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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms - Top 30 Publications

Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors and Conditions Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2013 and 2014.

Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e.g., staying physically active, quitting tobacco use, obtaining routine physical checkups, and checking blood pressure and cholesterol levels) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and conditions. Monitoring the health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services at multilevel public health points (states, territories, and metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MMSA]) can provide important information for development and evaluation of health intervention programs.

Serial 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis of Changing Morphologies Associated With Lesion Progression in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) morphologies associated with lesion progression are not well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the morphological change for untreated lesion progression using both OCT and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).

Effectiveness of food supplements in increasing fat-free tissue accretion in children with moderate acute malnutrition: A randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial in Burkina Faso.

Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion.

Allergic sensitization and objective measures of sleep in urban school-aged children with asthma.

Allergic sensitization is associated with increased child asthma morbidity and decreased pulmonary function. Nocturnal symptoms and/or awakenings typically are measured by self-report from diary data, whereas objective assessments of sleep in child asthma studies are lacking.

Clinicopathological features of diabetic and nondiabetic renal diseases in type 2 diabetic patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria.

Heavy proteinuria with or without features of nephrotic syndrome is associated with many primary and systemic diseases. For diabetic patients, distinguishing nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) from diabetic nephropathy (DN) is important in choosing treatment modalities and determining renal prognosis. However, clinical relevance of heavy proteinuria is inconsistent with clinical DN assessments. This study investigated the clinicopathological features and renal outcomes of DN and NDRD in type 2 diabetic patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria.We enrolled 220 cases of type 2 diabetic patients who underwent renal biopsy. They were grouped according to the presence of nephritic-range proteinuria and pathological features. Baseline characteristics, laboratory findings, types of pathological diagnosis, and renal outcomes were analyzed in patients with heavy proteinuria.Upon kidney biopsy, 129 patients (58.6%) showed nephritic-range proteinuria. Patients with heavy proteinuria (an average urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 10,008 ± 7307 mg/gCr) showed lower serum albumin levels and higher total cholesterol levels, but did not show any difference in age, duration of diabetes, renal function, or the presence of retinopathy compared with those with mild-to-moderate proteinuria (an average urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 1581 ± 979 mg/gCr). Renal biopsy revealed that the prevalence of NDRD was 37.2% in patients with heavy proteinuria, which was significantly lower than that in patients with mild-to-moderate proteinuria (63.7%). The most common pathological types of NDRD were membranous nephropathy (41.7%), IgA nephropathy (14.6%), and minimal change disease (10.4%). NDRD patients showed lower prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and better kidney function irrespective of proteinuria. Immunosuppressive treatment was administered more frequently in patients with heavy proteinuria (56.3%) compared with patients with mild-to-moderate proteinuria (20%) because of the pathological differences according to the amount of proteinuria. Renal outcomes were significantly worse in patients with DN than in patients with NDRD.DN patients with heavy proteinuria exhibited different prevalence of NDRD and worse prognosis. Renal biopsy in type 2 diabetic patients should be more extensively considered to accurately diagnose NDRD, guide further management, and predict renal outcomes, especially in patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria.

Age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity score is associated with the risk of empyema in patients with COPD.

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher risk of pneumonia than the general population due to their impaired lung defense. They also have a higher risk of empyema and more comorbidities than patients without COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of empyema in patients with COPD after adjusting for age and comorbidities using the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI).Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database. COPD patients were defined as inpatients aged >40 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for COPD. In total, 558,660 COPD patients were enrolled and separated into 3 groups by ACCI score to represent the severity of comorbidity (≤2, 3-5, and >5). Other comorbidities assessed included autoimmune diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyslipidemia, chest wall injury, and thoracostomy.Of the 558,660 patients, 36,556 (6.54%) had low ACCI scores (≤2), 208,292 (37.28%) had moderate ACCI scores (3-5), and 313,812 (56.17%) had high ACCI scores (>5). The mean ages of the low, moderate, and high groups were 50.66, 70.62, and 78.05 years, respectively. The hazard ratio (HRs) for empyema were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.40) in the moderate ACCI group and 1.55 (95% CI = 1.39-1.72) in the high ACCI group compared with the low ACCI group. The overall incidence of empyema in COPD patients was 2.57 per 1000 person-years.This is the first study to use ACCI scores to analyze the risk of empyema in patients with COPD. Patients with high ACCI scores were older and had more complicated comorbidities, resulting in a higher risk of empyema and poor prognosis. The subgroup analysis indicated that COPD patients with comorbid autoimmune disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chest wall injury, or history of thoracostomy did not have a higher risk of empyema than patients without these comorbidities.Empyema is an important issue in patients with COPD and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the risk factors for empyema, close monitoring, and early intervention may improve patient outcomes and decrease mortality.

Light therapy for multiple sclerosis-associated fatigue: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Fatigue is the most commonly reported symptom among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, more than a quarter of whom consider fatigue to be their most disabling symptom. However, there are few effective treatment options for fatigue. We aim to investigate whether supplemental exposure to bright white light will reduce MS-associated fatigue.

