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Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Differential Prognostic Value of Metabolic Heterogeneity of Primary Tumor and Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Patients with Pharyngeal Cancer.

We aimed to explore the prognostic value of metabolic heterogeneity of (18)F-FDG uptake in chemoradiotherapy-treated pharyngeal cancer patients.

Deregulation of PTEN Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Based on Tissue Microarray Digital Analysis.

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (gene locus: 10q23.3) -a tumor suppressor gene- is deleted, mutated or epigenetically hyper-methylated in a variety of malignancies. PTEN acts as a negative regulator in PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling transduction pathway. Our aim was to investigate PTEN protein expression patterns in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC).

Human Papillomavirus and Potentially Relevant Biomarkers in Tonsillar and Base of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tonsillar- and base of tongue cancer is increasing epidemically and has much better outcome than corresponding HPV-negative cancer and most other head and neck cancers with around 80% 3-year disease free survival with conventional radiotherapy and surgery. Consequently, most HPV-positive cancer patients may not require the intensified chemoradiotherapy given to many head and neck cancer patients and would, with tapered treatment, avoid several severe side-effects. Moreover, intensified therapy has not improved survival and treatment alternatives are needed. To identify patients eligible for tapered or targeted therapy, additional biomarkers are required. Several studies have, therefore, focused on finding predictive markers, some of which are also potentially targetable. To conclude, better-tailored therapy, either as tapered or targeted, is important for increasing numbers of patients with HPV-positive tonsillar- and base of tongue cancer. This review deals with some of these issues and presents some promising markers.

FDXR Mutations Cause Sensorial Neuropathies and Expand the Spectrum of Mitochondrial Fe-S-Synthesis Diseases.

Hearing loss and visual impairment in childhood have mostly genetic origins, some of them being related to sensorial neuronal defects. Here, we report on eight subjects from four independent families affected by auditory neuropathy and optic atrophy. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic mutations in FDXR in affected subjects of each family. FDXR encodes the mitochondrial ferredoxin reductase, the sole human ferredoxin reductase implicated in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) and in heme formation. ISC proteins are involved in enzymatic catalysis, gene expression, and DNA replication and repair. We observed deregulated iron homeostasis in FDXR mutant fibroblasts and indirect evidence of mitochondrial iron overload. Functional complementation in a yeast strain in which ARH1, the human FDXR ortholog, was deleted established the pathogenicity of these mutations. These data highlight the wide clinical heterogeneity of mitochondrial disorders related to ISC synthesis.

Cost-Utility of Partially Implantable Active Middle Ear Implants for Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Decision Analysis.

Partially implantable active middle ear implants (aMEIs) offer a solution for individuals who have mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss and an outer ear medical condition that precludes the use of hearing aids. When otherwise left untreated, individuals report a lower quality of life, which may further decrease with increasing disability. In the lack of cost-effectiveness studies and long-term data, there is a need for decision modeling.

The effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on incidence and microbiology associated with complicated acute otitis media.

The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of complicated acute otitis media (cAOM) as well as the associated microbiology before and after introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-7 and -13), respectively. CAOM comprises "heavy" AOM (AOM demanding hospitalization), mastodismus (M) and acute mastoiditis (AM).

Changes in tonal audiometry in children with progressive sensorineural hearing loss and history of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit discharge. A 20 year long-term follow-up.

Newborns from Neonatal intensive care units (NICU) are at high-risk for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) a follow-up is needed for early diagnosis and intervention. Our objective here was to describe the features and changes of SNHL at different periods during a follow-up of almost 20 years.

Otologic manifestations of Larsen syndrome.

To describe and discuss otologic manifestations of Larsen syndrome, based on a case report and a systematic review of the literature.

Preliminary audiologic and peri-operative outcomes of the Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device: A systematic review.

To delineate the auditory functional improvement and peri-operative outcomes of the Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device.

Emotional and behaviour difficulties in teenagers with permanent childhood hearing loss.

It is known that during the middle childhood years those with permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) are at increased risk of showing emotional and behaviour difficulties (EBD). It has yet to be established whether this risk continues into the late teenage years. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies on the association between PCHL and EBD.

Intelligibility of degraded speech and the relationship between symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and language impairment in children with suspected auditory processing disorder.

To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Auditory Figure Ground sub-tests of the SCAN-3 battery, using signal to noise ratio (SNR) of +8 dB (AFG+8) and 0 dB (AFG0), in identifying auditory processing disorder (APD). A secondary objective was to evaluate any difference in auditory processing (AP) between children with symptoms of inattention versus combined sub-types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

HIV status and hearing loss among children between 6 and 12 years of age at a large urban health facility in south western Uganda.

Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL.

Expression of immunoglobulin D is increased in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Immunoglobulin (Ig) D is largely localized to the upper airway and reacts with colonizing respiratory pathogens.

Chronic Auditory Toxicity in Late Preterm and Term Infants With Significant Hyperbilirubinemia.

Significant hyperbilirubinemia (SHB) may cause chronic auditory toxicity (auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and/or sensorineural hearing loss); however, total serum bilirubin (TSB) does not discriminate neonates at risk for auditory toxicity. Our objective was to compare TSB, bilirubin albumin molar ratio (BAMR), and unbound bilirubin (UB) for their association with chronic auditory toxicity in neonates with SHB (TSB ≥20 mg/dL or TSB that met criteria for exchange transfusion).

Sensitivity of caloric test and video head impulse as screening test for chronic vestibular complaints.

This study compared the results of the caloric test with those of the video head impulse test obtained during the same session and evaluated whether the former can be used to screen for non-acute vestibular dysfunction.

Rhinoplasty Refinements: The Role of the Open Approach.

The open rhinoplasty technique facilitates accurate visualization of deformities and aesthetic disharmonies in addition to visualization for precise correction. Through a series of videos, this case represents the evolution of the open rhinoplasty technique, demonstrating a wide range in complexity of maneuvers to achieve the desired correction in rhinoplasty. The video demonstrates reduction of the nasal dorsum by way of a component dorsal reduction, reconstitution of the cartilaginous midvault, and suture techniques for reshaping the nasal tip. Nasal tip deprojection and placement of alar contour grafts are also demonstrated in this case. The aim is to provide the rhinoplasty surgeon with examples of basic and sophisticated techniques and also to demonstrate the minutia and nuance of open rhinoplasty.

Extended Alar Contour Grafts: An Evolution of the Lateral Crural Strut Graft Technique in Rhinoplasty.

Modification of the lower lateral cartilage complex is the sine qua non of modern rhinoplasty, and the open approach to rhinoplasty has expanded the number of techniques available to help achieve an aesthetically pleasing tip. The ideal tip has been described as having a diamond-shaped configuration, with the lateral points formed by the tip-defining points, the superior point by the supratip, and the inferior point by the columellar break point. Over the years, various techniques have been described to minimize isolation of the tip and to help achieve the ideal tip configuration: lateral crural strut grafts, alar contour grafts (i.e., rim grafts), alar strut grafts, subdomal grafts, and suturing techniques such as alar flaring sutures. The authors present their technique of the extended alar contour graft, which represents an evolution of the lateral crural strut graft and its marriage with the alar contour graft. Lateral crural abnormalities do not usually occur singularly, but rather are the result of an interplay of several factors. Nevertheless, the recurring theme of orientation and alar support to prevent isolation of the tip by extended alar grooves remains. Extended alar contour grafts are a versatile technique to optimize tip shape and orientation by combining the many positive attributes of lateral crural strut grafts and alar contour grafts.

Transparency in Functional Rhinoplasty: Benefits of Routine Prospective Outcome Measurements in a Tertiary Referral Center.

Patients, governments, health care providers, and insurance companies are increasingly interested in medical performance. Transparent outcome reporting requires a thorough methodologic design, dedicated prospective data collection process, and preferably no interference with the efficacy of daily practice. The primary aim of this article is to describe how these bottlenecks are tackled with an automated prospective rhinoplasty outcome routine. The secondary aim is to motivate others by describing practical benefits encountered during implementation.

The prevalence and associated lifestyle risk factors of self-reported allergic rhinitis in Kazakh population of Fukang City.

This study is to analyze the prevalence and the associated lifestyle risk factors of self-reported allergic rhinitis (AR) in Kazakh population of Fukang City.A cross-sectional study was conducted using stratified random sampling method and 1689 Kazak people were surveyed. A standard questionnaire was used for face-to-face interview.The prevalence of self-reported AR of Kazakh population in Fukang City was 13.7%, and sneezing was the most common symptoms (54.6%) with no significant differences among age, sex, and weight. The incidence of asthma in Kazakh people was correlated with age, and the incidence of allergies in Kazakh people was correlated with weight. Skin pruritus was the most common symptom for allergy (42.7%). The AR incidence was correlated with sinusitis and asthma, and was mostly associated with carpet use. For diet, the AR incidence was positively correlated with meat and fruit, and negatively correlated with beans and milk.The prevalence of AR is high among Kazakh people in Fukang City, and its incidence is closely related with lifestyle risk factors such as carpet use and meat and fruit consumption.

Feeding Tubes and Health Care Service Utilization in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Benefits and Limits to a Retrospective, Multicenter Study Using Big Data.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurologic disorder with predictable challenges regarding disease progression and end-of-life care. These include need for respiratory and nutritional support. Little is known about how such choices impact end-of-life health service utilization for these patients. Using OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a large administrative claims database with more than 150 million privately insured, geographically diverse enrollees, we sought to explore outcomes associated with the use of enteral nutrition (EN). Patients were of age ≥18 years, with first ALS diagnosis during calendar years 2006-2012, and 6 months of continuous health plan coverage before first diagnosis. EN use was identified using procedure codes. Data were summarized descriptively. Among 1974 patients with ALS, mean age was 60.0 ± 12.5 years, 41.8% were women, and 9.7% demonstrated use of EN. Median time from ALS diagnosis to evidence of EN was 211 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 70-426). Those receiving EN had greater aggregate comorbidity (47% with Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index ≥ 3 vs only 27% in non-EN subset). In total, 38.1% of patients had at least 1 hospitalization, with median time to hospitalization of 162 days. Unfortunately, the EN group ended coverage a median of 155 days after EN started (IQR: 63.5-388), thereby limiting ability to capture outcomes. Although many ALS patients were identified, EN use was lower than expected, due to being earlier in disease trajectory and lost to follow-up with transition from private insurance. As such, databases exclusively including privately insured patients may be suboptimal for detecting late complications of protracted illnesses.

Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials.

Objective To estimate the benefits and harms of using corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment for sore throat.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), trial registries up to May 2017, reference lists of eligible trials, related reviews.Study selection Randomised controlled trials of the addition of corticosteroids to standard clinical care for patients aged 5 or older in emergency department and primary care settings with clinical signs of acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, or the clinical syndrome of sore throat. Trials were included irrespective of language or publication status.Review methods Reviewers identified studies, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the evidence, independently and in duplicate. A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendation) provided input on the design and interpretation of the systematic review, including the selection of outcomes important to patients. Random effects model was used for meta-analyses. Quality of evidence was assessed with the GRADE approach.Results 10 eligible trials enrolled 1426 individuals. Patients who received single low dose corticosteroids (the most common intervention was oral dexamethasone with a maximum dose of 10 mg) were twice as likely to experience pain relief after 24 hours (relative risk 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.3; risk difference 12.4%; moderate quality evidence) and 1.5 times more likely to have no pain at 48 hours (1.5, 1.3 to 1.8; risk difference 18.3%; high quality). The mean time to onset of pain relief in patients treated with corticosteroids was 4.8 hours earlier (95% confidence interval -1.9 to -7.8; moderate quality) and the mean time to complete resolution of pain was 11.1 hours earlier (-0.4 to -21.8; low quality) than in those treated with placebo. The absolute pain reduction at 24 hours (visual analogue scale 0-10) was greater in patients treated with corticosteroids (mean difference 1.3, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.9; moderate quality). Nine of the 10 trials sought information regarding adverse events. Six studies reported no adverse effects, and three studies reported few adverse events, which were mostly complications related to disease, with a similar incidence in both groups.Conclusion Single low dose corticosteroids can provide pain relief in patients with sore throat, with no increase in serious adverse effects. Included trials did not assess the potential risks of larger cumulative doses in patients with recurrent episodes of acute sore throat.Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42017067808.

Modeling of US Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Seroprevalence by Age and Sexual Behavior Indicates an Increasing Trend of HPV Infection Following the Sexual Revolution.

The United States has experienced an increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers that are not screen-detectable. It has been hypothesized, but not directly demonstrated, that this is due to increasing HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population.

Targeting the Myofibroblastic Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Phenotype Through Inhibition of NOX4.

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are tumor-promoting and correlate with poor survival in many cancers, which has led to their emergence as potential therapeutic targets. However, effective methods to manipulate these cells clinically have yet to be developed.

Lack of association of MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular disease with dizziness and vertigo in a cross-sectional population-based study.

We investigated the association between subclinical cardiovascular diseases assessed by MRI examination and symptoms of dizziness and vertigo in participants of a population-based sample.

Hearing impairment in premature newborns-Analysis based on the national hearing screening database in Poland.

The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss is between 1 and 3 per 1000 in healthy neonates and 2-4 per 100 in high-risk infants. The national universal neonatal hearing screening carried out in Poland since 2002 enables selection of infants with suspicion and/or risk factors of hearing loss. In this study, we assessed the incidence and risk factors of hearing impairment in infants ≤33 weeks' gestational age (wga).

The effect of lidocaine jelly on a taper-shaped cuff of an endotracheal tube on the postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study: A CONSORT compliant article.

Postoperative sore throat (POST) following general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is a common complication. We hypothesized that lidocaine jelly applied to the tapered cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) might decrease the incidence of POST most commonly arising from endotracheal intubation.

Prognostic value of maximum standard uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) perform as new prognostic factors, but the outcomes of the published articles were inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the prognostic value of SUVmax, MTV, and TLG of PET/CT in patients with NPC.

Supracricoid partial laryngectomy (SCPL) with either cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP): our experience with 16 cases.

Partial laryngectomy with either cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) are mainly used to treat glottic cancers becuse they ensure a satisfactory preservation of physiological functions and satisfactory local carcinologic control. Our study aimed to analyze the functional and carcinologic results of this surgical technique. We conducted a retrospective study of patients undergoing partial laryngectomy with either cricohyoidoepiglottopexy in our Hospital between 2011 and 2014. We analyzed the epidemiological data, the surgical peculiarities, the functional outcomes and the carcinologic control of the disease. A total of 16 patients were included in this study. All our patients had T1 or T2 glottis squamous cell carcinoma. Functional outcomes were generally simple, especially in cases where the preservation of the 2 cricoarytenoid units was possible (75% of cases). However post-operative complications were reported in 31.25%. Carcinologic control was satisfactory, only one patient experienced local recurrence. Partial laryngectomy with either cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) is a safe surgery preserving physiological functions and ensuring satisfactory quality of life. It also allows for good carcinologic control (it is subject of course to compliance with surgical indications).

Factor V congenital deficiency: about a case.

Factor V congenital deficiency is a rare coagulation disorder initially described by Owren in 1947 and known as para hemophilia. It is transmitted through autosomal-recessive inheritance and homozygous cases are usually symptomatic. Factor V is an essential cofactor in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by activated factor X. In the absence of factor V, thrombin generation is slowed down and fibrin formation is delayed. This results in a bleeding tendency. We report a case of factor V congenital deficiency in an infant with recurrent epistaxis.

Risk factors for postoperative throat pain after general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014.

Postoperative sore throat is listed from the top as patients' most undesirable outcome in the postoperative period. It is believed to originate from mucosal dehydration or edema, tracheal ischemia secondary to the pressure of endotracheal tube cuffs, aggressive oropharyngeal suctioning, and mucosal erosion from friction between delicate tissues and the endotracheal tube. Even if the problem was indicated in many literatures, it has never been studied in our country. The study aimed to assess prevalence and factors associated with postoperative sore throat among patients who were operated under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation.