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Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Voice disorder in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease characterized by progressive tissue damage. In recent decades, novel treatments have greatly extended the life span of SLE patients. This creates a high demand for identifying the overarching symptoms associated with SLE and developing therapies that improve their life quality under chronic care. We hypothesized that SLE patients would present dysphonic symptoms. Given that voice disorders can reduce life quality, identifying a potential SLE-related dysphonia could be relevant for the appraisal and management of this disease. We measured objective vocal parameters and perceived vocal quality with the GRBAS (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain) scale in SLE patients and compared them to matched healthy controls. SLE patients also filled a questionnaire reporting perceived vocal deficits. SLE patients had significantly lower vocal intensity and harmonics to noise ratio, as well as increased jitter and shimmer. All subjective parameters of the GRBAS scale were significantly abnormal in SLE patients. Additionally, the vast majority of SLE patients (29/36) reported at least one perceived vocal deficit, with the most prevalent deficits being vocal fatigue (19/36) and hoarseness (17/36). Self-reported voice deficits were highly correlated with altered GRBAS scores. Additionally, tissue damage scores in different organ systems correlated with dysphonic symptoms, suggesting that some features of SLE-related dysphonia are due to tissue damage. Our results show that a large fraction of SLE patients suffers from perceivable dysphonia and may benefit from voice therapy in order to improve quality of life.

Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants: Developmental advances do not yet achieve normal cortical processing.

Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation promotes symmetric development of bilateral auditory pathways but binaural hearing remains abnormal. To evaluate whether bilateral cortical processing remains impaired in such children, cortical activity to unilateral and bilateral stimuli was assessed in a unique cohort of 16 children who received bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously at 1.97 ± 0.86 years of age and had ~4 years of CI experience, providing the first opportunity to assess electrically driven cortical development in the absence of reorganized asymmetries from sequential implantation.

Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty under local anesthesia: Is it feasible?

To study whether balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) is a feasible and safe procedure under local anesthesia.

Development of cognitive screening test for the severely hearing impaired: Hearing-impaired MoCA.

To develop a version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to be administered to the severely hearing impaired (HI-MoCA), and to assess its performance in two groups of cognitively intact adults over the age of 60.

Peritonsillar Abscess.

Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a "hot potato" voice. Drainage of the abscess, antibiotic therapy, and supportive therapy for maintaining hydration and pain control are the cornerstones of treatment. Most patients can be managed in the outpatient setting. Peritonsillar abscesses are polymicrobial infections, and antibiotics effective against group A streptococcus and oral anaerobes should be first-line therapy. Corticosteroids may be helpful in reducing symptoms and speeding recovery. Promptly recognizing the infection and initiating therapy are important to avoid potentially serious complications, such as airway obstruction, aspiration, or extension of infection into deep neck tissues. Patients with peritonsillar abscess are usually first encountered in the primary care outpatient setting or in the emergency department. Family physicians with appropriate training and experience can diagnose and treat most patients with peritonsillar abscess.

Curcumin Analogue CA15 Exhibits Anticancer Effects on HEp-2 Cells via Targeting NF-κB.

Laryngeal carcinoma remains one of the most common malignancies, and curcumin has been proven to be effective against head and neck cancers in vitro. However, it has not yet been applied in clinical settings due to its low stability. In the current study, we synthesized 34 monocarbonyl analogues of curcumin with stable structures. CA15, which exhibited a stronger inhibited effect on laryngeal cancer cells HEp-2 but a lower toxicity on hepatic cells HL-7702 in MTT assay, was selected for further analysis. The effects of CA15 on cell viability, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and NF-κB activation were measured using MTT, Transwell migration, flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays in HEp-2 cells. An NF-κB inhibitor, BMS-345541, as well as curcumin was also tested. Results showed that CA15 induced decreased toxicity towards HL-7702 cells compared to curcumin and BMS-345541. However, similar to BMS-345541 and curcumin, CA15 not only significantly inhibited proliferation and migration and induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis but also attenuated TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in HEp-2 cells. These results demonstrated that curcumin analogue CA15 exhibited anticancer effects on laryngeal cancer cells via targeting of NF-κB.

Analyses and treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms.

In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1.6%), olfactory disorder (1.6%), perforation of nasal septum (0.8%), and nasal adhesion (2.3%). All patients clinically recovered after therapy, which included treatment of the cavity through nasal endoscopy, intranasal corticosteroids, and nasal irrigation. We propose that regular nasal endoscopic review, specific nasal medications, and regular nasal irrigation can effectively clear nasal mucosal hyperemia-induced edema and nasal/nasoantral secretions, as well as promote regeneration of nasal mucosa, prevent nasal adhesion, maintain the sinus cavity drainage, and accelerate the recovery of the physiological function of the paranasal sinus. Timely treatment of patients with nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs could greatly relieve the clinical symptoms. Nasal cleaning is very beneficial to patients after surgery recovery.

Delayed bilateral vocal cord paresis after a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block and endotracheal intubation: A lesson why we should use low concentrated local anesthetics for continuous blocks.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve block is an uncommon complication that can occur after an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB), which may lead to vocal cord palsy or paresis. However, if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is blocked in patients with a preexisting contralateral vocal cord palsy following neck surgery, this may lead to devastating acute respiratory failure. Thus, ISB is contraindicated in patients with contralateral vocal cord lesion. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bilateral vocal cord paresis, which occurred after a continuous ISB and endotracheal intubation in a patient with no history of vocal cord injury or surgery of the neck.

Metronomic oral cyclosphosphamide as third-line systemic treatment or beyond in patients with inoperable locoregionally advanced recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

There is no standard third-line or further systemic treatment for patients with inoperable locoregionally advanced recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Metronomic oral cyclophosphamide provides an acceptable and cheap option for these heavily pretreated patients who had limited choices. We conducted a prospective phase II single-arm open-label study of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide. Patients with locoregionally advanced recurrent inoperable (rT3/T4, rN2-N3b) or metastatic (rM1) NPC who had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) (0-2) and had progressed after at least 2 lines of palliative systemic chemotherapy were eligible. They received oral cyclophosphamide between 50 and 150 mg once daily until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), biochemical response (two consecutive declines of plasma EBV DNA after treatment), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety profiles were evaluated. A total of 56 patients were recruited. Thirty-three, 13, 6, 3, and 1 patients received cyclophosphamide as 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th line of therapy respectively. After a median follow-up of 9.95 months (range 1.76-59.51 months), the ORR was 8.9% and the DCR was 57.1%. The median PFS and OS were 4.47 and 9.20 months, respectively. Those with PS 1 had longer median PFS (5.49 months) compared to those with PS 2 (3.75 months, P = .011). Besides, those who had locoregionally recurrent disease had better PFS (8.97 months, 95% CI, 0.53-17.41 months) compared to those who had distant metastases (4.14 months, 95% CI, 2.53-5.75 months, P = .020). Multivariable analysis revealed that PS 1 (vs 2) (P = .020) and locoregional recurrence (vs metastasis) (P = .029) were the only significant independent prognostic factors of PFS. Around 16 (28.6%) patients developed grade ≥3 adverse events, including malaise (5.4%), hematological (8.9%), gastrointestinal (3.6%), feverish (3.6%), and hemorrhagic (1.8%) events. The median cost of the whole drug treatment was 51.65 US dollars (USD) (range 4.15-142.75 USD) (1 USD = 7.8 HK dollars [HKD]). Metronomic oral cyclophosphamide is an acceptable third-line or beyond systemic therapy for locoregionally advanced recurrent or metastatic NPC with acceptable toxicity and limited financial burden.

Polymorphisms of Mannose-binding Lectin and Toll-like Receptors 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 and the Risk of Respiratory Infections and Acute Otitis Media in Children.

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune system. We assessed the susceptibility of children with genetic variants in these factors to respiratory infections, rhinovirus infections and acute otitis media.

Framingham Risk Score as a Prognostic Predictor of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Preliminary Study.

Predicting the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) remains challenging. This investigation aimed to apply Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) to assess the combination of prognostic factors following ISSHL and investigate the predictive role of FRS in patients with multiple comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

A Preliminary Case Report of a High-Quality Cost-effective Rigid Laryngoscopy Setup.

To evaluate a cost-effective modified rigid laryngoscopy setup with a portable light source and high-resolution commercially available digital camera for use in smaller otolaryngology and family practice clinics.

Pathologic Markers in Surgically Treated HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer: Retrospective Study, Systematic Review, and Meta-analysis.

Human papillomavirus-associated (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer is a unique clinical entity whose incidence is increasing. It is controversial whether traditional pathologic markers of aggressive head and neck cancer also apply in surgically treated HPV-associated disease.

Office-based Electromyography-guided Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Cricopharyngeus Muscle: Optimal Patient Selection and Technique.

This retrospective study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness and safety of office-based electromyography-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the cricopharyngeus muscle of patients who did not show upper esophageal sphincter passage in a swallowing study in spite of maximal swallowing rehabilitation.

A Case Report and Systematic Review of Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Paranasal Sinuses.

There is a paucity of literature discussing prognostic factors or comparing outcomes in eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF). This review aims to analyze tumor and patient characteristics as possible prognostic markers and compare surgical approaches.

Herpes Simplex Virus Laryngitis Presenting as Airway Obstruction: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) laryngitis is rare in adults. We add a case report to the literature and perform a literature review to further delineate the clinical presentation, course, and treatment of HSV laryngitis in adults.

Factors Associated With Infectious Laryngitis: A Retrospective Review of 15 Cases.

To identify the culturable microbes associated with infectious laryngitis and outline effective treatment strategies.

Validation of the Dutch version of the Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (DSWAL-QoL) and the adjusted DSWAL-QoL (aDSWAL-QoL) using item analysis with the Rasch model: a pilot study.

The Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QoL) is considered the gold standard for assessing health-related QoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia. The Dutch translation (DSWAL-QoL) and its adjusted version (aDSWAL-QoL) have been validated using classical test theory (CTT). However, these scales have not been tested against the Rasch measurement model, which is required to establish the structural validity and objectivity of the total scale and subscale scores. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of these scales using item analysis according to the Rasch model.

The Distribution of Phosphatidylcholine Species in Superficial-Type Pharyngeal Carcinoma.

Objectives. Superficial-type pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (STPSCC) is defined as carcinoma in situ or microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma without invasion to the muscular layer. An exploration of the biological characteristics of STPSCC could uncover the invasion mechanism of this carcinoma. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) in combination with fatty acids is considered to play an important role in cell motility. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is especially suitable for phospholipid analysis because this technique can distinguish even fatty acid compositions. Study Design. IMS analysis of frozen human specimens. Methods. IMS analysis was conducted to elucidate the distribution of PC species in STPSCC tissues. STPSCC tissue sections from five patients were analyzed, and we identified the signals that showed significant increases in the subepithelial invasive region relative to the superficial region. Results. Three kinds of PC species containing arachidonic acid, that is, PC (16:0/20:4), PC (18:1/20:4), and PC (18:0/20:4), were increased in the subepithelial invasive region. Conclusion. These results may be associated with the invasion mechanism of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Human Papilloma Virus-positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Elderly.

Elderly patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) represent an understudied cohort of the HPV epidemic. We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation, treatment tolerability and outcomes in patient's ≥65 years old with HPV+ OPC.

Otolaryngologic Emergencies in the Primary Care Setting.

Most otolaryngology-related complaints are straightforward and easily recognized and treated. However, given the proximity of the ears, nose, and throat to numerous vital structures in the head and neck, the potential for serious consequences exists if disease processes go unrecognized and untreated. This article serves to familiarize the primary care provider with the clinical presentation of various complications associated with common otolaryngologic complaints. Clinicians who care for patients presenting with otolaryngologic complaints should keep these entities in mind and attempt to rule out any serious complication.

Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media.

Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media.

Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media.

Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media.

Inactivation of parkin by promoter methylation correlated with lymph node metastasis and genomic instability in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of the parkin gene by promoter methylation and its relationship with genome instability in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Parkin was considered as a tumor suppressor gene in various types of cancers. However, its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unexplored. Genomic instabilities were detected in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues by the random amplified polymorphic DNA. The methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and mRNA and protein expression of parkin in 54 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelia tissues, and in 5 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (CNE1, CNE2, TWO3, C666, and HONE1) and 1 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia cell line (NP69). mRNA expression of parkin in CNE1 and CNE2 was analyzed before and after methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. The relationship between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, demethylation and mRNA expression, and mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors and genomic instabilities were analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly reduced in 54 cases of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. Parkin-methylated cases showed significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels compared with unmethylated cases. After 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment, parkin mRNA expression was restored in CNE1 and CNE2; 92.59% (50/54) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma demonstrated genomic instability. Parkin is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation, and its mRNA and protein expression correlate with lymph node metastasis and genomic instability. Parkin deficiency probably promotes tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EMP2 re-expression inhibits growth and enhances radiosensitivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Although radiation therapy is the primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, radioresistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment in many cases, and the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are still ill-defined. EMP2, epithelial membrane protein-2, was a recently identified potential oncogene involved in multiple biological processes including cell migration and cell proliferation. This study was to explore the potential relationship between EMP2 expression, nasopharyngeal carcinoma genesis, and radioresistance. EMP2 expression status in 98 nasopharyngeal carcinoma clinical samples was examined by immunohistochemical staining. As a result, most of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor samples were weakly or negatively stained, while paired adjacent normal tissues were moderately or strongly stained. Moreover, patients with higher expression of EMP2 had significant longer survival times. EMP2 re-expression suppresses cell growth, induces S-phase cell cycle arrest, and promotes radiosensitivity and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. These results support that loss of EMP2 is common, and its re-expression may serve as an approach to enhance radiation sensitivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Recurrent epigenetic silencing of the PTPRD tumor suppressor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cellular processes like differentiation, mitotic cycle, and cell growth are regulated by tyrosine kinases with known oncogenic potential and tyrosine phosphatases that downmodulate the first. Therefore, tyrosine phosphatases are recurrent targets of gene alterations in human carcinomas. We and others suggested recently a tumor suppressor function of the PTPRD tyrosine phosphatase and reported homozygous deletions of the PTPRD locus in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we investigated other gene-inactivating mechanisms potentially targeting PTPRD, including loss-of-function mutations and also epigenetic alterations like promoter DNA hypermethylation. We sequenced the PTPRD gene in eight laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines but did not identify any inactivating mutations. In contrast, by bisulfite pyrosequencing of the gene promoter region, we identified significantly higher levels of methylation (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002, respectively) in 9/14 (64%) laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 37/79 (47%) of primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tumors as compared to normal epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. There was also a strong correlation (p = 0.0001) between methylation and transcriptional silencing for the PTPRD gene observed in a cohort of 497 head and neck tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset suggesting that DNA methylation is the main mechanism of PTPRD silencing in these tumors. In summary, our data provide further evidence of the high incidence of PTPRD inactivation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We suggest that deletions and loss-of-function mutations are responsible for PTPRD loss only in a fraction of cases, whereas DNA methylation is the dominating mechanism of PTPRD inactivation.

Salicylate Food Intolerance and Aspirin Hypersensitivity in Nasal Polyposis.

A clear association between allergy and nasal polyposis (NP) is not determined and the role of food intolerance in patients with NP is not investigated by oral food challenge (OFC).

Differential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Larynx.

The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal neoplasms. The prognosis and treatment are also different among these tumor types, which necessitates making these distinctions clinically. The current literature was reviewed to provide updated information regarding the epithelial-derived tumors, including carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine component. These tumors are compared and contrasted with non-epithelial-derived tumors such as paraganglioma and nonmucosal tumors, such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. The morphologic and cytologic features are discussed, along with helpful immunohistochemical and ancillary investigations.