A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Occupational Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Effect of call organization on burnout and quality of life in psychiatry residents.

We aimed to measure the effects of a residency program's mid-year shift from 24-h call to night float on resident burnout and quality of life. At the end of the year, residents who started the year with 24-h call had worse burnout and quality of life, with statistical significance and large effect sizes. Exposure to a twenty-four hour call system, when compared to a full year of night float, may be associated with increased burnout and decreased quality of life, though measuring this effect is not straightforward.

Professional commitment: Does it buffer or intensify job demands?

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted. Multiple regression was performed to test the hypothesis. The results provide support to a buffering effect; thus, individuals with a higher degree of professional commitment conveyed a weaker association between job demands and emotional exhaustion compared with nurses with a lower degree of commitment. Developing a better understanding of the potential buffering effect of professional commitment is of great interest. The present study is the first to utilize professional commitment as a resource within the job demands-resources framework.

Burnout in the Plastic Surgeon: Implications and Interventions.

Pathway deviation-based biomarker and multi-effect target identification in asbestos-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

Asbestos-related lung carcinoma is one of the most devastating occupational cancers, and effective techniques for early diagnosis are still lacking. In the present study, a systematic approach was applied to detect a potential biomarker for asbestos-related lung cancer (ARLC); in particular asbestos-related squamous cell carcinoma (ARLC-SCC). Microarray data (GSE23822) were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 26 ARLC-SCCs and 30 non-asbestos-related squamous cell lung carcinomas (NARLC-SCCs). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by the limma package, and then a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed according to the BioGRID and HPRD databases. A novel scoring approach integrating an expression deviation score and network degree of the gene was then proposed to weight the DEGs. Subsequently, the important genes were uploaded to DAVID for pathway enrichment analysis. Pathway correlation analysis was carried out using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of the pathscore. In total, 1,333 DEGs, 391 upregulated and 942 downregulated, were obtained between the ARLC-SCCs and NARLC-SCCs. A total of 524 important genes for ARLC-SCC were significantly enriched in 22 KEGG pathways. Correlation analysis of these pathways showed that the pathway of SNARE interactions in vesicular transport was significantly correlated with 12 other pathways. Additionally, obvious correlations were found between multiple pathways by sharing cross-talk genes (EGFR, PRKX, PDGFB, PIK3R3, SLK, IGF1, CDC42 and PRKCA). On the whole, our data demonstrate that 8 cross-talk genes were found to bridge multiple ARLC-SCC-specific pathways, which may be used as candidate biomarkers and potential multi-effect targets. As these genes are involved in multiple pathways, it is possible that drugs targeting these genes may thus be able to influence multiple pathways simultaneously.

Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

Job rotation: Effects on muscular activity variability.

Job rotation strategies have been used for years as an administrative intervention to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The benefits of job rotation have been hypothesized to occur via changes in muscular activity variability (MAV). However, the effect of job rotation on MAV has not been fully analyzed in a literature review. A wide search was conducted to identify studies testing the effect of different job rotation strategies on MAV. Twenty-six studies of acceptable quality were included. Several studies on different types of tasks supported the view that job rotation can increase muscular activity variability, particularly with strategies such as alternating tasks and pace changes. However, it remains uncertain whether such variability changes immediately translate into benefits for the worker because little evidence was found that showed simultaneous changes in different muscular groups. Additionally, variability was occasionally achieved at the expense of average activity in the assessed muscles.

Effect of work boot type on work footwear habits, lower limb pain and perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners.

Lower limb injuries are highly prevalent in underground coal mining. Wearing gumboots with inadequate ankle support was thought to contribute to these injuries. Despite the uptake of leather lace-up boots, which provide more ankle support, no recent research could be found investigating the effect of this alternative work boot in underground coal mining. Consequently, this study aimed to determine whether boot type (gumboot, leather lace-up boot) influenced work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb pain, lower back pain, or perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners. Chi-squared tests were applied to 358 surveys completed by underground coal miners to determine whether responses differed significantly (p < 0.05) according to boot-type. There were no significant between-boot differences in regards to the presence of foot problems, lower limb pain or lower back pain. However, the types of foot problems and locations of foot pain differed according to boot type. Gumboot wearers were also more likely to state that their work boot comfort was either 'uncomfortable' or 'indifferent', their work boot fit was 'poor' and their current boot did not provide enough support. The introduction of more structured leather lace-up boots appears to have positively influenced the support and fit provided by mining work boots, although foot problems, lower limb pain and lower back pain continue to be reported. Further investigation is recommended to identify which specific boot design features caused these observed differences in work boot fit, comfort and locations of foot pain and how these design features can be manipulated to create an underground coal mining work boot that is comfortable and reduces the high incidence of foot problems and lower limb pain suffered by underground coal miners.

Mentoring to Help Prevent Physician Burnout.

The importance of a person's spirit and eternal destiny are eclipsed in American medi- cine. The most alarming effect of this eclipse is that the prevalence of burnout among physicians is high (about 46 percent) and growing.' It is alarming because trends that deplete the physician's spirit tragically impair the physician's capacity as a healer and as one who renews the spirit.

The PD-1/PD-L1 axis may be aberrantly activated in occupational cholangiocarcinoma.

An outbreak of cholangiocarcinoma in a printing company was reported in Japan, and these cases were regarded as an occupational disease (occupational cholangiocarcinoma). This study examined the expression status of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Immunostaining of PD-1, PD-L1, CD3, CD8, and CD163 was performed using tissue sections of occupational cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), and the results were compared with those of control cases consisting of intrahepatic (n = 23) and extrahepatic (n = 45) cholangiocarcinoma. Carcinoma cells expressed PD-L1 in all cases of occupational cholangiocarcinoma, whereas the detection of PD-L1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma cells was limited to a low number of cases (less than 10%) in the control subjects. In cases of occupational cholangiocarcinoma, occasional PD-L1 expression was also noted in precancerous/preinvasive lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. Additionally, tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-infiltrating T cells expressed PD-L1 and PD-1, respectively. The number of PD-L1-positive mononuclear cells, PD-1-positive lymphocytes, and CD8-positive lymphocytes infiltrating within the tumor was significantly higher in occupational cholangiocarcinoma compared with that in control cases. These results indicate that immune escape via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis may be occurring in occupational cholangiocarcinoma.

Association between Genetic Variants of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Susceptibility of Pneumoconiosis: A Meta-analysis.

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and gene variants have been extensively studied in various human diseases. For example, TGF-β1 polymorphisms were associated with fibrosis and pneumoconiosis, but the data remained controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between TGF-β1 -509 C>T [rs1800469], +869 T>C [rs1800470], and +915 G>C [rs1800471] polymorphisms and pneumoconiosis.

Evidence of Allergic Reactions and Cardiopulmonary Impairments among Traders Operating from Foodstuff Warehouses.

Background. Foodstuff traders operating from warehouses (FTFW) are potentially exposed to dangerous rodenticides/pesticides that may have adverse effects on cardiopulmonary function. Methods. Fifty consenting male foodstuff traders, comprising 15 traders (21-63 years) operating outside warehouses and 35 FTFW (20-64 years), were randomly recruited at Ogbete Market, Enugu, in a cross-sectional observational study of spirometric and electrocardiographic parameters. Seventeen FTFW (21-57 years) participated in focus group discussions. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed thematically and with independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at p < 0.05, respectively. Results. Most FTFW experienced respiratory symptoms, especially dry cough (97.1%) and wheezing (31.4%) with significant reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) (t = -2.654; p = 0.011), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (t = -2.240; p = 0.030), maximum expiratory flow rate (FEF200-1200) (t = -1.148; p = -0.047), and forced end-expiratory flow (FEF75-85) (t = -1.11; p = 0.007). The maximum mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) was marginally decreased (p > 0.05) with a significantly prolonged (p < 0.05) QTc interval. Conclusion. Allergic response was evident in the FTFW. Significant decrease in FVC may negatively impact lung flow rates and explains the marginal decrease in FEF25-75, which implies a relative limitation in airflow of peripheral/distal airways and elastic recoil of the lungs. This is consistent with obstructive pulmonary disease; a significant decrease in FEF75-85/FEV1 supports this conclusion. Significant decrease in FEF200-1200 indicates abnormalities in the large airways/larynx just as significantly prolonged ventricular repolarization suggests cardiac arrhythmias.

A DAISY Nurse: Moral Distress and End-of-Life Decisions in the Pediatric Setting.

What does it mean to be a "DAISY nurse"? Moral distress and end-of-life issues are difficult in any situation but, within the context of a pediatric setting, can be even more difficult. In this column, a DAISY nurse shares her thoughts on her role, her professional journey to explore moral distress and ethical decision making, and the lessons learned that led to her recognition with The DAISY Award and the joyful celebration.

Notes from the Field: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in a Migrant Farm Worker - Colorado, 2016.

Physiologic Aspects of the Working Day Problem.

Association among Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, Job Stress, and Job Attitude of Occupational Therapists.

This study was conducted to investigate the associations among work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), job stress, and job attitude of occupational therapists in South Korea. Self-reporting questionnaires were distributed to 150 occupational therapists. Of the 128 occupational therapists who responded, 110 (85.9%) reported WMSDs affecting at least one body site. The most affected WMSDs site was the low back (26.8%), and the most reported number of body site affected by WMSDs was one (53.9%). As a result, there were significant differences in job stress and job attitude depending on the age, work experience, working hour, presence or absence of WMSDs, and number of site of pain. Factors influencing job attitude included job stress, the presence or absence of WMSDs and duration of pain. The results showed that the occurrence of WMSDs in occupational therapists was associated with increased job stress and negative job attitude.

Notes from the Field: Occupational Lead Exposures at a Shipyard - Douglas County, Wisconsin, 2016.

Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\3\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\3\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

Chief Nursing Officers' Experiences With Moral Distress.

This study explores if moral distress and its lingering residue were experienced by chief nursing officers (CNOs).

Factors Influencing Emergency Nurses' Burnout During an Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Korea.

Emergency department (ED) nurses suffer from persistent stress after experiencing the traumatic event of exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which can subsequently lead to burnout. This study aimed to assess ED nurses' burnout level during an outbreak of MERS-CoV and to identify influencing factors in order to provide basic information for lowering and preventing the level of burnout.

Job stress: an in-depth investigation based on the HSE questionnaire and a multistep approach in order to identify the most appropriate corrective actions.

Psychosocial hazards and work-related stress have reached epidemic proportions in Europe. The Italia law introduced in 2008 the obligation for Italian companies to assess work related stress risk in order to protect their workers' safety and health. The purpose of our study was to propose an accurate measurement tool, using the HSE indicator tool, for more appropriate and significant work-related stress' prevention measures.

Coping with stress in medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial using a mindfulness-based stress prevention training (MediMind) in Germany.

High prevalence rates of psychological distress in medical training and later professional life indicate a need for prevention. Different types of intervention were shown to have good effects, but little is known about the relative efficacy of different types of stress management interventions, and methodological limitations have been reported. In order to overcome some of these limitations, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind) on measures of distress, coping and psychological morbidity.

Clarification of Employer's Continuing Obligation To Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of Each Recordable Injury and Illness. Final rule.

OSHA is amending its recordkeeping regulations to clarify that the duty to make and maintain accurate records of work-related injuries and illnesses is an ongoing obligation. The duty to record an injury or illness continues for as long as the employer must keep records of the recordable injury or illness; the duty does not expire just because the employer fails to create the necessary records when first required to do so. The amendments consist of revisions to the titles of some existing sections and subparts and changes to the text of some existing provisions. The amendments add no new compliance obligations and do not require employers to make records of any injuries or illnesses for which records are not currently required to be made. The amendments in this rule are adopted in response to a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In that case, a majority held that the Occupational Safety and Health Act does not permit OSHA to impose a continuing recordkeeping obligation on employers. One judge filed a concurring opinion disagreeing with this reading of the statute, but finding that the text of OSHA's recordkeeping regulations did not impose continuing recordkeeping duties. OSHA disagrees with the majority's reading of the law, but agrees that its recordkeeping regulations were not clear with respect to the continuing nature of employers' recordkeeping obligations. This final rule is designed to clarify the regulations in advance of possible future federal court litigation that could further develop the law on the statutory issues addressed in the D.C. Circuit's decision.

Wellness in Graduate Medical Education: Is It Time to Pull the Andon Cord?

Empowering Trainees to Aim For Physician Wellness.

Developing Emotional Intelligence in the Clinical Learning Environment: A Case Study in Cultural Transformation.

Burnout continues to erode the physician workforce, and there are few effective intervention studies to guide educators.

Well-Being in Residency: A Systematic Review.

Rates of physician burnout have increased in recent years, and high burnout levels are reported by physicians in training.

The Burnout Conundrum: Nature Versus Nurture?

Assessment of Acute Trauma Exposure Response for FIRE-EMS Personnel.

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument that measures response to acute trauma exposure for firefighter and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. The Acute Trauma Exposure Response Scale (ATERS) was intended to assess firefighter and EMS personnel response to acute trauma exposure from analytical, emotional, and physical perspectives.

Guidelines for the use of the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses of the International Labour Office (ILO): Substantial changes in the currrent edition.

The International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses is the scheme worked out by the International Labour Office in Geneva (ILO), to register radiographic chest abnormalities in a well-ordered, reproducible and comparable way. It is used for diagnosing abnormalities caused by dust exposure. Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses contain detailed information and recommendations on how to use the classification, as well as how the chest X-ray examination should be performed and recorded. To facilitate the diagnosis of observed abnormalities the classification is completed by the set of standard radiograms illustrating typical irregularities referring to lungs and pleura, included in the classification. The article presents the key information on classification and the most important amendments adopted in the 2000 and 2011 ILO guidelines revisions. These changes refer to radiographs quality assessment, the way of presenting abnormalities registered in standard radiographs (QUAD set, digital images) and registration of failures not related to dust exposure. Particularly important complements result from the development of radiological imaging techniques. They are concerned about the classification of radiographic images of the chest recorded digitally. Med Pr 2016;67(6):833-837.

Work-related rhinitis - Is it always an occupational disease?

Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR) can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR) and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER). It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6):801-815.