The protective efficacy and safety of bandage contact lenses in children aged 5 to 11 after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis: A single-center randomized controlled trial.

Postoperative complications, lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy sometimes occur after surgery for congenital blepharoptosis. Bandage contact lenses (BCL) can help prevent some ocular surface disorders. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BCL for protection of the ocular surface in children aged 5 to 11 years after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis.

Correlations between lumbar neuromuscular function and pain, lumbar disability in patients with nonspecific low back pain: A cross-sectional study.

This study aims to examine the correlations between lumbar neuromuscular function and pain, lumbar disability in patients with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP).Ninety patients, with ages 18 to 37 years old, with NSLBP were recruited in this study. The lumbar neuromuscular function was tested by the CON-TREX multijoint isokinetic test and training machine. This study uses the visual analog scale (VAS) and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) to evaluate the pain and the dysfunction index of patients who have low back pain, respectively.Pearson correlation coefficient is used to evaluate the correlation between lumbar neuromuscular function and the VAS and RMDQ scores. VAS and RMDQ scores have correlations with the proprioception in the flexion of the lumbar vertebra flexion; the peak torque of both flexion and extension muscle groups; and average power and endurance at different angular velocities. The decrease of lumbar muscle strength, endurance, and lumbar proprioception of the lumbar vertebra leads to an increase in pain intensity and lumbar disability.This study suggests that patients with chronic low back pain require targeted training in muscle strength, endurance, and lumbar proprioception, providing a theoretical basis for prevention and treatment of chronic NSLBP patients.

Usefulness of three-dimensional spherical index to assess different types of left ventricular remodeling: A meta-analysis.

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial injury, volume or pressure overload is characterized by a change in LV shape from an ellipse to more of a sphere. The usefulness of 3-dimensional (3D) sphericity index (SpI) for accurate evaluation of LV remodeling remains uncertain despite extensive research.

Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy for the treatment of primary dysmenorrheal.

This study aimed to investigate the effect and safety of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy for relieving pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD).

Differences in platelet-related parameters among patients with audiographically distinct sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A retrospective study.

We explored possible relationships between sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in patients differing in terms of audiographic data and the levels of vascular markers in routine blood data.We included 37 patients with low-frequency SSNHL (LF-SSNHL), 28 with high-frequency SSNHL (HF-SSNHL), 32 with all-frequency SSNHL (AF-SSNHL), 32 with total-deafness SSNHL (TD-SSNHL), and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected, and routine blood parameters including platelet and lymphocyte count, mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were measured. Each group was divided into recovery subgroup and unrecovery subgroup in accordance with hearing level after 1 month therapy, then compared the difference of platelet and lymphocyte count, MPV, and PLR between the 2 subgroups.No significant difference was observed between platelet count of all SSNHL patients and control group (all P > .05). MPV of AF-SSNHL and TD-SSNHL, PLR of all SSNHL patients were significantly higher than those of control group (all P < .05), while lymphocyte count of all audiographically distinct SSNHL patients was significantly lower than that of control group (all P < .05). However, the difference of platelet count, lymphocyte count, MPV, and PLR among audiographically distinct SSNHL patients was not significant (all P > .05). In HF-SSNHL patients, lymphocyte count of unrecovery subgroup was significantly lower, while MPV and PLR of the unrecovery subgroup were significantly higher than those of recovery subgroup (all P < .05). In AF-SSNHL patients, MPV of the unrecovery group was significantly higher than that of recovery subgroup (P < .05).Lymphocyte count, MPV, and PLR may be relative to SSSNHL, but they could not be used to distinct SSNHL audiographically. Lower lymphocyte, higher MPV, and PLR may be indicative for the prognosis of HF-SSNHL patients; higher MPV may be related to bad treatment outcome of AF-SSNHL patients.

Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis

Pulmonary Right Ventricular Resynchronization in Congenital Heart Disease: Acute Improvement in Right Ventricular Mechanics and Contraction Efficiency.

Electromechanical discoordination may contribute to long-term pulmonary right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients after surgery for congenital heart disease. We sought to evaluate changes in RV function after temporary RV cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Spontaneous Hepatic Hemorrhage: A Single Institution's 16-Year Experience.

Spontaneous hemorrhage from hepatic tumors is an uncommon but serious complication. Recently, interventional radiologic (IR) techniques are being used increasingly in the management of these patients. We report our 16-year experience in managing spontaneous hemorrhage from liver tumors. Twenty-six consecutive patients were diagnosed with spontaneous liver hemorrhage between 1995 and 2011. Initial management was operative in eight, IR in six, and supportive in 12 patients. Of those managed operatively, five were segmentectomies; one hemihepatectomy; one wedge resection; and one packing who later died from coagulopathy. In the IR patients, seven had an angiographic embolization; two required reembolization; one underwent resection of a hepatic adenoma 21 days after angiographic embolization. The malignant lesions included hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 6), angiosarcoma (n = 1), metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), metastatic leiomyosarcoma (n = 1), nonsquamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), or metastatic angiosarcoma (n = 1). Benign diseases included hepatic adenoma (n = 5), end-stage liver disease (n = 1), and polycystic liver (n = 1). Spontaneous hemorrhage from the liver occurs evenly from benign or malignant causes, one-third of which are primary liver disease. If the patients presents emergently, angiographic embolization may control the bleeding and allow for elective resection once the sequelae of bleeding have resolved.

Percutaneous Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Stenosis Secondary to Radiation Arteritis.

Radiation arteritis is a rare cause of lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusive disease, and has been traditionally treated with open interventions. There have been only a few reported cases of endovascular interventions for this disease. Previous reports described endovascular treatment in the iliac and common femoral regions, but intervention in the superficial femoral artery have not been described. Described here is a case of acute lower extremity ischemia caused by remote radiation arteritis of the superficial femoral artery, which was successfully treated by percutaneous endovascular technique.

Surgical Aspects of Recurrent Inguinal Hernia in Adults.

Surgeons occasionally encounter a case of recurrent hernia in adult patients after the primary repair, and these cases are challenging to manage appropriately. This study was conducted to describe the clinical nature of recurrent inguinal hernia, compare the results of management, and identify the relationship between the specific risk factors and the occurrence of recurrent hernia. Retrospectively reviewed 58 patients who underwent the inguinal herniorrhaphy for recurrent hernia in a single institution. Analyzed clinical characteristics of recurrent hernia and tried to verify the relationship between smoking, obesity, and occurrence of recurrent hernia. Recurrent inguinal hernia was 13.5 per cent of all hernia repairs in the study period. Most of the recurrence was the first event (74.1%) and showed an interval to recurrence with a mean duration of 40.7 months. There was no significant difference in procedure time, development of postoperative complications, and duration of hospital stay according to the procedure. Compromise of smoker and overweight was significantly higher in the recurrent group (P < 0.05). Surgeons should be aware of the increased risk for recurrence in adult inguinal hernia patients when they smoke or are overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2), also it needs to follow-up during the adequate period.

Connecting the Dots.

Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis.

Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis.

Neobladder Stone.

Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia.

Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Preschool vision screening could allow detection and treatment of vision abnormalities during a critical developmental stage, preserving function and quality of life.

The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic subdural haematoma.

Understanding the effect of corticosteroid pretreatment in brain-dead organ donors: new mechanistic insights for improvement of organ quality in liver transplantation.

Transplant surgeons are currently faced with the challenge to accept marginal liver transplants due to steatosis or old age. Improving organ quality by implementing a selective organ protective donor management could be the first step towards a graft of enhanced quality. However, the molecular mechanisms of such treatments are still poorly understood. Glucocorticoid medication in donor medicine has been carried out and discussed for a long time. In a recent study published in Clinical Science, Jiménez-Castro et al. [Clin. Sci. (2017) 131, 733-746] demonstrate how liver histology and transplant liver function can be improved by administration of glucocorticoids to brain-dead donor rats with steatotic livers. This work illustrates the need for further trials in order to selectively improve the quality of steatotic livers with a potential for liver transplantation.

Safety for Repeat Lumpectomy Without Radiotherapy for Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence.

There is little information on the local recurrence risk of patients who undergo repeat lumpectomy without radiotherapy after salvage surgery for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR).

The Local Recurrence of Breast Cancer with Squamous Metaplasia and Obvious Histological Heterogeneity.

We herein report a case of local recurrence of breast cancer with squamous metaplasia and obvious intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity. A 39-year-old female patient was diagnosed with T3N2M0 stage IIIB right breast cancer and underwent right total mastectomy and axillar lymph node dissection. At four years after surgery, she became aware of chest wall pain and diagnostic imaging revealed recurrence in the lung, right thoracic wall and sternum. The recurrent lesions remained stable for 18 months with endocrine therapy. Thereafter, the lesion in the right thoracic wall suddenly became enlarged. Moreover, liver metastasis was confirmed on FDG-PET/CT. She underwent right thoracic wall tumor resection. A biopsy was simultaneously performed to obtain a specimen from the site of liver metastasis. Postoperatively, the right chest wall mass showed obvious intratumoral heterogeneity; squamous differentiation with aggressive features and a papillotubular component similar to the primary tumor. The metastatic liver tumor showed similar pathological features to the primary tumor.

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyl Transferase a Reliable Marker of Progression in Cervical Dysplasia.

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) catalyses the rate-limiting step of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. Nampt is highly expressed in several epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms, where is promotes cell-cycle progression ans chemotherapy resistance. To our knowledge, alterations in Nampt expression have not been examined in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants.

One of the contributory causes of colon cancer is the negative effect of reactive oxygen species on DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there is a growing support for the concept that oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis and to highlight the potential protective role of antioxidants. Several studies have documented the importance of antioxidants in countering oxidative stress and preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there are conflicting data in the literature concerning its proper use in humans, since these studies did not yield definitive results and were performed mostly in vitro on cell populations, or in vivo in experimental animal models.

Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement.