A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Occupational Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Occupational risk factors among Iranian farmworkers: a review of the available evidence.

Farming is one of the most important components of most economies. No comprehensive picture exists of the health status of Iranian farmers and the work-related hazards that affect them. We aimed to determine the gaps in the current knowledge regarding the occupational health of Iranian farmworkers. Electronic databases including Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, as well as national databases including the Scientific Information Database, MagIran, and Barakat Knowledge System, were searched for articles published through March 2017. All epidemiologic studies regarding the occupational health of farmworkers in Iran were reviewed, regardless of their design, language, time of publication, and location. Of the 86 retrieved articles, 39 studies were ultimately analyzed. Most studies were conducted in Fars, Kerman, and Mazandaran provinces. According to the results of this review, chemical, physical, and biological hazards, along with work-related injuries, may be the main factors threatening the health of farmworkers. The unsafe use of pesticides was related to male infertility, eye and digestive complications, pesticide poisoning, pesticide absorption, hematological changes, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chemical hazards (e.g., the unsafe use of pesticides), physical hazards, injuries, and biological hazards (e.g., work-related infectious diseases) threaten the health of Iranian farmworkers. Moreover, farmworkers lack adequate knowledge about the occupational hazards they face and the relevant risk factors.

Surveillance for Silicosis Deaths Among Persons Aged 15-44 Years - United States, 1999-2015.

Silicosis is usually a disease of long latency affecting mostly older workers; therefore, silicosis deaths in young adults (aged 15-44 years) suggests acute or accelerated disease.* To understand the circumstances surrounding silicosis deaths among young persons, CDC analyzed the underlying and contributing causes(†) of death using multiple cause-of-death data (1999-2015) and industry and occupation information abstracted from death certificates (1999-2013). During 1999-2015, among 55 pneumoconiosis deaths of young adults with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) code J62 (pneumoconiosis due to dust containing silica),(§) 38 (69%) had code J62.8 (pneumoconiosis due to other dust containing silica), and 17 (31%) had code J62.0 (pneumoconiosis due to talc dust) listed on their death certificate. Decedents whose cause of death code was J62.8 most frequently worked in the manufacturing and construction industries and production occupations where silica exposure is known to occur. Among the 17 decedents who had death certificates listing code J62.0 as cause of death, 13 had certificates with an underlying or a contributing cause of death code listed that indicated multiple drug use or drug overdose. In addition, 13 of the 17 death certificates listing code J62.0 as cause of death had information on decedent's industry and occupation; among the 13 decedents, none worked in talc exposure-associated jobs, suggesting that their talc exposure was nonoccupational. Examining detailed information on causes of death (including external causes) and industry and occupation of decedents is essential for identifying silicosis deaths associated with occupational exposures and reducing misclassification of silicosis mortality.

Decreasing Stress and Burnout in Nurses: Efficacy of Blended Learning With Stress Management and Resilience Training Program.

The study's purpose was to assess efficacy of blended learning to decrease stress and burnout among nurses through use of the Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program.

Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots.

Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots.

Burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being among US neurology residents and fellows in 2016.

To study prevalence of and factors contributing to burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurology residents and fellows.

Validation of automated detection of physical and mental stress during work in a Hühnermobil 225.

<b>Introduction.</b> The effects of the use of mobile henhouses and their equipment on the physical and mental stress of farmers in the organic egg production, and the reliability of the sensor-based detection of these in work processes are insufficiently known. There are neither measurement results nor key figures, according to operation and gender especially, available in the literature. <b>Objective.</b> The aim of this case study is to quantify the physical and mental stress of work processes on the basis of heart rate and the Baevsky Stress Index, as measured by the ECG- and activity sensor Movisens®, which is used mainly in the sports and rehabilitation sectors. To analyse the impact, daily routine work was divided into operations and the data collected for this purpose analysed descriptively and analytically. <b>Conclusions.</b> In summary, it can be concluded that measurement technology has the potential to capture the activity-related exceedances of the endurance limit of the work severity by means of the heart rate reliably, to identify risk areas of employment and to quantify stress situations. The accuracy and reliability of data acquisition with Movisens® should be validated by a larger sample size and further measurements. In particular, the algorithm for calculating the data to quantify the mental and physical stress without movement needs to be improved significantly through further development.

The history of arsenical pesticides and health risks related to the use of Agent Blue.

Arsenicals in agriculture. Beginning in the 1970s, the use of arsenic compounds for such purposes as wood preservatives, began to grow. By 1980, in the USA, 70% of arsenic had been consumed for the production of wood preservatives. This practice was later stopped, due to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ban of the arsenic-and chromium-based wood preservative chromated copper arsenate. In the past, arsenical herbicides containing cacodylic acid as an active ingredient have been used extensively in the USA, from golf courses to cotton fields, and drying-out the plants before harvesting. The original commercial form of Agent Blue was among 10 toxic insecticides, fungicides and herbicides partially deregulated by the US EPA in February 2004, and specific limits on toxic residues in meat, milk, poultry and eggs, were removed. Today, however, they are no longer used as weed-killers, with one exception - monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), a broadleaf weed herbicide for use on cotton. Severe poisonings from cacodylic acid caused headache, dizziness, vomiting, profuse and watery diarrhea, followed by dehydration, gradual fall in blood pressure, stupor, convulsions, general paralysis and possible risk of death within 3-14 days.The relatively frequent use of arsenic and its compounds in both industry and agriculture points to a wide spectrum of opportunities for human exposure. This exposure can be via inhalation of airborne arsenic, contaminated drinking water, beverages, or from food and drugs. Today, acute organic arsenical poisonings are mostly accidental. Considerable concern has developed surrounding its delayed effects, for its genotoxic and carcinogenic potential, which has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies and subsequent animal experiments. <b>Conclusions.</b> There is substantial epidemiological evidence for an excessive risk, mostly for skin and lung cancer, among humans exposed to organic arsenicals in occupational and environmental settings. Furthermore, the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects have only been observed at relatively high exposure rates. Current epidemiological and experimental studies are attempting to elucidate the mechanism of this action, pointing to the question whether arsenic is actually a true genotoxic, or rather an epigenetic carcinogen. Due to the complexity of its effects, both options remain plausible. Its interactions with other toxic substances still represent another important field of interest.

The quality of life of farmers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

<b>Introduction and objective.</b> COPD is a medical state characterized by chronically poor airflow, and typically worsens over time. Farmers have an increased risk of COPD because of being exposed to ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic dust, and organic dust. The quality of life of the ill depends on biomedical as well as psychosocial factors, the impact of which has not been a frequent subject of studies among COPD patients. The aim of the study was to indicate the factors that have negative and positive influence on the quality of life of farmers suffering from COPD. <b>Materials and method.</b> The study was conducted among 84 farmers treated for COPD in the Department of Pneumology, Oncology and Allergology of the Medical University in Lublin, Poland. The differences between the farmers concerned: severity of the disease, level of education and income, frequency of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol, kinds of support they receive from their families, and the level of depression and anxiety experienced by the patients. <b>Results.</b> The study revealed that most patients suffered from depressive and anxiety disorders, and the level of depression higher among the patients who smoked more. Lack of family support had significant influence on exacerbation of the patient's depressive and anxiety symptoms. Patients who had recently experienced a critical situation presented with more severe COPD symptoms, lower quality of life and a higher level of depression. Higher income of the patients had positive influence on their quality of life. Farmers addicted to alcohol suffered from a higher level of anxiety.

Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers: The STROBE study.

Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = -0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = -0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125).SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs.

Working hand syndrome: A new definition of non-classified polyneuropathy condition.

The aim of this paper was to define an unexplained non-classified polyneuropathy condition as a new neurological disease. This new diagnosis of occupation related polyneuropathy has been named as "WORKING HAND SYNDROME (WHS)."This study collected and compared clinic and electrophysiological analyze data from healthy controls, WHS patients, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and polyneuropathy patients. The WHS patients presented to the clinic with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increased significantly during rest and nighttime. However, there was no weakness in the muscles, and the deep tendon reflexes were normal in this disease. The patients had all been working in physically demanding jobs requiring the use of their hands/arms for at least 1 year, but no vibrating tools were used by the patients. All of the cases were men. I supposed that overload caused by an action repeated chronically by the hand/arm may impair the sensory nerves in mentioned hand/arm. In patients with these complaints, for a definitive diagnosis, similar diseases must be excluded. Nonetheless, the specific electrophysiological finding that the sural nerves are normal on the lower sides, as well as the occurrence of sensory axonal polyneuropathy in the sensory nerves without a significant effect on velocity and latency in the work-ups of the upper extremity are enough to make a diagnosis.In conclusion, WHS has been defined as a polyneuropathy and occupational disease. Patients with WHS present with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increases significantly during rest and nighttime. They also use their arms/hands for jobs that require heavy labor. The neurological examinations of patients with WHS are normal. Only the sensory nerves in the upper extremities are affected. This article is suggested to serve as a resource for patients, health care professionals, and members of the neurology community at large.

Burnout: Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Radiology Residents in New England With Comparison Against United States Resident Physicians in Other Specialties.

The objective of our study was to establish burnout prevalence, associated demographic and program-related factors, and degree of burnout in New England radiology residents relative to residents in other specialties.

Decreasing Patient Stress and Physician/Medical Workforce Burnout Through Health Care Environments: Uncovering the Serious Leisure Perspective at Mayo Clinic's Campus in Rochester, Minnesota.

Health care environments are places of high stress for both patients and medical professionals. Although organizational efforts of workload and efficiency are often implemented to decrease both patient and physician/medical workforce stress, what is often overlooked is how leisure opportunities and programs located in day-to-day experiences and in physically built environments can increase both patient and medical staff enjoyment and pleasure, thus lowering patient stress and physician/medical staff burnout. Combining historical research on the leisure pursuits of Drs William J. Mayo and Charles H. Mayo, literature on leisure, stress, and burnout, and a case study methodology of Mayo Clinic's campus in Rochester, Minnesota, the purpose of this study was to describe how the Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) exists at Mayo Clinic and contributes to relieving stress among patients and preventing burnout among physicians.

Factor associated with self-reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Brazilian adults.

To describe the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) and analyze the factors associated with this outcome in the Brazilian population.

The use of diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) and related flavoring substances as flavorings added to foods-Workplace safety issues.

In 2001, staff of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) as a "marker" of exposure in a microwave popcorn manufacturing facility in which workers developed severe respiratory illness. Subsequent investigations identified additional workers in food and flavor manufacturing facilities also with severe respiratory illness. The flavor industry, NIOSH, and federal and state regulators conducted significant programs to address workplace safety concerns related to the manufacture of flavors and foods containing added flavors. These programs, initiated in 2001, continue today. Key to the success of these programs is understanding what flavors added to foods are and how they are manufactured, how they are incorporated into foods, the specific characteristics of diacetyl and related flavoring substances, and what actions may be taken to assure the safest workplaces possible.

Factors Associated With Provider Burnout in the NICU.

NICUs vary greatly in patient acuity and volume and represent a wide array of organizational structures, but the effect of these differences on NICU providers is unknown. This study sought to test the relation between provider burnout prevalence and organizational factors in California NICUs.

Grief and Burnout in the PICU.

Doctors and nurses who work in PICUs often deal with emotionally difficult events. These events take a toll. They can cause long-term psychological problems that, if not addressed, can impair the ability of doctors and nurses to care for patients in a competent and compassionate manner. Furthermore, effective treatment is available. But there is a paradox. To get treatment, one must acknowledge the problem. Acknowledgment of the problem may not be encouraged, or may be discouraged and stigmatized, in the intensive care culture. This article describes a case in which a physician has classic signs of overwhelming grief and burnout, and it discusses the appropriate response.

Nanotechnology in agriculture: Opportunities, toxicological implications, and occupational risks.

Nanotechnology has the potential to make a beneficial impact on several agricultural, forestry, and environmental challenges, such as urbanization, energy constraints, and sustainable use of resources. However, new environmental and human health hazards may emerge from nano-enhanced applications. This raises concerns for agricultural workers who may become primarily exposed to such xenobiotics during their job tasks. The aim of this review is to discuss promising solutions that nanotechnology may provide in agricultural activities, with a specific focus on critical aspects, challenging issues, and research needs for occupational risk assessment and management in this emerging field. Eco-toxicological aspects were not the focus of the review. Nano-fertilizers, (nano-sized nutrients, nano-coated fertilizers, or engineered metal-oxide or carbon-based nanomaterials per se), and nano-pesticides, (nano-formulations of traditional active ingredients or inorganic nanomaterials), may provide a targeted/controlled release of agrochemicals, aimed to obtain their fullest biological efficacy without over-dosage. Nano-sensors and nano-remediation methods may detect and remove environmental contaminants. However, limited knowledge concerning nanomaterial biosafety, adverse effects, fate, and acquired biological reactivity once dispersed into the environment, requires further scientific efforts to assess possible nano-agricultural risks. In this perspective, toxicological research should be aimed to define nanomaterial hazards and levels of exposure along the life-cycle of nano-enabled products, and to assess those physico-chemical features affecting nanomaterial toxicity, possible interactions with agro-system co-formulants, and stressors. Overall, this review highlights the importance to define adequate risk management strategies for workers, occupational safety practices and policies, as well as to develop a responsible regulatory consensus on nanotechnology in agriculture.

Sunlight Exposure, Work Hours, Caffeine Consumption, and Sleep Duration in the Naval Environment.

Sailors in the U.S. Navy are habitual shiftworkers, often experiencing circadian misalignment due to their irregular work/rest schedules. This study assessed the effect of sunlight exposure, work hours, and caffeinated beverage consumption on the daily sleep duration of crewmembers of a U.S. Navy ship during a 2-wk underway period.

Occupational asthma compensation in the Tunisian Center: cross-sectional study over a period of eight years.

Our study aimed to highlight the epidemiological profile of patients compensated for occupational asthma in the Tunisian Center, to identify their professional characteristics and to determine compensation practices for this occupational disease.

An Approach to Assess the Burden of Work-Related Injury, Disease, and Distress.

The true burden (morbidity, mortality, disability, cost, pain, distress) of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries is unknown, and what is reported as burden is significantly underestimated. This underestimation affects the way decision-makers view investments in research and worker protection, which in turn has a substantial impact on national welfare and public health. To better describe the societal and individual burdens of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries, we propose an approach to gauge what is known about burden and where new assessments may be made. This approach consists of 4 elements to consider in burden assessments: (1) utilizing multiple domains, including the individual worker, the worker's family, the community in which the workplace is located, the employer, and society as a whole; (2) taking a broader view of the work-relatedness of disease and injury; (3) assessing the impact of the entire working-life continuum; and (4) applying the comprehensive concept of "well-being" as an indicator in addressing contemporary changes in the nature of work, the workplace, and the workforce. Further research on burden and enhanced surveillance is needed to develop these elements.

A Novel A(H7N2) Influenza Virus Isolated from a Veterinarian Caring for Cats in a New York City Animal Shelter Causes Mild Disease and Transmits Poorly in the Ferret Model.

In December 2016, a low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) virus was identified to be the causative source of an outbreak in a cat shelter in New York City, which subsequently spread to multiple shelters in the states of New York and Pennsylvania. One person with occupational exposure to infected cats became infected with the virus, representing the first LPAI H7N2 virus infection in a human in North America since 2003. Considering the close contact that frequently occurs between companion animals and humans, it was critical to assess the relative risk of this novel virus to public health. The virus isolated from the human case, A/New York/108/2016 (NY/108), caused mild and transient illness in ferrets and mice but did not transmit to naive cohoused ferrets following traditional or aerosol-based inoculation methods. The environmental persistence of NY/108 virus was generally comparable to that of other LPAI H7N2 viruses. However, NY/108 virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells with an increased efficiency compared with that of previously isolated H7N2 viruses. Furthermore, the novel H7N2 virus was found to utilize a relatively lower pH for hemagglutinin activation, similar to human influenza viruses. Our data suggest that the LPAI H7N2 virus requires further adaptation before representing a substantial threat to public health. However, the reemergence of an LPAI H7N2 virus in the northeastern United States underscores the need for continuous surveillance of emerging zoonotic influenza viruses inclusive of mammalian species, such as domestic felines, that are not commonly considered intermediate hosts for avian influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses are capable of crossing the species barrier to infect mammals, an event of public health concern due to the potential acquisition of a pandemic phenotype. In December 2016, an H7N2 virus caused an outbreak in cats in multiple animal shelters in New York State. This was the first detection of this virus in the northeastern United States in over a decade and the first documented infection of a felid with an H7N2 virus. A veterinarian became infected following occupational exposure to H7N2 virus-infected cats, necessitating the evaluation of this virus for its capacity to cause disease in mammals. While the H7N2 virus was associated with mild illness in mice and ferrets and did not spread well between ferrets, it nonetheless possessed several markers of virulence for mammals. These data highlight the promiscuity of influenza viruses and the need for diligent surveillance across multiple species to quickly identify an emerging strain with pandemic potential.

The criteria for the relationship between hearing impairment and professional occupation and the criteria for professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation.

This article describes the main clinical features associated with the development and manifestations of disturbed sound perception in the members of the aeronautical personnel engaged in the Russian civilian aviation. The main expert criteria for the relationship between the diseases of the organs of hearing (as exemplified by chronic sensorineural hearing impairment) and professional occupation have been developed based on the results of the clinical and diagnostic examination with the use of whispered and loud speech acumetry, tonal threshold audiometry, speech audiometry, impedancometry and evoked optoacoustic emission. Civilian aviation sectoral approaches to the evaluation of professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel are considered in accordance with the criteria adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized UN agency that sets the international standards for the civilian aviation and co-ordinates its development with the purpose of enhancing the safety and effectiveness of flights. The criteria are formulated for the solution of the expert problems arising from the relationship between the professional occupation and the diseases of the organs of hearing and for the evaluation of the professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation.

Interaction between demand-control and social support in the occurrence of common mental disorders.

To analyze the interaction between the psychosocial aspects of work and the occurrence of common mental disorders among health workers.

Reprogramming cells from Gulf War veterans into neurons to study Gulf War illness.

Gulf War illness (GWI), which afflicts at least 25% of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, is thought to be caused by deployment exposures to various neurotoxicants, including pesticides, anti-nerve gas pills, and low-level nerve agents including sarin/cyclosarin. GWI is a multisymptom disorder characterized by fatigue, joint pain, cognitive problems, and gastrointestinal complaints. The most prominent symptoms of GWI (memory problems, poor attention/concentration, chronic headaches, mood alterations, and impaired sleep) suggest that the disease primarily affects the CNS. Development of urgently needed treatments depends on experimental models appropriate for testing mechanistic hypotheses and for screening therapeutic compounds. Rodent models have been useful thus far, but are limited by their inability to assess the contribution of genetic or epigenetic background to the disease, and because disease-vulnerable proteins and pathways may be different in humans relative to rodents. As of yet, no postmortem tissue from the veterans has become available for research. We are moving forward with a paradigm shift in the study of GWI, which utilizes contemporary stem cell technology to convert somatic cells from Gulf War veterans into pluripotent cell lines that can be differentiated into various cell types, including neurons, glia, muscle, or other relevant cell types. Such cell lines are immortal and will be a resource for GWI researchers to pursue mechanistic hypotheses and therapeutics.

Clarification of Employer’s Continuing Obligation To Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of Each Recordable Injury and Illness. Final rule.

Under the Congressional Review Act, Congress has passed, and the President has signed, Public Law 115-21, a resolution of disapproval of OSHA's final rule titled, "Clarification of Employer's Continuing Obligation to Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of each Recordable Injury and Illness." OSHA published the rule, which contained various amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations, on December 19, 2016. The amendments became effective on January 18, 2017. Because Public Law 115-21 invalidates the amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations contained in the rule promulgated on December 19, 2016, OSHA is hereby removing those amendments from the Code of Federal Regulations.

EHRs Attributed to Physician Burnout.

Physician Burnout and Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Framework for Action.

Physician burnout in the United States has reached epidemic proportions and is rising rapidly, although burnout in other occupations is stable. Its negative impact is far reaching and includes harm to the burned-out physician, as well as patients, coworkers, family members, close friends, and healthcare organizations.

Low-voltage chest CT: another way to reduce the radiation dose in asbestos-exposed patients.

To assess whether low voltage chest computed tomography (CT) can be used to successfully diagnose disease in patients with asbestos exposure.

Assessment of a self-administered questionnaire identifying occupational exposures among lung cancer patients.

Ten to 29% of lung cancers might be linked to occupational factors but 60% of them are not compensated. The PROPOUMON project aimed to improve the identification, recognition and compensation of occupational lung cancer as occupational disease using a self-administered questionnaire (AQREP). One objective was to assess the AQREP, comparing it with the questionnaire drawn up by the French Language Pneumology Society (Q-SPLF). From March 2014 to September 2015, 90 lung cancer patients treated at the Centre Léon-Bérard responded to the AQREP and Q-SPLF. The two physicians in charge of the consultation assessed independently whether or not a consultation was indicated. A certificate for the compensation process was proposed when a suspicion of high or average imputability was identified. Analysis of the questionnaires was concordant for 73% of the patients. The AQREP has a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 73%. Its positive and negative predictive values were 62 and 82%. The information provided by 24 patients were discordant between questionnaires. In two patients with discordant evaluation (AQREP+/Q-SPLF-; AQREP-/Q-SPLF+), one Initial Medical Certificate (IMC) was written. This study made it possible to conclude that AQREP is relevant for the identification of potentially occupational lung cancers. Collegial discussion of complex cases might be considered. The project is currently been extended to other centers and to lymphoma.

Well-Being in Graduate Medical Education: A Call for Action.

Job burnout is highly prevalent in graduate medical trainees. Numerous demands and stressors drive the development of burnout in this population, leading to significant and potentially tragic consequences, not only for trainees but also for the patients and communities they serve. The literature on interventions to reduce resident burnout is limited but suggests that both individual- and system-level approaches are effective. Work hours limitations and mindfulness training are each likely to have modest benefit. Despite concerns that physician trainee wellness programs might be costly, attention to physician wellness may lead to important benefits such as greater patient satisfaction, long-term physician satisfaction, and increased physician productivity. A collaborative of medical educators, academic leaders, and researchers recently formed with the goal of improving trainee well-being and mitigating burnout. Its first task is outlining this framework of initial recommendations in a call to action. These recommendations are made at the national, hospital, program, and nonwork levels and are meant to inform stakeholders who have taken up the charge to address trainee well-being. Regulatory bodies and health care systems need to be accountable for the well-being of trainees under their supervision and drive an enforceable mandate to programs under their charge. Programs and individuals should develop and engage in a "menu" of wellness options to reach a variety of learners and standardize the effort to ameliorate burnout. The impact of these multilevel changes will promote a culture where trainees can learn in settings that will sustain them over the course of their careers.