A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms - Top 30 Publications

Medical and Interventional Therapy for Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection in the Craniocervical Segment.

Background and Purpose. Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (SVAD) is an important reason for posterior-circulation-ischemic stroke in the young and middle-aged population. Although some previous reports reveal a favorable outcome with conservative therapy, it is still controversial in the treatment of SVAD in some specific patients. Herein, we present our 10 years of clinical experience for SVAD at this location. Material and Methods. 20 patients with 20 SVADs in V2 and V3 segments were retrospectively studied. Clinical manifestations and imageology materials were collected and analyzed. All the patients underwent anticoagulation except for one patient because of contraindication. 14 patients underwent Wingspan stents implantation with general anesthesia. Results. In our sample, ischemia (infarction or transient ischemic attack, TIA) was found in all the patients. Angiographic stenosis and dissection aneurysm were the most common findings in the segments mentioned above. 19 of the patients (95%) got the excellent imageological and clinical outcomes. Conclusions. According to our experience in this group, although anticoagulation is effective in vertebral artery dissection, interventional therapy for SVADs in V2 and/or V3 segments is preferred in some specific patients. Stent with higher radial supporting and flexibility, such as Wingspan stent, is suggested.

Could the Topping-Off Technique Be the Preventive Strategy against Adjacent Segment Disease after Pedicle Screw-Based Fusion in Lumbar Degenerative Diseases? A Systematic Review.

The "topping-off" technique is a new concept applying dynamic or less rigid fixation such as hybrid stabilization device (HSD) or interspinous process device (IPD) for the purpose of avoiding adjacent segment disease (ASD) proximal to the fusion construct. A systematic review of the literature was performed on the effect of topping-off techniques to prevent or decrease the occurrence of ASD after lumbar fusion surgery. We searched through major online databases, PubMed and MEDLINE, using key words related to "topping-off" technique. We reviewed the surgical results of "topping-off" techniques with either HSD or IPD, including the incidence of ASD at two proximal adjacent levels (index and supra-adjacent level) as compared to the fusion alone group. The results showed that the fusion alone group had statistically higher incidence of radiographic (52.6%) and symptomatic (11.6%) ASD at the index level as well as higher incidence (8.1%) of revision surgery. Besides, the HSD (10.5%) and fusion groups (24.7%) had statistically higher incidences of radiographic ASD at supra-adjacent level than the IPD (1%). The findings suggest that the "topping-off" technique may potentially decrease the occurrence of ASD at the proximal motion segments. However, higher quality prospective randomized trials are required prior to wide clinical application.

Cytokine Profile Associated with Selective Removal of Natural Anti-αGal Antibodies in a Sepsis Model in Gal-KO Mice.

Selective depletion of natural anti-Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc (so-called anti-αGal) antibodies is achieved in α1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (Gal-KO) mice by administration of the soluble glycoconjugate of αGal GAS914. This molecule removed up to 90% of natural circulating anti-αGal antibodies without causing unspecific production of cytokines in wild-type (CBA) and Gal-KO mice. However, the removal of anti-αGal antibodies in Gal-KO mice with GAS914 in the context of sepsis after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was associated with a significant increase in the production of leptin, CXLC1, CXLC13, and TIMP-1 cytokines compared to vehicle (PBS)-treated controls. Despite the current lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism, our data suggest a putative role of natural anti-αGal antibodies in the regulation of some cytokines during sepsis.

Apoptotic Endonuclease EndoG Inhibits Telomerase Activity and Induces Malignant Transformation of Human CD4+ T Cells.

Telomerase activity is regulated by an alternative splicing of mRNA of the telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase). Increased expression of the inactive spliced hTERT results in inhibition of telomerase activity. Little is known about the mechanism of hTERT mRNA alternative splicing. This study was aimed at determining the effect of an apoptotic endonuclease G (EndoG) on alternative splicing of hTERT and telomerase activity in CD4+ human T lymphocytes. Overexpression of EndoG in CD4+ T cells downregulated the expression of the active full-length hTERT variant and upregulated the inactive alternatively spliced variant. Reduction of full-length hTERT levels caused downregulation of the telomerase activity, critical telomere shortening during cell division that converted cells into the replicative senescence state, activation of apoptosis, and finally cell death. Some cells survive and undergo a malignant transformation. Transformed cells feature increased telomerase activity and proliferative potential compared to the original CD4+ T cells. These cells have phenotype of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and can form tumors and cause death in experimental mice.

Public Views on Genetics and Genetic Testing: A Survey of the General Public in Belgium.

To explore the views of the Belgian public on various topics surrounding genetics and genetic testing (GT).

Myocardial susceptibility to ischaemia/reperfusion in obesity: a re-evaluation of the effects of age.

Reports on the effect of age and obesity on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and ischaemic preconditioning are contradictory. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of age and diet-induced obesity (DIO) on myocardial I/R injury and preconditioning potential.

Hypothermia for Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

Hypothermia for Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

Insights for Oxidative Stress and mTOR Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury under Diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) displays a high morbidity. The diabetic heart is susceptible to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Impaired activation of prosurvival pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased basal oxidative state, and decreased antioxidant defense and autophagy may render diabetic hearts more vulnerable to MI/R injury. Oxidative stress and mTOR signaling crucially regulate cardiometabolism, affecting MI/R injury under diabetes. Producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), uncoupling nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and disturbing the mitochondrial quality control may be three major mechanisms of oxidative stress. mTOR signaling presents both cardioprotective and cardiotoxic effects on the diabetic heart, which interplays with oxidative stress directly or indirectly. Antihyperglycemic agent metformin and newly found free radicals scavengers, Sirt1 and CTRP9, may serve as promising pharmacological therapeutic targets. In this review, we will focus on the role of oxidative stress and mTOR signaling in the pathophysiology of MI/R injury in diabetes and discuss potential mechanisms and their interactions in an effort to provide some evidence for cardiometabolic targeted therapies for ischemic heart disease (IHD).

Hypothermia for Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

Not 'Taking the Easy Way Out': Reframing Bariatric Surgery from Low-effort Weight Loss to Hard Work.

Cultural notions equating greater morality and virtue with hard work and productive output are deeply embedded in American value systems. This is exemplified in how people understand and execute personal body projects, including efforts to become slim. Bariatric surgery is commonly viewed as a 'low-effort' means of losing weight, and individuals who opt for this surgery are often perceived to be 'cheating.' This extended ethnographic study within one bariatric program in the Southwestern United States shows how patients conscientiously perform this productivity. By prioritizing discourses that focus on their own hard work and the inherent value and necessity of their surgery, patients and practitioners alike contest the dominant public views of surgically-induced weight loss.

Case Report of Serratus Plane Catheter for Pain Management in a Patient With Multiple Rib Fractures and an Inferior Scapular Fracture.

We placed a superficial serratus anterior plane catheter in an elderly woman with dementia and elevated clotting times who presented with multiple rib fractures after a mechanical fall. She was not a surgical candidate, and treatment consisted of conservative management with physical therapy and pain control. She was not a candidate for a patient-controlled analgesia regimen because of her dementia. Given her elevated international normalized ratio, thoracic epidural and paravertebral analgesia was also contraindicated. We placed an ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane catheter, allowing titratable continuous infusion in a trauma patient, resulting in excellent analgesia without adverse effects.

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis.

Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and orthostatic hypotension. Neurally mediated syncope is the most common type and has a benign course, whereas cardiac syncope is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with presyncope have similar prognoses to those with syncope and should undergo a similar evaluation. A standardized approach to syncope evaluation reduces hospital admissions and medical costs, and increases diagnostic accuracy. The initial assessment for all patients presenting with syncope includes a detailed history, physical examination, and electrocardiography. The initial evaluation may diagnose up to 50% of patients and allows immediate short-term risk stratification. Laboratory testing and neuroimaging have a low diagnostic yield and should be ordered only if clinically indicated. Several comparable clinical decision rules can be used to assess the short-term risk of death and the need for hospital admission. Low-risk patients with a single episode of syncope can often be reassured with no further investigation. High-risk patients with cardiovascular or structural heart disease, history concerning for arrhythmia, abnormal electrocardiographic findings, or severe comorbidities should be admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. In cases of unexplained syncope, provocative testing and prolonged electrocardiographic monitoring strategies can be diagnostic. The treatment of neurally mediated and orthostatic hypotension syncope is largely supportive, although severe cases may require pharmacotherapy. Cardiac syncope may require cardiac device placement or ablation.

Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis.

Although proteinuria is usually benign in the form of transient or orthostatic proteinuria, persistent proteinuria may be associated with more serious renal diseases. Proteinuria may be an independent risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Mechanisms of proteinuria can be categorized as glomerular, tubular, secretory, or overflow. A history, a physical examination, and laboratory tests help determine the cause. Transient (functional) proteinuria is temporary. It can occur with fever, exercise, stress, or cold exposure, and it resolves when the inciting factor is removed. Orthostatic proteinuria is the most common type in children, especially in adolescent males. It is a benign condition without clinical significance. Persistent proteinuria can be glomerular or tubulointerstitial in origin. The urine dipstick test is the most widely used screening method. Although a 24-hour urine protein excretion test is usually recommended for quantitation of the amount of protein excreted in the urine, it may be impractical in children. A spot, first-morning urine test for a protein-to-creatinine or protein-to-osmolality ratio is a reliable substitute. Treatment of proteinuria should be directed at the underlying cause. Patients with active urinary sediments, hematuria, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, renal insufficiency with depressed glomerular filtration rate, or signs and symptoms suggestive of vasculitic disease may require referral to a pediatric nephrologist and a renal biopsy.

Common Superficial Bursitis.

Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill should be hospitalized and treated with intravenous antibiotics.

Ruptured Hemangioma of a Native Kidney: An Unusual Cause of Postoperative Hemorrhage in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

BACKGROUND Retroperitoneal bleeding as a consequence of non-traumatic kidney or allograft rupture is well known, but there are no reports on hemorrhagia from a native kidney after allogeneic renal transplantation. Therefore, we present the first such case to be published and highlight the possibility of this complication after renal transplantation. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient who developed early post-transplant hemorrhagia from a ruptured native kidney. The patient underwent left-sided nephrectomy. Histopathological examination revealed ruptured hemangioma of the patient's native left kidney. The further postoperative period was not complicated. The patient was discharged on the 18th postoperative day, with good transplant function. CONCLUSIONS Transplantologists should be aware of the fact that in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure, native kidney hemangioma may rupture in the early post-transplant period, and it can be a life-threating and difficult to diagnose complication.

Unusual cause of renal stone following robotic pyeloplasty.

Non-absorbable Hem-o-Lok clips are commonly used for vascular pedicle control or suture stabilisation during laparoscopic or robotic reconstructive procedures. As they are placed close to suture line and with tension, these clips have a propensity to migrate. We report a case of a 22-year-old man with history of bilateral robotic pyeloplasty presenting with left inferior calyceal stone. He underwent left mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy which revealed an encrusted migrated Hem-o-Lok clip that was used to close the mesenteric window formed during transmesocolic pyeloplasty. Thus, these clips should be used sparingly and only at places where other effective alternatives are unavailable.

Presentation of calcinosis cutis universalis in mixed connective tissue disorder: an encounter during hip arthroplasty.

A woman aged 23 years with a diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disorder presented with left groin pain extending over 6 months. Workup revealed avascular necrosis of the femoral head (Grade 3) secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic steroid intake. An uncemented total hip arthroplasty was considered as the patient was only in the third decade of life. During the preop workup, careful clinical assessment had revealed multiple subcutaneous nodules affecting the extensor musculature limited to the gluteal region, anterior and posterior aspects of the thigh. The diagnosis of calcinosis cutis universalis was made after a CT revealed calcified nodules in the subcutaneous, subfascial and muscular planes. A total hip arthroplasty using the posterior approach was performed with minimal trauma to the calcified nodules and thereby preventing a source of persistent drainage and reducing morbidity due to infection.

Anterior condylar confluence dural arteriovenous fistula: a rare cause of hoarseness.

Hoarseness secondary to an anterior condylar confluence (ACC) dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) has not been previously described. We present a 58-year-old patient with a 3-week history of progressive unilateral left-sided headaches and hoarseness. Nasolaryngoscopy and CT neck showed the presence of unilateral vocal cord palsy with no identifiable cause along the expected course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. MRI revealed an incidental finding of abnormal serpiginous vessels in the left hypoglossal canal which led to a diagnostic cerebral angiogram, confirming the presence of an ACC DAVF. The patient underwent transvenous coil embolisation with subsequent resolution of arteriovenous shunting and symptoms. Follow-up MRI at 6 months showed no recurrence and there was complete resolution of clinical symptoms.

Carotid artery dissection: a rare complication of Eagle syndrome.

Carotid artery dissection is a significant cause of ischaemic stroke in all age groups and accounts for a large percentage of strokes in young patients. Carotid dissection can be caused by trauma, underlying connective tissue disease, hypertension, mechanical injury or can be spontaneous. We present an exceedingly rare case of carotid dissection caused by an elongated styloid process, causing direct mechanical damage to the carotid artery.

Use of mindfulness, meditation and relaxation to treat vasomotor symptoms.

Postmenopausal women with bothersome vasomotor symptoms (VMS) often seek alternatives to hormone-based treatment due to medication risks or personal preference. We sought to identify the effects of meditation, mindfulness, hypnosis and relaxation on VMS and health-related quality of life in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. To do this, we conducted an umbrella review supplemented by new randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) published since the most recent good-quality systematic review for eligible interventions. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Databases. We identified five systematic reviews and six new RCTs that met eligibility criteria. In a new meta-analysis examining four RCTs comparing paced respiration with a control group, we found that paced respiration is not associated with a statistically significant decrease in VMS frequency (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.73 to 0.82, I(2 )=( )56.6%, three trials) or severity (SMD 0.06, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.80; I(2 )=( )65.1%, three trials). There was not sufficient new information to conduct meta-analyses that examined the effect of mindfulness or hypnosis on our outcomes of interest. No effect on VMS or quality of life was found between various relaxation or mindfulness interventions.

An International Menopause Society study of vasomotor symptoms in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

To examine relationships between location, demographics, lifestyle, beliefs, and experience of hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS) amongst women living in two cities in Thailand.

Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges.

Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.

Cell-Based Models for Development of Antiatherosclerotic Therapies.

The leading cause of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease. Among the conditions related to the term, the most prominent one is the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The situation gets even worse with the fact that the plaque development may stay asymptomatic for a prolonged period of time. When it manifests as a cardiovascular disorder, it is already too late: the unfortunate individual is prescribed with a plethora of synthetic drugs, which are of debatable efficacy in the prevention of atherosclerotic lesions and safety. Cell models could be useful for the purpose of screening substances potentially effective against atherosclerosis progression and effective in reduction of already present plaques. In this overview, we present studies making use of in vitro and ex vivo models of atherosclerosis development that can prove valuable for clinical applications.

Preoperative Antihypertensive Medication in Relation to Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis.

Background. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication to postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to March 2016) for eligible studies. The outcomes were the effects of preoperative hypertension, preoperative calcium antagonists regimen, preoperative ACE inhibitors regimen, and preoperative beta blocking agents regimen with POAF. We calculated pooled risk ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Twenty-five trials involving 130087 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that the number of preoperative hypertension patients in POAF group was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while we found that there are no significant differences between two groups in Asia patients by subgroup analysis, which is in contrast to other outcomes. Compared with the Non-POAF group, the number of patients who used calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors preoperatively in POAF group was significantly higher (P < 0.05). And we found that there were no significant differences between two groups of preoperative beta blocking agents used (P = 0.08). Conclusions. Preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication in patients undergoing cardiac operations seem to be associated with higher risk of POAF.

Psychomotor retardation with a 1q42.11-q42.12 deletion.

A 1q42 deletion is a rare structure variation that commonly harbours various deletion breakpoints along with diversified phenotypes. In our study, we found a de novo 1q42 deletion in a boy who did not have a cleft palate or a congenital diaphragmatic hernia but presented with psychomotor retardation. A 1.9 Mb deletion located within 1q42.11-q42.12 was validated at the molecular cytogenetic level. This is the first report of a 1q42.11-q42.12 deletion in a patient with onlypsychomotor retardation. The precise break points could facilitate the discovery of potential causative genes, such as LBR, EPHX1, etc. The correlation between the psychomotor retardation and the underlying genetic factors could not only shed light on the diagnosis of psychomotor retardation at the genetic level but also provide potential therapeutic targets.

Techniques to Optimize Multimodal Analgesia in Ambulatory Surgery.

Ambulatory surgery has grown in popularity in recent decades due to the advancement in both surgical and anesthetic techniques resulting in quicker recovery times, fewer complications, higher patient satisfaction, and reduced costs of care. We review common approaches to multimodal analgesia.

Anesthetic and Analgesic Management for Outpatient Knee Arthroplasty.

Total knee arthroplasty traditionally has been associated with significant postoperative pain that can limit recovery and prolong hospital length of stay. Recently, however, due to financial pressures and an emphasis on improving patient satisfaction, many institutions are implementing outpatient and short-stay programs for patients undergoing this procedure. An effective perioperative anesthetic plan is an essential quality of a successful outpatient joint replacement program.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Presenting with Sinus Node Dysfunction and Refractory Shock.

BACKGROUND Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that is usually associated with preceding respiratory or gastrointestinal infection and has the hallmark manifestation of ascending flaccid paralysis. We report an atypical presentation of GBS. CASE REPORT A 76-year-old male presented with acute onset of diaphoresis and altered mental status. He subsequently developed severe bradycardia and refractory hypotension, which initially responded to dopamine infusion. A temporary pacemaker wire was placed to stabilize the heart rate but hypotension persisted. Acute autonomic dysfunction was suspected. Head and chest imaging was unrevealing. Lumbar puncture revealed albuminocytologic dissociation that was consistent with a diagnosis of GBS. Hospital course was complicated with acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis. Plasmapharesis was initiated. The patient eventually died of multi-organ failure. CONCLUSIONS Autonomic dysfunction is a known but rare presentation of GBS. In patients presenting with refractory bradycardia and hypotension, GBS should be considered in the differential diagnosis.