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Parturition - Top 30 Publications

What accounts for the association between late preterm births and risk of asthma?

Although results of many studies have indicated an increased risk of asthma in former late preterm (LPT) infants, most of these studies did not fully address covariate imbalance.

Consequences of delivery at home in a woman without prenatal care.

This is a case report of a 39-year-old multigravida woman without allopathic prenatal care who, after three previous caesarean sections, attempted to deliver her fourth child at home with the help of a direct entry midwife. During labour, fetal movement and fetal heart tones became undetectable, at which time the patient was referred by the midwife to the hospital. The patient was diagnosed with uterine rupture, bladder rupture and fetal demise; she was rushed to emergency surgery. The patient's lack of allopathic prenatal care, attempt of vaginal birth after three previous caesarean sections, coupled with her desire for delivery at home, led to her complicated course. The patient related that she was never made aware that attempting a home birth after three prior caesarean sections put her at increased risk for complications, and she was also unaware that midwives could have varying levels of training.

Effect of Tramadol on Rabbit Uterine Contractile Activity Induced in Late Pregnancy.

Effect of Tramadol infusion (5 mg/ml) on oxytocin-induced uterine contractile activity was studied in chronic experiment on female rabbits with different degrees of biological readiness for parturition. In case of sufficient biological readiness for parturition, Tramadol did not change the number of uterine contractions, but increased the amplitude and duration of each contraction against the background of increased creatine phosphate consumption by the myometrium. At the same time, Tramadol infusion to females without biological readiness for partirition suppressed induced uterine contractile activity by reducing the amplitude of each uterine contraction.

Is prophylactic tranexamic acid administration effective and safe for postpartum hemorrhage prevention?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

To assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss and lowering transfusion needs for patients undergoing caesarean section (CS) or vaginal delivery (VD).

Successful covered stent-graft repair in symptomatic renal artery aneurysm early after childbirth.

Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) rupture during pregnancy is a rare but life-threatening event and few cases have been reported in literature. Currently the best approach, endovascular or surgical, seems to be under discussion. A case of a 31-year-old woman with a symptomatic right RAA detected three days after childbirth is reported. A successful endovascular repair by a covered stent-graft was performed.

Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section.

Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section.

The determinants of essential newborn care for home births in Bangladesh.

To examine the association of sociodemographic, antenatal and delivery care factors with the essential newborn care (ENC) practices of neonates born at home in Bangladesh.

Successful foaling by a Standardbred mare with a ruptured prepubic tendon.

A 12-year-old Standardbred mare was diagnosed with a ruptured prepubic tendon 1 month prepartum. The mare was treated with analgesia, stall rest, and an abdominal support wrap that was tightened daily. Both a live foal born 1 month later and the mare are doing well.

Uterine blood flow in sheep and goats during the peri-parturient period assessed by transrectal Doppler sonography.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate uterine blood flow (UBF) during the postpartum period in small ruminants. The study involved measures of UBF in 5 ewes and 5 goats during the first 4 weeks after parturition. Transrectal quantification of UBF was assessed by determining the diameter (DM), time averaged mean velocity (TAMEAN), blood flow volume (BFV), blood flow acceleration (ACCE) and pulsatility index (PI) in the uterine arteries ipsilateral to the previously gravid uterine horn(s) at Wk 20 of gestation and every 3days from the day of parturition (D 0) until Day 27 postpartum (D 27). The diameters of the uterine arteries decreased (P<0.01) in both species during the postpartum period. The results revealed decreases (P<0.0001) in BFV, ACCE and TAMEAN, while PI increased during the postpartum period in both sheep and goats. Furthermore, there were positive correlations (P<0.05) between blood flow parameters in sheep and goats, respectively (BFV and DM, r=0.62 and 0.58; BFV and ACCE, r=0.32 and 0.26; BFV and TAMEAN, r=0.51 and 0.37). There were negative correlations (P<0.05) between PI and other parameters (PI and BFV, r=-0.39 and -0.36; PI and DM, r=-0.54 and -0.24; PI and ACCE, r=-0.58 and -0.48; and PI and TAMEAN, r=-0.80 and -0.79) in sheep and goats, respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that non-invasive Doppler ultrasound parameters provide important information toward understanding changes in the vasculature and its perfusion of the uterus during the postpartum period in sheep and goats.

Authors' reply re: Does the Epi-No birth trainer prevent vaginal birth-related pelvic floor trauma? A multicenter prospective randomised controlled trial.

Editor's reply re: Does the Epi-No birth trainer prevent vaginal birth-related pelvic floor trauma? A multicenter prospective randomised controlled trial.

Characterization of the motor performance of newborns in a neonatal unit of tertiary level.

To characterize the motor performance of newborns in a neonatal unit of tertiary level and compare the results to the values recommended by the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP).

Astrophysics: Birth of stellar siblings.

Village midwives and their changing roles in Brunei Darussalam: A qualitative study.

There are lay midwives worldwide, interchangeably and universally called traditional birth attendants or traditional midwives by organisations such as the World Health Organization and the International Confederation of Midwives.

Women's experience of childbirth - A five year follow-up of the randomised controlled trial "Ready for Child Trial".

Few studies have assessed the long term perspective of women's childbirth experience as well as studying women's individual birth experience over time.

Giving a voice to millions: developing the WHO application of ICD-10 to deaths during the perinatal period: ICD-PM.

Ocular morphology and visual function in relation to general growth in moderate-to-late preterm school-aged children.

To study ocular morphology and visual function in relation to general growth in moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) children.

Autumn season birth is associated with a lower frequency of diagnosis of unprovoked deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department.

A significant association was described between lifetime frequency of several human diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, and birth season. We performed a retrospective study to establish whether an association exists between birth season and frequency of venous thromboembolism diagnosed in the emergency department. The study population consisted of all consecutive patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Parma (Italy) during the year 2014. A total number of 400 patients (217 women and 183 men; mean age 70 ± 18 years) received a final diagnosis of venous thromboembolism throughout the study period. The lowest frequency of diagnoses was observed in patients born in autumn, whereas a higher frequency was observed in those born in spring or summer. When compared with the frequency of births in the same geographical area, patients born in spring and summer exhibited a 30 and 25% higher risk of venous thromboembolism compared with those having autumn birth. A similar trend was observed in patients with unprovoked thrombosis, but not in those with provoked thrombosis. A subanalysis of patients with unprovoked deep vein thrombosis revealed that both spring birth (relative risk 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.04-2.14) and summer birth (relative risk 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.09) were significant risk factors for this condition compared with autumn birth. Although further studies are needed to confirm these original findings, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that birth season may influence the lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism, especially of unprovoked deep vein thrombosis.

Why do captive pied tamarins give birth during the day?

Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell. The proportion of diurnal births has remained relatively stable over time despite management changes. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to investigate several factors that we hypothesized could affect time of birth: maternal experience, season, female rearing history, and whether or not the group was on public display. We fitted all possible models to the data, but none explained more than 7.5% of the variation. Daytime delivery had few statistically significant detrimental effects, although infant survival was somewhat lower and parental rejection increased in diurnal births. Pied tamarins do not seem to fit any of the hypotheses previously put forward to explain exceptions to the typical primate circadian pattern of delivery. Zoo Biol. 35:487-494, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Natural childbirth ideology is endangering women and babies.

Natural childbirth ideology has become dominant across much of the developed world. This ideology increasingly clashes with the reality of modern obstetrics, which is dealing with a demographic that is getting older and more obese, hence more complicated, and it has become a danger to the health of women and babies. The most visible expression of these trends is the focus on caesarean section rates which have become a key performance indicator of obstetric services. This trend is resulting in increasingly obvious negative consequences for morbidity and mortality, as chronicled in the Morecambe Bay Report, published in the UK last year. At the same time, there is mounting emphasis on patient autonomy in obstetric decision-making, which mandates informed consent. A 2015 Supreme Court decision in the UK (Montgomery vs Lanarkshire) is likely to impact on obstetric management in Australia and New Zealand. The 'paternalism in a skirt' of natural childbirth ideology is already exposing obstetricians and services to an ever-increasing degree of medicolegal risk.

The need for innovation and implementation research for maternal and newborn health.

The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: from State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts.

This paper explores the history of the 'psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth' in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin's death. The method was imported to Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and it was politically promoted as Soviet science's gift to women. In the 1960s the method became widespread in practice but research on it diminished and, in the 1970s, its use declined too. However, in the 1980s, in the last decade of the Communist regime, the method resurfaced in the pages of Czechoslovak medical journals and underwent an exciting renaissance, having been reintroduced by a few enthusiastic individuals, most of them women. This article explores the background to the renewed interest in the method while providing insight into the wider social and political context that shaped socialist maternity and birth care in different periods.

Hospitals and birth centers remain safest setting for giving birth, US obstetricians say.

Dear Editor.

IXCHEL: The Mayan Goddess of Midwifery.

Holding the Space.

Trota of Salerno: Women's Medicine in Medieval Italy.

Birthcraft in Brazil: An Update on the Brazilian Humanization of Birth Movement.

The Medicine of the Ukhu Pacha. Andean Sacred Teachings around Pregnancy, Birth and Postpartum.

A Mother-Daughter Breech Team.