, and pre-existing medical condition; and secondarily on individual complications.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD). Data sources Major electronic databases from inception to February 2017 without language restrictions.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall, and in subgroups (interactions).Results IPD were obtained from 36 randomised trials (12 526 women). Less weight gain occurred in the intervention group than control group (mean difference -0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval -0.92 to -0.48 kg, I(2)=14.1%; 33 studies, 9320 women). Although summary effect estimates favoured the intervention, the reductions in maternal (odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.03, I(2)=26.7%; 24 studies, 8852 women) and offspring (0.94, 0.83 to 1.08, I(2)=0%; 18 studies, 7981 women) composite outcomes were not statistically significant. No evidence was found of differential intervention effects across subgroups, for either gestational weight gain or composite outcomes. There was strong evidence that interventions reduced the odds of caesarean section (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99, I(2)=0%; 32 studies, 11 410 women), but not for other individual complications in IPD meta-analysis. When IPD were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I(2)=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy reduce gestational weight gain and lower the odds of caesarean section. There is no evidence that effects differ across subgroups of women.

Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Associations of Weight Gain From Early to Middle Adulthood With Major Health Outcomes Later in Life.

Data describing the effects of weight gain across adulthood on overall health are important for weight control.

Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.

Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects.

Case reports of juvenile GM1 gangliosidosisis type II caused by mutation in GLB1 gene.

Type II or juvenile GM1-gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, which is clinically distinct from infantile form of the disease by the lack of characteristic cherry-red spot and hepatosplenomegaly. The disease is characterized by slowly progressive neurodegeneration and mild skeletal changes. Due to the later age of onset and uncharacteristic presentation, diagnosis is frequently puzzled with other ataxic and purely neurological disorders. Up to now, 3-4 types of GM1-gangliosidosis have been reported and among them type I is the most common phenotype with the age of onset around 6 months. Various forms of GM1-gangliosidosis are caused by GLB1 gene mutations but severity of the disease and age of onset are directly related to the position and the nature of deleterious mutations. However, due to its unique genetic cause and overlapping clinical features, some researchers believe that GM1 gangliosidosis represents an overlapped disease spectrum instead of four distinct types.

The Prime Diabetes Model: Novel Methods for Estimating Long-Term Clinical and Cost Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Recent publications describing long-term follow-up from landmark trials and diabetes registries represent an opportunity to revisit modeling options in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Mortality from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease Among Different Occupation Groups - United States, 1985-2011.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease, both progressive neurodegenerative diseases, affect >1 million Americans (1,2). Consistently reported risk factors for ALS include increasing age, male sex, and cigarette smoking (1); risk factors for Parkinson's disease include increasing age, male sex, and pesticide exposure, whereas cigarette smoking and caffeine consumption are inversely associated (2). Relative to cancer or respiratory diseases, the role of occupation in neurologic diseases is much less studied and less well understood (3). CDC evaluated associations between usual occupation and ALS and Parkinson's disease mortality using data from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS), a population-based surveillance system that includes approximately 12.1 million deaths from 30 U.S. states.* Associations were estimated using proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs), standardizing indirectly by age, sex, race, and calendar year to the standard population of all NOMS deaths with occupation information. Occupations associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES) had elevated ALS and Parkinson's disease mortality. The shifts in the U.S. workforce toward older ages and higher SES occupations(†) highlight the importance of understanding this finding, which will require studies with designs that provide evidence for causality, detailed exposure assessment, and adjustment for additional potential confounders.

Adaptation of the By-Band randomized clinical trial to By-Band-Sleeve to include a new intervention and maintain relevance of the study to practice.

Recruitment into surgical RCTs can be threatened if new interventions available outside the trial compete with those being evaluated. Adapting the trial to include the new intervention may overcome this issue, yet this is not often done in surgery. This paper describes the challenges, rationale and methods for adapting an RCT to include a new intervention.

Relationship Between Myocardial Function, Body Mass Index, and Outcome After ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Better survival for overweight and obese patients after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been demonstrated. The association between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and left ventricular (LV) structure and function after STEMI, including LV longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain), was evaluated.

Iron deficiency and new insights into therapy.

Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia remain prevalent in Australia. The groups at highest risk are pre-menopausal women, socially disadvantaged people and those of Indigenous background. Diagnosing iron deficiency using a full blood examination and iron studies can be difficult and can be further complicated by concomitant inflammation. Results of iron studies should always be interpreted as an overall picture rather than focusing on individual parameters. In difficult clinical scenarios, soluble transferrin receptor assays can be useful. Management of iron deficiency involves identification and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, as well as effective iron replacement. Clinicians should always take a detailed history and perform a comprehensive physical examination of a patient with iron deficiency. Patients should be monitored even if a likely cause of iron deficiency is identified. Patients who fail to respond to iron replacement or maintain iron status should be referred for further investigation, including endoscopy to exclude internal bleeding. Both enteral and parenteral iron are effective at replacing iron. For most adult patients, we recommend trialling daily oral iron (30-100 mg of elemental iron) as the first-line therapy. Safety and efficacy of intravenous iron infusions have improved with the availability of a newer formulation, ferric carboxymaltose. Patients who fail to respond to oral iron replacement can be safely managed with intravenous iron. Blood transfusion for iron deficiency anaemia should be reserved for life-threatening situations and should always be followed by appropriate iron replacement.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy.

Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy.

Metformin is associated with fewer major adverse cardiac events among patients with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A propensity score-matched nationwide study.

Early type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may only require lifestyle modifications for glycemic control without the need for oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). Metformin is believed to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with DM, and it is considered to be a first-line therapy. However, it is unclear whether metformin is beneficial for patients with a new diagnosis of DM compared to those who do not need OHAs for glycemic control.Data were obtained from a population-based health care database in Taiwan. Patients with a new diagnosis of DM were enrolled if they received metformin monotherapy only between 1999 and 2010. A 4:1 propensity score-matched cohort of patients with a new diagnosis of DM who did not take OHAs or insulin during follow-up was also enrolled. The primary study endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The time to the endpoints was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards models.A total of 474,410 patients with DM were enrolled. During a mean 5.8 years of follow-up, the incidence of MACEs was 1.072% (1072 per 100,000 person-years) in the metformin monotherapy group versus 1.165% in the lifestyle modification group (those who did not take OHAs) (P < .001). After adjusting for confounders, metformin independently protected the DM patients from MACEs (hazard ratio: 0.83, P < .001). The metformin group also had an improved MACE-free survival profile from year 1 to year 12 (P < .001).In addition to lifestyle modifications, the patients with a new diagnosis of DM treated with metformin monotherapy had a lower MACE rate than those who did not take OHAs. Our findings suggest that metformin may be given early to patients with a new diagnosis of DM, even when they do not need OHAs for glycemic control.

Impact of obesity on the short-term outcomes of single-port laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer in the Asian population: A retrospective cohort study.

Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is being increasingly performed for treating colorectal cancer. Here, we aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of SPLS for colorectal cancer in obese patients through a comparison of their short-term outcomes with those of nonobese patients.A total of 323 patients who underwent SPLS for colorectal cancer at our center between March 2009 and August 2014 were enrolled. The outcomes were analyzed according to the body mass index (BMI) category: nonobese (BMI < 25), obese I (BMI: 25.0-29.9), and obese II (BMI ≥ 30).Of the 323 patients, 233 (72.1%), 80 (24.8%), and 10 (3.1%), were assigned to the nonobese, obese I, and obese II groups, respectively. The clinicopathologic patient characteristics, such as age, gender, tumor location, and previous laparotomy, were similar among the 3 groups. The mean operative time (nonobese vs obese I vs and obese II groups: 269.2 vs 270.4 vs 342.8 minutes, respectively) and estimated surgical blood loss (277.7 vs 260.5 vs 387.0 mL, respectively) were greater in the obese II group than in the nonobese and obese I groups, although the difference was not significant (P = .247 and P = .205, respectively). However, the time to passage of flatus significantly differed among the groups (P = .040); in particular, this value was significantly longer in the obese II group than in the obese I group (P = .031). None of the other parameters, including conversion to open or conventional laparoscopic surgery and intra- and postoperative morbidity, significantly differed among the 3 groups.SPLS for colorectal cancer can be safely performed in obese Asian patients with equivalent short-term outcomes as compared with that in nonobese patients. Hence, SPLS can be safely recommended for colorectal cancer in obese patients if the surgeon is experienced. Nevertheless, the technique used warrants further investigation, and a large-scale prospective study is required.

Osteolytic bone lesions, severe hypercalcemia without circulating blasts: unusual presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Hypercalcemia and severe osteolytic lesions are rare complications of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. We report a case of a 3 years old boy who presented with prolonged fever, nausea, vomiting and increasing lower limbs pain. Skeletal X-rays and CT scan showed severe osteolytic lesions of the skull and extremities. Her physical examination showed multiple cervical lymph nodes. In laboratory tests, he had severe hypercalcemia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was not elevated. Despite the absence of circulating blasts, bone marrow biopsy revealed B-precursor (ALL). Hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous isotonic sodium chloride solution and diuretics but the serum calcium level normalized only after the beginning of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The child responded initially to chemotherapy and eventually relapsed and died of septic shock. Acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with hypercalcemia. A detailed examination even when there no circulating blasts in their peripheral blood smear, and if in doubt bone marrow aspiration should must be taken into consideration.

Giant parathyroid carcinoma: diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic strategies.

Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare malignancy responsible for 0.4 to 5.2% of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical diagnosis is difficult and treatment should be codified. Surgery is the only curative treatment. We report the case of a female patient treated for malignancy-associated hypercalcemia revealing parathyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent surgery; after three months she developed lymphatic recurrence. Given the absence of other secondary involvement, bilateral lymph node dissection followed by chemotherapy was performed. Parathyroid carcinoma is often suspected on the basis of biological, radiological and especially intraoperative macroscopic criteria, but definitive diagnosis is made histopathologically. Surgery is currently the only curative treatment and the role of adjuvant therapy is to establish.

Wilson's disease and diagnostic conundrum in a low income country.

Wilson's disease is a well-known leading cause of chronic liver disease in children. However it may remain undiagnosed in a resource limited setting for a long period. We describe a six year male child diagnosed Wilson's disease with extreme elevation of liver enzymes which is not reported earlier. The diagnosis was also baffling because of inconsistency of other laboratory parameters.

Alterations to the Foveal Cone Mosaic of Diabetic Patients.

We measured localized changes occurring in the foveal cone photoreceptors and related defects in the cone mosaic to alterations in the nearby retinal vasculature.

Doege-Potter syndrome: A review of the literature including a new case report.

We reviewed 76 published cases of Doege-Potter syndrome, and non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) secondary to a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) between 1989 and 2016, to study disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare paraneoplastic disease. Further, we report 1 new case of a patient presenting with Doege-Potter syndrome.

Influence of phenylketonuria's diet on dimethylated arginines and methylation cycle.

Phenylketonuria's (PKU) treatment based on low natural protein diet may affect homocysteine (Hcys) metabolic pathway. Hcys alteration may be related to the methylation of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), which both modify nitric oxide production. The aim of this work is to evaluate the status of Hcys formation methylation cycle and ADMA and SDMA levels in patients with PKU in order to establish a potential relationship.Forty-two early diagnosed PKU patients under dietary treatment and good adherence to their diets were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Their nutritional and biochemical profile, as well as Hcys synthesis status, ADMA and SDMA levels were analyzed and compared with a control group of 40 healthy volunteers. ADMA and SDMA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.In this study, 23 classic PKU, 16 moderate PKU, and 3 mild HPA were enrolled. The median age was 10 years old. Median ADMA, SDMA, and Hcys concentration levels (5.1 μM [2.3-25.7], 0.35 μM [0.18-0.57], 0.43 μM [0.26-0.61], respectively) were lower in patients with PKU (P < .001 for ADMA and SDMA) whereas vitamin B12 and folate levels (616 pg/mL [218-1943] and 21 ng/mL [5-51], respectively) were higher comparing with controls. Statistically significant correlations were found between ADMA, and Phe (r = -0.504, P = .001) and Hcys (r = -0.458, P = .037) levels. Several nutrition biomarkers, such as prealbumin, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, selenium, and zinc, were below the normal range.Our study suggests that patients with PKU suffer from poor methylation capacity. Restriction of natural proteins in addition to high intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in the dietary products, produce an impairment of methylation cycle that leads to low Hcys and ADMA levels. As a result, methylated compounds compete for methyl groups, and there is an impairment of methylation cycle due to low Hcys levels, which is related to the lack of protein quality, despite of elevated concentrations of cofactors.

Long-term efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors as add-on to metformin treatment in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

Drug intensification is often required for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on stable metformin therapy. Among the potential candidates for a combination therapy, sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown promising outcomes. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors with non-SGLT2 combinations as add-on treatment to metformin.

Mineralocorticoid responsive hyponatremia of the elderly: A systematic review.

Mineralocorticoid responsive hyponatremia of the elderly (MRHE) is an emerging concept of hyponatremia in aged people. Diagnosis of MRHE requires exclusion of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and adrenal dysfunction. Thus we aimed to evaluate the characteristics of all patients with suspected MRHE available for a review.

Camurati-Engelmann disease-a rare cause of tetany identified on bone scintigraphy: A case report.

Camurati-Engelmann disease (i.e., progressive diaphyseal dysplasia) is an extremely rare autosomal dominant bone disorder. The most common clinical manifestations were chronic skeletal pain, waddling gait, muscular weakness.

Characterization of lipid profile by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) of metabolically healthy obese women after weight loss with Mediterranean diet and physical exercise.

Obesity is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. No data exists on lipoprotein particle profiles in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals. Our aim is to characterize lipoprotein size, particle, and subclass concentrations in MHO women after 3 months of weight loss through dietary restriction and physical exercise.A total of 115 nondiabetic women (aged 35-55 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 to 40 kg/m and ≤1 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≤135/85 mm Hg, fasting plasma glucose ≤100 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol ≤50 mg/dL, and triglycerides ≤150 mg/dL were included. After 3 months of intensive lifestyle modification (Mediterranean diet and physical exercise), they were classified according to their weight loss: <5%, ≥5% to <10%, and ≥10%. Lipoprotein size, particle, and subclass concentrations were measured using H NMR.The final sample, after dropouts, comprised 104 women (age: 44.4 ± 3.7 years, BMI: 36.3 ± 4.7 kg/m), of whom 47 (45.2%), 27 (26%), and 30 (28.8%) lost <5%, ≥5% to <10%, and ≥10% of baseline body weight, respectively. All participants experienced significant weight loss and decreases in BMI. The lipid profiles showed an increase in small, medium, and large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles in all groups of study with the exception of small VLDL particles in women with ≥10% of weight loss, in which it decreased. The number of VLDL particles decreased in women who had ≥10% weight loss. On the other hand, we detected a decrease in all low density lipoprotein (cLDL) and high density lipoprotein (cHDL) concentrations.These results indicate that intensive lifestyle modification alters lipid profiles. In particular, it decreases small LDL and HDL particle numbers and does not increase medium or large HDL particles numbers.

Type I diabetes mellitus in children less than 5 years: case study conducted at the university clinics of Lubumbashi and review of the literature.

Worldwide trends in type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are changing. It is increasingly affecting children of less than 5 years. The smaller the child, the greater the complexity of patient management. A delay in diagnosis or poor treatment can cause sudden death due to acute severe complications. It would be worth looking at this, raising public awareness, adapting our healthcare system to face this epidemic of noncommunicable diseases in Africa and establishing registers to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of type I diabetes mellitus in our environment. The aim of our study was to highlight the seriousness of type I diabetes mellitus occurrence at an early stage in children in our environment.

Utility of 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines in HIV-Infected Adults With Carotid Atherosclerosis.

Although HIV is associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, it is unknown whether guidelines can identify HIV-infected adults who may benefit from statins. We compared the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations in HIV-infected adults and evaluated associations with carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque.