PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Parturition - Top 30 Publications

Effect of season of birth on cord blood IgE and IgE at birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Elevated cord blood IgE is important on the pathway to allergic disease. The association between season of birth and infant cord blood IgE is not well-established. Study findings differ on which birth season is associated with higher cord blood IgE risk and its magnitude. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on season of birth and cord blood IgE.

Supply kits for antenatal and childbirth care during antenatal care and delivery: a mixed-methods systematic review, the qualitative approach.

Antenatal care reduces maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity through the detection and treatment of some conditions, but its coverage is less than optimal within certain populations. Supply kits for maternal health were designed to overcome barriers present when providing care during pregnancy and childbirth particularly to women from underserved population.We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review on the use of supply kits. This manuscript presents the findings from qualitative studies that reported barriers, facilitators, and user's recommendation in the adoption and implementation of any type of kit designed to be used during pregnancy or childbirth.This review included eight studies, and seven were implemented in developing countries. Most studies assessed the implementation of clean delivery kits to be used during labour and delivery, and contributed to gain insights into factors that may hinder or foster the use of kits.Clean delivery kits were conceived to cope with barriers related mainly to access. The most important barrier identified were those related to the socio-cultural and the lack of knowledge dimension such as who held the decision-making authority in the household, as well as popular beliefs behind the idea that birth preparation could bring bad luck, may prevent clients from adhering to their use. In addition, financial constraints and limited understanding of the instructions of use were accessibility barriers found. On the other hand, once used, clean delivery kits for maternal health were accepted by women and health workers. Convenience, hygienic components, and avoidance of delays in receiving care were viewed as satisfactory features.Supply kits are mostly affordable and easily deployable. Increasing awareness among the population about the offered kits and providing information on their benefits emerges as a critical step to foster use in settings where kits are available. Implementation of this strategy requires low complexity resources and could make the use of kits an accepted alternative to increase the use of evidence-based interventions and thus improve quality of care during pregnancy, childbirth and neonatal period mainly at the community level in low income countries and remote areas with low access.

Committee Opinion No. 697: Planned Home Birth.

In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes. These factors include the appropriate selection of candidates for home birth; the availability of a certified nurse-midwife, certified midwife or midwife whose education and licensure meet International Confederation of Midwives' Global Standards for Midwifery Education, or physician practicing obstetrics within an integrated and regulated health system; ready access to consultation; and access to safe and timely transport to nearby hospitals. The Committee on Obstetric Practice considers fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, or prior cesarean delivery to be an absolute contraindication to planned home birth.

Committee Opinion No 697 Summary: Planned Home Birth.

In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes. These factors include the appropriate selection of candidates for home birth; the availability of a certified nurse-midwife, certified midwife or midwife whose education and licensure meet International Confederation of Midwives' Global Standards for Midwifery Education, or physician practicing obstetrics within an integrated and regulated health system; ready access to consultation; and access to safe and timely transport to nearby hospitals. The Committee on Obstetric Practice considers fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, or prior cesarean delivery to be an absolute contraindication to planned home birth.

"Is the doctor God to punish me?!" An intersectional examination of disrespectful and abusive care during childbirth against single mothers in Tunisia.

Disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth is a violation of women's right to dignified, respectful healthcare throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although reports point out that marginalized groups in society such as single mothers are particularly vulnerable to abusive and disrespectful care, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring single mothers' encounters at the maternal healthcare facilities, especially in Tunisia. In Tunisia, single mothers are particularly vulnerable due to their social stigmatization and socio-economic marginalization. This study examines the self-perceptions and childbirth experiences of single mothers at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia.

Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation.

In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice of degree of isolation, and the progress of calving. The hypotheses were that cows would prefer the highest level of isolation when giving birth, and that calving in a high level of isolation would be associated with less restlessness and a shorter calving duration. Contrary to these hypotheses, no specific preference between degrees of isolation or difference in calving behavior in the different calving pens was found. However, cows experiencing a longer calving duration chose to calve in the most secluded calving pen (tall and wide). These results cannot determine cause and effect, but may suggest that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.

What accounts for the association between late preterm births and risk of asthma?

Although results of many studies have indicated an increased risk of asthma in former late preterm (LPT) infants, most of these studies did not fully address covariate imbalance.

Essential newborn care after home delivery in Nepal.

Postnatal care of the newborn is essential in order to reduce neonatal mortality. Nepal has made great efforts to improve maternal and child health by focusing on accessibility and outreach over the past decades. This study aims to examine trends, over the past decade, in levels and equity of facility delivery rates and the provision of newborn care after home delivery in Nepal.

Paternal Depression Symptoms During Pregnancy and After Childbirth Among Participants in the Growing Up in New Zealand Study.

Antenatal and postnatal depression are known to be common and associated with poor outcomes for women and their children. There is little evidence on depression symptoms among men during the perinatal period.

Factors of influence and social correlates of parturition in captive Campbell's monkeys: Case study and breeding data.

How nonhuman primates deal with birth, at the moment of delivery, and during the following days, remains poorly explored because of the unpredictability of this event, particularly for forest-dwelling arboreal species. Available studies highlight intra- and interspecific variation which suggest flexibility of the timing of delivery, of behavior associated with labor contractions and parturition, and the social context and ambient noise surrounding delivery. Here, we present the findings of a two-decade survey of reproduction in a population of captive Campbell's monkeys. Analysis of 34 births (with a female-biased sex ratio) showed that deliveries occurred systematically at night and more frequently during week-ends and in fall (September-November). This suggests the existence of both circadian and infradian biological rhythms. We present the first detailed description of a birth for this species and its short-term social consequences. In line with previous findings for other monkeys and apes, labor (estimated by unusual stretching postures) and parturition were rapid, and delivery occurred in a clear social and vocal context. During the following days, the new mother became the center of attention of for young (kin and non-kin) females and rose through the hierarchy. We discuss socio-ecological factors, notably captivity conditions and the high degree of tolerance in the species' social system, and confirm the existence of both "rigidity" and "flexibility" in the primates' adaptive reproductive strategies.

Consequences of delivery at home in a woman without prenatal care.

This is a case report of a 39-year-old multigravida woman without allopathic prenatal care who, after three previous caesarean sections, attempted to deliver her fourth child at home with the help of a direct entry midwife. During labour, fetal movement and fetal heart tones became undetectable, at which time the patient was referred by the midwife to the hospital. The patient was diagnosed with uterine rupture, bladder rupture and fetal demise; she was rushed to emergency surgery. The patient's lack of allopathic prenatal care, attempt of vaginal birth after three previous caesarean sections, coupled with her desire for delivery at home, led to her complicated course. The patient related that she was never made aware that attempting a home birth after three prior caesarean sections put her at increased risk for complications, and she was also unaware that midwives could have varying levels of training.

Shelter type and birth number influence the birth and death sites of lambs and ewe movement around lambing time.

A significant number of lambs born each yr in Australia die within 72 h of birth. Periods of high wind, combined with rain and low temperatures, can lead to marked increases in the level of mortality. Under these weather conditions mortality levels may be reduced with the provision of shelter, provided it is utilized by lambs. This study used GPS collars to determine the use of shelter by ewes and lambs, to compare the movement of ewes with twin lambs across 2 types of shelter (hedgerows and shrubs), while also comparing ewes with single and twin lambs in a single shelter type (hedgerows). Additionally, the birth sites of 364 lambs and death sites of 252 lambs were recorded across the 3 shelter type and litter size combinations (Twins in shrubs, Twins in hedgerows, Singles in hedgerows) plus an unsheltered group (Singles in unsheltered). A higher (P < 0.001) than randomly expected percentage of ewes lambed in the areas closest to both shelter types; in the shrub shelter 42% of ewes lambed within 2.5 m of shrub rows compared to an expected 11% based on the proportion of the paddock this area constituted. Despite the higher than expected percentage of ewes lambing close to the shelter rows, ewes in both twin lamb shelter types avoided the areas close to the shelter before and after lambing (Hedgerows-2.5 m; Shrubs- 6.25 m) and single bearing ewes showed no preference for or against these areas. With a high proportion of twin bearing ewes lambing close to the shelter, a design that reduces the potential for ewe and offspring separation while providing good shelter will offer the greatest potential reduction in newborn twin lamb mortality arising from exposure.

Selective versus routine use of episiotomy for vaginal birth.

Some clinicians believe that routine episiotomy, a surgical cut of the vagina and perineum, will prevent serious tears during childbirth. On the other hand, an episiotomy guarantees perineal trauma and sutures.

Antepartum or intrapartum deinfibulation for childbirth in women with type III female genital mutilation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

There remains no consensus on the best timing of deinfibulation in women with type III female genital mutilation (FGM).

Sense of coherence in pregnant and new mothers - A longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish speaking women.

Previous research shows inconsistent results about the stability of SOC during the childbearing period, and few studies have focused on longitudinal measures. There are contradictory results regarding the association between SOC and birth outcome. The link between levels of SOC and parental stress needs to be further explored.

Early discharge following birth - What characterises mothers and newborns?

Early postnatal discharge has increased over the past 50 years and today we lack the knowledge on who is discharged early that would allow us to improve quality of postnatal care. The aim of this study was to describe maternal and infant predictors for early postnatal discharge in a country with equal access to health care.

Opting for natural birth: A survey of birth intentions among young Icelandic women.

To describe and analyse factors associated with natural birth intentions in a sample of pre-pregnant Icelandic women.

Taking the matter into one's own hands - Women's experiences of unassisted homebirths in Sweden.

There are no national guidelines or financial support for planned homebirths in Sweden. Some women choose to give birth at home without the assistance of a midwife. The objective of this study was to describe eight women's experience of unassisted planned homebirth in Sweden.

An economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial on psycho-education counselling intervention offered by midwives to address women's fear of childbirth in Australia.

The rate of caesarean section continues to increase, and there is evidence that childbirth fear is a contributing factor. Insufficient evidence is available on the impact of reducing childbirth fear on health-related quality of life and health service use. We undertook an economic evaluation of a psycho-education counselling intervention offered by midwives to address women's fear of childbirth in Australia.

Planned home births: the need for additional contraindications.

Planned home births in the United States are associated with fewer interventions but with increased adverse neonatal outcomes such as perinatal and neonatal deaths, neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction, and low 5-minute Apgar scores. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on Obstetric Practice states that, to reduce perinatal death and to improve outcomes at planned home births, strict criteria are necessary to guide the selection of appropriate candidates for planned home birth. The committee lists 3 absolute contraindications for a planned home birth: fetal malpresentation, multiple gestations, and a history of cesarean delivery.

Human rights in childbirth, narratives and restorative justice: a review.

This review describes the emerging global debate on the role of human rights childbirth. It is also tailored to a UK perspective in view of the Montgomery v. Lanarkshire [2015] legal ruling and it implications to practice. We can never underestimate the power of humane care on health. The compassion and evidence based medicine agenda in healthcare is interconnected with human rights in healthcare, feeding into the principles of decision making and patient centred care. When this has not happened and there is been healthcare conflict, the power of storytelling serves to connect disparate parties to their common humanity. Narratives are an important aspect of restorative justice processes and we suggest that this could be beneficial in the field of human rights in childbirth.

Comparative primate obstetrics: Observations of 15 diurnal births in wild gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada) and their implications for understanding human and nonhuman primate birth evolution.

The birth process has been studied extensively in many human societies, yet little is known about this essential life history event in other primates. Here, we provide the most detailed account of behaviors surrounding birth for any wild nonhuman primate to date.

After Your Baby Is Born: What to Expect Postpartum.

Elevation of blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration affects glucose metabolism in dairy cows before and after parturition.

Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration. Multiparous Holstein cows in wk -2 (antepartum, a.p.; n = 6) and wk +2 (postpartum, p.p.; n = 8) relative to calving were infused (4 h from 0800 to 1200 h) with a BHB solution to increase plasma BHB concentration to 1.5 to 2.0 mmol/L (HyperB). The same period the next day without any infusion was considered the control period (CON). Blood samples were taken 1 h before the start of infusion as reference samples and every 30 min during the following 6 h (4 h of infusion and 2 h after infusion) in the HyperB and CON periods, and analyzed for glucose, BHB, insulin, and glucagon concentrations. During the steady state period (the latter 2 h of the 4-h infusion), plasma BHB concentration reached 1.87 ± 0.05 mmol/L (a.p.) and 1.93 ± 0.05 mmol/L (p.p.) in HyperB compared with 0.55 ± 0.06 mmol/L (a.p.) and 0.64 ± 0.04 mmol/L (p.p.) in CON, respectively. The 4-h average BHB infusion rate was 12.4 ± 1.0 and 13.3 ± 0.9 μmol/kg of BW per minute in wk -2 and +2, respectively. Infusion of BHB caused a decrease of plasma glucose concentrations relative to preinfusion levels both before and after parturition, although basal glucose concentrations were different before and after calving. Infusion of BHB increased plasma insulin concentrations a.p. but not p.p., despite a higher basal insulin concentration before than after parturition. These findings show that effects of hyperketonemia on plasma glucose concentrations are similar before and after calving but that endocrine adaptation to hyperketonemia differs before and after parturition. We assume that BHB is a metabolic key regulator in early lactating dairy cows and may affect glucose concentration by further pathways such as gluconeogenesis and altered lipolysis.

Effect of Tramadol on Rabbit Uterine Contractile Activity Induced in Late Pregnancy.

Effect of Tramadol infusion (5 mg/ml) on oxytocin-induced uterine contractile activity was studied in chronic experiment on female rabbits with different degrees of biological readiness for parturition. In case of sufficient biological readiness for parturition, Tramadol did not change the number of uterine contractions, but increased the amplitude and duration of each contraction against the background of increased creatine phosphate consumption by the myometrium. At the same time, Tramadol infusion to females without biological readiness for partirition suppressed induced uterine contractile activity by reducing the amplitude of each uterine contraction.

Perceptions and experiences of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities in Guinea: a qualitative study with women and service providers.

Every woman is entitled to respectful care during childbirth; so it is concerning to hear of informal reports of mistreatment during childbirth in Guinea. This study sought to explore the perceptions and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth, from the perspectives of women and service providers, and the analysis presents findings according to a typology of mistreatment during childbirth.

The Successful Immediate Neonatal Transition to Extrauterine Life.

To define and describe the processes underlying the successful neonatal transition to extrauterine life and methods to assess the transition.

Is prophylactic tranexamic acid administration effective and safe for postpartum hemorrhage prevention?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

To assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss and lowering transfusion needs for patients undergoing caesarean section (CS) or vaginal delivery (VD).

Successful covered stent-graft repair in symptomatic renal artery aneurysm early after childbirth.

Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) rupture during pregnancy is a rare but life-threatening event and few cases have been reported in literature. Currently the best approach, endovascular or surgical, seems to be under discussion. A case of a 31-year-old woman with a symptomatic right RAA detected three days after childbirth is reported. A successful endovascular repair by a covered stent-graft was performed.

Planned early birth versus expectant management (waiting) for prelabour rupture of membranes at term (37 weeks or more).

Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour.