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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms - Top 30 Publications

Association of body mass index with clinical outcomes for in-hospital cardiac arrest adult patients following extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Obesity might be associated with disturbance of cannulation in situation of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). However, limited data are available on obesity in the setting of ECPR. Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcome in patients underwent ECPR.

Accurate phenotyping: Reconciling approaches through Bayesian model averaging.

Genetic research into complex diseases is frequently hindered by a lack of clear biomarkers for phenotype ascertainment. Phenotypes for such diseases are often identified on the basis of clinically defined criteria; however such criteria may not be suitable for understanding the genetic composition of the diseases. Various statistical approaches have been proposed for phenotype definition; however our previous studies have shown that differences in phenotypes estimated using different approaches have substantial impact on subsequent analyses. Instead of obtaining results based upon a single model, we propose a new method, using Bayesian model averaging to overcome problems associated with phenotype definition. Although Bayesian model averaging has been used in other fields of research, this is the first study that uses Bayesian model averaging to reconcile phenotypes obtained using multiple models. We illustrate the new method by applying it to simulated genetic and phenotypic data for Kofendred personality disorder-an imaginary disease with several sub-types. Two separate statistical methods were used to identify clusters of individuals with distinct phenotypes: latent class analysis and grade of membership. Bayesian model averaging was then used to combine the two clusterings for the purpose of subsequent linkage analyses. We found that causative genetic loci for the disease produced higher LOD scores using model averaging than under either individual model separately. We attribute this improvement to consolidation of the cores of phenotype clusters identified using each individual method.

Inflammation-induced fetal growth restriction in rats is associated with increased placental HIF-1α accumulation.

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) is the oxygen-sensitive subunit of the transcription factor HIF-1, and its expression is increased in placentas from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE). Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and PE often share a common pathophysiology; however, it is unknown whether increased placental HIF-1α occurs in FGR. We previously demonstrated that aberrant maternal inflammation in rats resulted in altered utero-placental perfusion and FGR, both of which were prevented by administration of the nitric oxide mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Our aim here was to determine whether abnormal maternal inflammation causing FGR is linked to placental HIF-1α accumulation and whether GTN administration could prevent increases in placental HIF-1α.

The long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function after spinal surgery for cauda equina syndrome.

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions.

Metabolic syndrome, serum uric acid and renal risk in patients with T2D.

Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and increased serum uric acid (SUA), are well known renal risk predictors and often coexist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether they independently contribute to the onset of CKD is at present unclear.

Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that perineural tumour contains a lymphocyte infiltrate but it is difficult to quantitate the different proportions of immune cell subsets and expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, Tim-3 and CTLA-4. Using flow cytometry of excised perineural tumour tissue, we show that a T cell infiltrate is prominent in addition to less frequent B cell, NK cell and NKT cell infiltrates. CD8 T cells are more frequent than other T cells in the tumour tissue. Amongst CD8 T cells, the frequency of Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressing cells was significantly greater in the tumour relative to the blood, a pattern that was repeated for Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 amongst non-CD8 T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-1 and PD-L1-expression could be detected in close proximity amongst perineural tumour tissue. The data suggest that perineural SCC contains a mixture of immune cells with a predominant T cell infiltrate containing CD8 T cells. Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors.

Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158) prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI) or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009), pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004), asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036), thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77), depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001) and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020) compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

Four human Plasmodium species quantification using droplet digital PCR.

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a partial PCR based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a highly sensitive method for detecting and delineating minor alleles from complex backgrounds and provides absolute quantification of DNA targets. The ddPCR technology has been applied for detection of many pathogens. Here the sensitive assay utilizing ddPCR for detection and quantification of Plasmodium species was investigated. The assay was developed for two levels of detection, genus specific for all Plasmodium species and for specific Plasmodium species detection. The ddPCR assay was developed based on primers and probes specific to the Plasmodium genus 18S rRNA gene. Using ddPCR for ultra-sensitive P. falciparum assessment, the lower level of detection from concentrated DNA obtained from a high volume (1 mL) blood sample was 11 parasites/mL. For species identification, in particular for samples with mixed infections, a duplex reaction was developed for detection and quantification P. falciparum/ P. vivax and P. malariae/ P. ovale. Amplification of each Plasmodium species in the duplex reaction showed equal sensitivity to singleplex single species detection. The duplex ddPCR assay had higher sensitivity to identify minor species in 32 subpatent parasitaemia samples from Cambodia, and performed better than real-time PCR. The ddPCR assay shows high sensitivity to assess very low parasitaemia of all human Plasmodium species. This provides a useful research tool for studying the role of the asymptomatic parasite reservoir for transmission in regions aiming for malaria elimination.

Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process?

The aims of the study were to develop guidelines for prescribing spectacles for patients with moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia and to demonstrate how emmetropization progresses.

Perirenal fat thickness measured with computed tomography is a reliable estimate of perirenal fat mass.

Deposition of perirenal adipose tissue has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular events. We compared various methods to measure perirenal adipose tissue using computerized tomography (CT)-scan and performed correlations with anthropometric measures associated with renal and cardiovascular events. Voluntary overweight and obese subjects undergoing a CT-scan for diagnostic purposes were included in the study. Perirenal adipose tissue volume, adipose tissue area of the renal sinus and perirenal fat thickness were manually measured bilaterally. The intra- and inter-observer coefficient correlations and the correlation between the diverse measures of renal adipose tissue, subcutaneous (SC-)fat and anthropometrics measures were analyzed using Pearson's correlation tests. The forty included patients (24 men, 16 women) had a mean age of 57.6 ± 18.1 years and a mean body mass index of 28.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Despite comparable waist circumference, women had a greater SC-fat thickness compared to men, and therefore a smaller amount of visceral fat, as well as smaller perirenal fat volumes. Perirenal fat thickness was better correlated with perirenal fat volume than adipose area of the renal sinus (p <0.02). The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measures. In women, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a negative correlation with SC-fat thickness and no correlation with waist circumference. In men, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a positive correlation with waist circumference and no correlation with subcutaneous fat thickness. In conclusion, perirenal fat thickness measured with CT-scan at the level of the renal veins is a simple and reliable estimate of perirenal fat volume, that correlated negatively with SC-fat in women and positively with waist circumference in men. The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measure.

Recombinants from the crosses between amphidiploid and cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) for pest-resistance breeding programs.

Peanut is a major oilseed crop worldwide. In the Brazilian peanut production, silvering thrips and red necked peanut worm are the most threatening pests. Resistant varieties are considered an alternative to pest control. Many wild diploid Arachis species have shown resistance to these pests, and these can be used in peanut breeding by obtaining hybrid of A and B genomes and subsequent polyploidization with colchicine, resulting in an AABB amphidiploid. This amphidiploid can be crossed with cultivated peanut (AABB) to provide genes of interest to the cultivar. In this study, the sterile diploid hybrids from A. magna V 13751 and A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250 were treated with colchicine for polyploidization, and the amphidiploids were crossed with A. hypogaea cv. IAC OL 4 to initiate the introgression of the wild genes into the cultivated peanut. The confirmation of the hybridity of the progenies was obtained by: (1) reproductive characterization through viability of pollen, (2) molecular characterization using microsatellite markers and (3) morphological characterization using 61 morphological traits with principal component analysis. The diploid hybrid individual was polyploidized, generating the amphidiploid An 13 (A. magna V 13751 x A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250)4x. Four F1 hybrid plants were obtained from IAC OL 4 × An 13, and 51 F2 seeds were obtained from these F1 plants. Using reproductive, molecular and morphological characterizations, it was possible to distinguish hybrid plants from selfed plants. In the cross between A. hypogaea and the amphidiploid, as the two parents are polyploid, the hybrid progeny and selves had the viability of the pollen grains as high as the parents. This fact turns the use of reproductive characteristics impossible for discriminating, in this case, the hybrid individuals from selfing. The hybrids between A. hypogaea and An 13 will be used in breeding programs seeking pest resistance, being subjected to successive backcrosses until recovering all traits of interest of A. hypogaea, keeping the pest resistance.

The Sheep Grimace Scale as an indicator of post-operative distress and pain in laboratory sheep.

The EU Directive 2010/63/EU changed the requirements regarding the use of laboratory animals and raised important issues related to assessing the severity of all procedures undertaken on laboratory animals. However, quantifiable parameters to assess severity are rare, and improved assessment strategies need to be developed. Hence, a Sheep Grimace Scale (SGS) was herein established by observing and interpreting sheep facial expressions as a consequence of pain and distress following unilateral tibia osteotomy. The animals were clinically investigated and scored five days before surgery and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 17 days afterwards. Additionally, cortisol levels in the saliva of the sheep were determined at the respective time points. For the SGS, video recording was performed, and pictures of the sheep were randomized and scored by blinded observers. Osteotomy in sheep resulted in an increased clinical severity score from days 1 to 17 post-surgery and elevated salivary cortisol levels one day post-surgery. An analysis of facial expressions revealed a significantly increased SGS on the day of surgery until day 3 post-surgery; this elevated level was sustained until day 17. Clinical severity and SGS scores correlated positively with a Pearson´s correlation coefficient of 0.47. Further investigations regarding the applicability of the SGS revealed a high inter-observer reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.92 and an accuracy of 68.2%. In conclusion, the SGS represents a valuable approach for severity assessment that may help support and refine a widely used welfare assessment for sheep during experimental procedures, thereby meeting legislation requirements and minimizing the occurrence of unrecognized distress in animal experimentation.

Genetic and epigenetic changes in host ABCB1 influences malaria susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum.

Multiple mechanisms such as genetic and epigenetic variations within a key gene may play a role in malarial susceptibility and response to anti-malarial drugs in the population. ABCB1 is one of the well-studied membrane transporter genes that code for the P-glycoprotein (an efflux protein) and whose effect on malaria disease predisposition and susceptibility to drugs remains to be understood. We studied the association of single nucleotide variations in human ABCB1 that influences its function in subjects with uncomplicated and complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Global DNA methylation and ABCB1 DNA promoter methylation levels were performed along with transcriptional response and protein expression in subjects with malaria and healthy controls. The rs2032582 locus was significantly associated with complicated and combined malaria groups when compared to controls (p < 0.05). Significant DNA methylation difference was noticed between case and control (p < 0.05). In addition, global DNA methylation levels of the host DNA were inversely proportional to parasitemia in individuals with Pf infection. Our study also revealed the correlation between ABCB1 DNA promoter methylation with rs1128503 and rs2032582 polymorphisms in malaria and was related to increased expression of ABCB1 protein levels in complicated malaria group (p < 0.05) when compared to uncomplicated malaria and control groups. The study provides evidence for multiple mechanisms that may regulate the role of host ABCB1 function to mediate aetiology of malaria susceptibility, prognosis and drug response. These may have clinical implications and therapeutic application for various malarial conditions.

Children's weight changes according to maternal perception of the child's weight and health: A prospective cohort of Peruvian children.

The aim of the study was to estimate the association between maternal perception of their child's health status and (mis)classification of their child's actual weight with future weight change. We present cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from the Peruvian younger cohort of the Young Lives Study. For cross-sectional analysis, the exposure was maternal perception of child health status (better, same or worse); the outcome was underestimation or overestimation of the child's actual weight. Mothers were asked about their perception of their child's weight (same, lighter or heavier than other children). Actual weight status was defined with IOTF BMI cut-off points. For longitudinal analysis, the exposure was (mis)classification of the child's actual weight; the outcome was the standardized mean difference between follow-up and baseline BMI. A Generalized Linear Model with Poisson family and log-link was used to report the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cross-sectional analyses. A Linear Regression Model was used to report the longitudinal analysis as coefficient estimates (β) and 95% CI. Normal weight children who were perceived as more healthy than other children were more likely to have their weight overestimated (PR = 2.06); conversely, those who were perceived as less healthy than other children were more likely to have their weight underestimated (PR = 2.17). Mean follow-up time was 2.6 (SD: 0.3) years. Overall, underweight children whose weight was overestimated were more likely to gain BMI (β = 0.44); whilst overweight children whose weight was considered to be the same of their peers (β = -0.55), and those considered to be lighter than other children (β = -0.87), lost BMI. Maternal perception of the child's health status seems to influence both overestimation and underestimation of the child's actual weight status. Such weight (mis)perception may influence future BMI.

Challenges in enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer using techniques independent of cytokeratin expression.

Given the current postulated plasticity between epithelial and mesenchymal states of migratory cancer cells the detection of non-epithelial CTCs is an important scientific and clinical goal.

Low cholesterol level associated with severity and outcome of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Results from Taiwan Stroke Registry.

The relationship between cholesterol level and hemorrhagic stroke is inconclusive. We hypothesized that low cholesterol levels may have association with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) severity at admission and 3-month outcomes. This study used data obtained from a multi-center stroke registry program in Taiwan. We categorized acute spontaneous ICH patients, based on their baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC) measured at admission, into 3 groups with <160, 160-200 and >200 mg/dL of TC. We evaluated risk of having initial stroke severity, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >15 and unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score >2, 3-month mortality) after ICH by the TC group. A total of 2444 ICH patients (mean age 62.5±14.2 years; 64.2% men) were included in this study and 854 (34.9%) of them had baseline TC <160 mg/dL. Patients with TC <160 mg/dL presented more often severe neurological deficit (NIHSS >15), with an adjusted odds ratio [aOR] of 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-2.30), and 3-month mRS >2 (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.78) using patients with TC >200 mg/dL as reference. Those with TC >160 mg/dL and body mass index (BMI) <22 kg/m2 had higher risk of 3-month mortality (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 1.76-8.80). Prior use of lipid-lowering drugs (2.8% of the ICH population) was not associated with initial severity and 3-month outcomes. A total cholesterol level lower than 160 mg/dL was common in patients with acute ICH and was associated with greater neurological severity on presentation and poor 3-month outcomes, especially with lower BMI.

Anosognosia and Its Relation to Psychiatric Symptoms in Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD).

The management of ventricular dysrhythmia in aconite poisoning.

Aconite poisoning is relatively rare but is frequently complicated by ventricular dysrhythmias, which may be fatal. Molecular basis of aconite alkaloid ventricular arrhythmogenicity: Aconite exerts its toxic effects due to the presence of an admixture of alkaloids present in all parts of the plant. The major target of these aconite alkaloids is the fast voltage-gates sodium channel, where they cause persistent activation. This blockade of the channel in the activated state promotes automaticity within the ventricular myocardium and the generation of ventricular arrhythmias. Aconitine-induced arrhythmias: Aconite alkaloids are known to cause many different types of disturbance of heart rhythm. However, this focused review specifically looks at ventricular rhythm disturbances, namely ventricular ectopy, ventricular tachycardia, torsades des pointes and ventricular fibrillation.

Neural Mobilization Treatment Decreases Glial Cells and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Central Nervous System in Rats with Neuropathic Pain Induced by CCI in Rats.

Background. Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM) technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI. Thalamus and midbrain were analyzed for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microglial cell OX-42, and BDNF using Immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. Results. Thalamus and midbrain of CCI group showed increases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF expression compared with control group and, in contrast, showed decreases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF after NM when compared with CCI group. The decreased immunoreactivity for GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF in ventral posterolateral nucleus in thalamus and the periaqueductal gray in midbrain was shown by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions. These findings may improve the knowledge about the involvement of astrocytes, microglia, and BDNF in the chronic pain and show that NM treatment, which alleviates neuropathic pain, affects glial cells and BDNF expression.

Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients.

Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD's symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH) and Group without Headache (GwoH). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results. Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation) and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities), and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion. This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

Use of azithromycin and risk of ventricular arrhythmia.

There are conflicting findings from observational studies of the arrhythrogenic potential of azithromycin. Our aim was to quantify the association between azithromycin use and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia.

Dexamethasone versus standard treatment for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gastrointestinal surgery: randomised controlled trial (DREAMS Trial).

Objectives To determine whether preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery and whether it is associated with other measurable benefits during recovery from surgery, including quicker return to oral diet and reduced length of stay.Design Pragmatic two arm parallel group randomised trial with blinded postoperative care and outcome assessment.Setting 45 UK hospitals.Participants 1350 patients aged 18 or over undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for malignant or benign pathology.Interventions Addition of a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone at induction of anaesthesia compared with standard care.Main outcome measures Primary outcome: reported vomiting within 24 hours reported by patient or clinician.

Effects of host restriction factors and the HTLV-1 subtype on susceptibility to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TSP have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined whether HAM/TSP patients had the disease-specific genomic variants of HTLV-1 by analyzing entire sequences of HTLV-1 proviruses in these patients, including familial cases. In addition, we investigated the genetic variants of host restriction factors conferring antiretroviral activity to determine which mutations may be related to resistance or susceptibility to HAM/TSP.

Complications and Functional Outcomes After Pantalar Dislocation.

Pantalar dislocations without associated talar fracture are rare and have high risks of complications, including infection, osteonecrosis, and posttraumatic osteoarthrosis. Limited information on later function exists. This study evaluated complications and outcomes following pantalar dislocation without talar fracture.

Oral-Only Linezolid-Rifampin Is Highly Effective Compared with Other Antibiotics for Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Study of a Mouse Model.

The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI.

Ambulatory Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Comprehensive Analysis of Current Trends, Complications, Readmissions, and Costs.

There have been few studies that have evaluated ambulatory total shoulder arthroplasty. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the current trends in ambulatory total shoulder arthroplasty in the United States; to characterize the rate of postoperative complications, hospital readmission, and risk factors associated with readmission; and to conduct a cost analysis comparing ambulatory total shoulder arthroplasty with matched inpatient total shoulder arthroplasty.

Females with Unexplained Joint Pain Following Total Joint Arthroplasty Exhibit a Higher Rate and Severity of Hypersensitivity to Implant Metals Compared with Males: Implications of Sex-Based Bioreactivity Differences.

Recent studies indicate that females demonstrate an increased risk of experiencing adverse local tissue reactions, aseptic loosening, and revision after primary metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty compared with males; the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for sex discrepancies in implant failure remain unclear. In addition to anatomical and biomechanical sex differences, there may be inherent immunological disparities that predispose females to more aggressive adaptive immune reactivity to implant debris, i.e., metal sensitivity.

Case 241: Hemiparkinsonism- Hemiatrophy-SPECT with (99m)Tc TRODAT-1 and Muscle MR Imaging Abnormalities.

History A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with a history of progressive mild left-sided weakness and slowness of movements. Symptoms began 4 years earlier, and the patient noticed a progressive decline in his daily routine due to gait difficulties in the past year. There was no history of head trauma, surgery, drug therapy, smoking, or alcohol abuse, nor was there any relevant family history. Examination revealed normal cognition (29 of 30 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 27 of 30 points on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and normal cerebellar, sensory, cranial nerve, and autonomic function. There was mild left-sided weakness involving the upper and lower limbs (medical research council graded muscle strength as 4+ out of 5) that was associated with facial hypomimia and a rigid akinetic syndrome only in the patient's left hemibody (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] part III [motor examination], 23 out of 52 points). Mild atrophy in the left upper and lower limbs without pain, swelling, or skin lesions was noted at physical examination. Routine blood chemistry was normal, as were serum creatine kinase and aldolase levels and thyroid, hepatic, and renal function. T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion- and perfusion-weighted, and contrast material-enhanced brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging results were normal, without basal ganglia hyperintensity, lacunae, calcification, or heavy metal deposits. Muscle MR imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) tropane dopamine transporter (TRODAT)-1 were performed for further evaluation. This patient received levodopa and benserazide (200 and 50 mg, respectively) four times a day and amantadine (100 mg) three times a day without adequate improvement (UPDRS score decreased from 23 to 20 points).

Diagnosis of Bacterial Infection Using a 2-Transcript Host RNA Signature in Febrile Infants 60 Days or Younger.

Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) frequently coexist, and each complicates the course and treatment of the other. Recent population-based studies have demonstrated that the 2 conditions together increase the risk of stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality, especially soon after the clinical onset of AF. Guideline-directed pharmacological therapy for HFrEF is important; however, although there are various treatment modalities for AF, there is no clear consensus on how best to treat AF with concomitant HFrEF. This in-depth review discusses the available data for the treatment of AF in the setting of HFrEF, focuses on areas where more investigation is necessary, examines the clinical implications of randomized and observational clinical trials, and presents suggestions for individualized treatment strategies for specific patient groups.