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Occupational Diseases - Top 30 Publications

The Relationship Between and Factors Influencing Staff Nurses' Perceptions of Nurse Manager Caring and Exposure to Workplace Bullying in Multiple Healthcare Settings.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between, and factors influencing, staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager caring (NMC) and the perceived exposure to workplace bullying (WPB) in multiple healthcare settings.

Chromoblastomycosis: tissue modifications during itraconazole treatment.

Histological and mycological changes during itraconazole use have not been totally established in chromoblastomycosis.

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers concerning tobacco agriculture in a municipality in Southern Brazil.

The study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers working in tobacco production concerning the social, environmental, and health impacts of this economic activity. Focus groups were used in this qualitative study, and themes were explored until reaching saturation. The study was conducted in a municipality (county) in southern Brazil in 2013 and included 64 women farmers. The discussions revealed participants' familiarity with health problems associated with workloads in tobacco production: green tobacco sickness, pesticide poisoning, musculoskeletal disorders, and others. The discussions also revealed a concern with the negative impacts of tobacco agriculture on the environment. They also revealed apprehension concerning decisions on switching to alternatives for sustainable agricultural production, emphasizing that on-going and systematic government support would be necessary for such a transition. Women farmers identified various factors that contribute to the persistence of tobacco farming: small holdings for cultivation, lack of guarantees for marketing crops, and indebtedness to tobacco companies. The study showed that an integrated approach is needed to deal with tobacco farmers' problems, considering a balance between farmers' beliefs and government decisions. This approach, in keeping with the recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, may help strengthen policies and measures to promote health and sustainable local development.

Physician Burnout: Are We Treating the Symptoms Instead of the Disease?

Despite increasing recognition of physician burnout, its incidence has only increased in recent years, with nearly half of physicians suffering from symptoms of burnout in the most recent surveys. Unfortunately, most burnout research has focused on its profound prevalence rather than seeking to identify the root cause of the burnout epidemic. Health care organizations throughout the United States are implementing committees and support groups in an attempt to reduce burnout among their physicians, but these efforts are typically focused on increasing resilience and wellness among participants rather than combating problematic changes in how medicine is practiced by physicians in the current era. This report provides a brief review of the current literature on the syndrome of burnout, a summary of several institutional approaches to combating burnout, and a call for a shift in the focus of these efforts toward one proposed root cause of burnout.

Respiratory and Ocular Symptoms Among Employees of an Indoor Waterpark Resort - Ohio, 2016.

In July 2015, a municipal health department in Ohio received complaints of respiratory and ocular symptoms from patrons of an indoor waterpark resort. In response, the health department conducted an online survey in August 2015 through which 19 (68%) patron and employee respondents reported eye burning, nose irritation, difficulty breathing, and vomiting. On August 11, 2015, the health department requested a health hazard evaluation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to characterize the prevalence of symptoms among employees and determine the etiology of work-related symptoms. In January 2016, CDC investigators performed a cross-sectional epidemiologic study, environmental sampling, and ventilation system assessment (1). Findings suggested that chlorine disinfection byproducts and environmental conditions contributed to a higher prevalence of work-related respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees in the waterpark compared with employees in other resort areas. Recommendations included servicing the ventilation system, changing work practices to decrease the amount of disinfection byproduct precursors, and responding promptly to employee reports of symptoms.

Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders-i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to both the symptoms of GWI as well as its persistence over time. We recruited 21 cases of GWI (CDC and Kansas criteria) and 7 controls to participate in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained in all participants and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) based assay was performed to quantify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA lesion frequency and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (mtDNAcn) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Samples were also used to analyze nuclear DNA lesion frequency and enzyme activity for mitochondrial complexes I and IV. Both mtDNA lesion frequency (p = 0.015, d = 1.13) and mtDNAcn (p = 0.001; d = 1.69) were elevated in veterans with GWI relative to controls. Nuclear DNA lesion frequency was also elevated in veterans with GWI (p = 0.344; d = 1.41), but did not reach statistical significance. Complex I and IV activity (p > 0.05) were similar between groups and greater mtDNA lesion frequency was associated with reduced complex I (r2 = -0.35, p = 0.007) and IV (r2 = -0.28, p < 0.01) enzyme activity. In conclusion, veterans with GWI exhibit greater mtDNA damage which is consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction.

Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place workers in these areas at increased risk for infection. It is important to educate workers with occupational animal exposure about the symptoms of enteric diseases and prevention measures. Targeting prevention strategies to high-risk workplaces and activities could help reduce disease.

Empathy and burnout of emergency professionals of a health region: A cross-sectional study.

The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI < 47) had a JSPE score of 114 (104.5-120.5); and those with low burnout (MBI < 31) had a JSPE score of 120.5 (105.8-127.2). In addition, the highest levels of empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.

Identifying Occupations at Risk for Laryngeal Disorders Requiring Specialty Voice Care.

Objective To identify occupational groups' use of specialty voice clinic evaluation. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary subspecialty clinic. Subjects and Methods We analyzed data collected on patients presenting to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Speech Laboratory over a 20-year period (1993-2013). The relative risk (RR) and 99% confidence interval (CI) of presentation were calculated for each occupational category in the greater Boston population using year-matched data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Results The records of 12,120 new patients were reviewed. Using year- and occupation-matched BLS data from 2005 to 2013, 2726 patients were included in the cohort analysis. Several occupations had significantly higher risk of presentation. These included arts and entertainment (RR 4.98, CI 4.18-5.95), law (RR 3.24, CI 2.48-4.23), education (RR 3.08, CI 2.70-3.52), and social services (RR 2.07, CI 1.57-2.73). In contrast, many occupations had significantly reduced risk of presentation for laryngological disorders, for example, maintenance (RR 0.25, CI 0.15-0.42), food preparation (RR 0.35, CI 0.26-0.48), and administrative support (RR 0.49, CI 0.41-0.57). Conclusion Certain occupations are associated with higher use of laryngological services presumably because of their vocational voice needs. In addition to confirming findings from other studies, we identified several new occupation groups with increased or decreased risk for laryngologic disorders. Understanding what factors predispose to requiring specialty voice evaluation may help in targeting preventative efforts.

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Throw Out a Lifeline, Someone Is Drifting Away: It Takes a Village to Combat Burnout.

The increasing prevalence of professional burnout threatens not only the individual but the community of caregivers and, therefore, our patients. There is a growing body of individual actions that can be taken to reduce or reverse the effect of burnout. However, no amount of individual resolve will be sufficient if we do not create a climate conducive to mutual assistance and support.

Decompressing recompression chamber attendants during Australian submarine rescue operations.

Inside chamber attendants rescuing survivors from a pressurised, distressed submarine may themselves accumulate a decompression obligation which may exceed the limits of Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine tables presently used by the Royal Australian Navy. This study assessed the probability of decompression sickness (PDCS) for medical attendants supervising survivors undergoing oxygen-accelerated saturation decompression according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 17.11 table.

Decompressing rescue personnel during Australian submarine rescue operations.

Personnel rescuing survivors from a pressurized, distressed Royal Australian Navy (RAN) submarine may themselves accumulate a decompression obligation, which may exceed the bottom time limits of the Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) Air and In-Water Oxygen Decompression tables (DCIEM Table 1 and 2) presently used by the RAN. This study compared DCIEM Table 2 with alternative decompression tables with longer bottom times: United States Navy XVALSS_DISSUB 7, VVAL-18M and Royal Navy 14 Modified tables.

Addressing Occupational Fatigue in Nurses: Current State of Fatigue Risk Management in Hospitals, Part 2.

The aim of this article is to describe the current state of fatigue risk management systems (FRMSs) to address nurse fatigue in hospitals.

Effort-Reward Imbalance and Burnout Among ICU Nursing Staff: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Occupational stress is commonly observed among staff in intensive care units (ICUs). Sociodemographic, organizational, and job-related factors may lead to burnout among ICU health workers. In addition, these factors could modify the balance between efforts done and rewards perceived by workers; consequently, this imbalance could increase levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and decrease a sense of personal accomplishment.

Physician Burnout.

Computer-based versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers.

Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other. It is conceivable that computer-based interventions are more accessible, convenient, and cost-effective.

Nurses' Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits.

Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses' energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses' feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses' demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model-exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses' work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses' feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care.

Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Risk Associated With Low-Level Exposure to Crystalline Silica: A 44-Year Cohort Study From China.

The association between low-level crystalline silica (silica) exposure and mortality risk is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 44,807 Chinese workers who had worked in metal mines or pottery factories for at least 1 year from January 1, 1960, to December 31, 1974, and were followed through 2003. Low-level silica exposure was defined as having a lifetime highest annual mean silica exposure at or under a permissible exposure limit (PEL). We considered 3 widely used PELs, including 0.05 mg/m3, 0.10 mg/m3, and 0.35 mg/m3. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated by linking a job exposure matrix with each participant's work history. For the 0.10-mg/m3 exposure level, Cox proportional hazards models showed significantly increased risk of mortality from all diseases (for each 1-ln mg/m3-years increase in logged cumulative silica exposure, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.07), malignant neoplasms (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.09), lung cancer (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14), ischemic heart disease (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16), pulmonary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16), and respiratory disease (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26). The 0.05-mg/m3 and 0.35-mg/m3 exposure levels yielded similar associations. Long-term exposure to low levels (PELs ≤0.05 mg/m3, ≤0.10 mg/m3, or ≤0.35 mg/m3) of silica is associated with increased total and certain cause-specific mortality risk. Control of ambient silica levels and use of personal protective equipment should be emphasized in practice.

Occupational Distribution of Campylobacteriosis and Salmonellosis Cases - Maryland, Ohio, and Virginia, 2014.

Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3.5 years at a poultry-processing plant (Kathleen Fagan, OSHA, personal communication, December 2015); most involved new workers handling chickens in the "live hang" area where bacterial contamination is likely to be the highest. These findings were similar to those of a previous study of Campylobacter infections among workers at another poultry-processing plant (4). The investigation led to discussions among OSHA, state health departments, and CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); and a surveillance study was initiated to further explore the disease incidence in poultry-processing plant workers and identify any additional occupations at increased risk for common enteric infections. Deidentified reports of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis among Maryland, Ohio, and Virginia residents aged ≥16 years were obtained and reviewed. Each employed patient was classified into one of 23 major occupational groups using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.* Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between each occupational group and each disease were calculated to identify occupations potentially at increased risk, contrasting each group with all other occupations. In 2014, a total of 2,977 campylobacteriosis and 2,259 salmonellosis cases were reported. Among the 1,772 (60%) campylobacteriosis and 1,516 (67%) salmonellosis cases in patients for whom occupational information was available, 1,064 (60%) and 847 (56%), respectively, were employed. Persons in farming, fishing, and forestry as well as health care and technical occupations were at significantly increased risk for both campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis compared with all other occupations. Targeting education and prevention strategies could help reduce disease, and improving the systematic collection of occupational information in disease surveillance systems could provide a better understanding of the extent of occupationally acquired diseases.

Violence in schools and the voice of teachers.

To correlate self-reporting of voice disorders with habits that impact voice production and situations of violence experienced by teachers.

In Pursuit of the Fourth Aim in Health Care: The Joy of Practice.

In today's health care system where there are increased demands for health care provider productivity, increased pay for performance metrics, decreased reimbursements, and ever-increasing demands of electronic medical records, providers are at risk for high rates of burnout. Indeed, recent studies have indicated that more than 50% of US physicians are now experiencing burnout and that burnout is rising dramatically faster among physicians than in any other US professional field. These high rates of burnout have many downstream consequences, for both the providers and for the patients they serve.

Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies.

Childhood adversity, adult socioeconomic status and risk of work disability: a prospective cohort study.

To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability.

Biomass smoke exposure as an occupational risk: cross-sectional study of respiratory health of women working as street cooks in Nigeria.

Little is known about respiratory health of women who are occupationally exposed to biomass smoke outside their homes. This study reports the exposure and respiratory health of street cooks in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Riding (High) into the danger zone: a review of potential differences in chemical exposures in fighter pilots resulting from high altitude and G-forces.

When in flight, pilots of high performance aircraft experience conditions unique to their profession. Training flights, performed as often as several times a week, can expose these pilots to altitudes in excess of 15 km (~50,000 ft, with a cabin pressurized to an altitude of ~20,000 ft), and the maneuvers performed in flight can exacerbate the G-forces felt by the pilot. While the pilots specifically train to withstand these extreme conditions, the physiologic stress could very likely lead to differences in the disposition of chemicals in the body, and consequently, dangerously high exposures. Unfortunately, very little is known about how the conditions experienced by fighter pilots affects chemical disposition. Areas covered: The purpose of this review is to present information about the effects of high altitude, G-forces, and other conditions experienced by fighter pilots on chemical disposition. Using this information, the expected changes in chemical exposure will be discussed, using isopropyl alcohol as an example. Expert opinion: There is a severe lack of information concerning the effects of the fighter pilot environment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chemicals. Given the possibility of exposure prior to or during flight, it is important that these potential effects be investigated further.

An immunoproteomic approach revealed antigenic proteins enhancing serodiagnosis performance of bird fancier's lung.

Bird fancier's lung (BFL) caused by repeated inhalation of avian proteins is the most common form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. However, the exact identification of proteins involved is unknown, and serological test use for diagnosis need to be standardized. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify antigenic proteins from pigeon droppings (ii) to provide information about their location in avian matrices and (iii) to produce them in recombinant proteins to evaluate their diagnostic performances.

Work-related risk factors for specific shoulder disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine which work-related risk factors are associated with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders. We searched the electronic databases of Medline and Embase for articles published between 2009 and 24 March 2016 and included the references of a systematic review performed for the period before 2009. Primary cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included when outcome data were described in terms of clinically assessed soft tissue shoulder disorders and at least two levels of work-related exposure were mentioned (exposed vs less or non-exposed). Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed study quality. For longitudinal studies, we performed meta-analyses and used GRADE (Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to assess the evidence for the associations between risk factors and the onset of shoulder disorders. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, 16 300 patients with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders from a population of 2 413 722 workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and Poland were included in the meta-analysis of one case-control and six prospective cohort studies. This meta-analysis revealed moderate evidence for associations between shoulder disorders and arm-hand elevation (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.47) and shoulder load (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.90 to 2.10) and low to very low evidence for hand force exertion (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87), hand-arm vibration (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.77), psychosocial job demands (OR=1.1, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.25) and working together with temporary workers (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.2). Low-quality evidence for no associations was found for arm repetition, social support, decision latitude, job control and job security. Moderate evidence was found that arm-hand elevation and shoulder load double the risk of specific shoulder disorders. Low to very-low-quality evidence was found for an association between hand force exertion, hand-arm vibration, psychosocial job demands and working together with temporary workers and the incidence of specific shoulder disorders.

Insufficient free-time physical activity and occupational factors in Brazilian public school teachers.

To evaluate if perceived occupational factors are associated with insufficient free-time physical activity in Brazilian public school teachers.

The effects of organisational culture on nurses' perceptions of their work.

This study aimed to analyse the relationship between the organisational culture and feelings of pleasure and suffering among working nursing professionals. This was a cross-sectional correlational study conducted in a tertiary hospital with 214 nursing staff over 3 months using three instruments: professional characterisation, the Brazilian Instrument for Assessment of Organisational Culture, and the Scale of Pleasure and Suffering at Work. The analysis included descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation test. The external integration practice was the domain most frequently found in the organisational culture and the feeling of pleasure-gratification predominated among the workers. Values of cooperative professionalism and wellbeing, and practices of external integration and relationship promotion, were related to increased pleasure and decreased suffering at work. These aspects depend on the organisational culture of the institution. Investigating organisational culture facilitates the understanding of potential collective coping strategies and the organisational changes that favour good mental health in nurses.