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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms - Top 30 Publications

Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks: Surveillance Data Published Between April 1, 2016 and January 31, 2017 - United States.

The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks: Surveillance Data Published Between April 1, 2016 and January 31, 2017 - United States, herein referred to as the Summary (Noninfectious), contains official statistics for nationally notifiable noninfectious conditions and disease outbreaks. This Summary (Noninfectious) is being published in the same volume of MMWR as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions (1). Data on notifiable noninfectious conditions and disease outbreaks from prior years have been published previously (2,3).

Acute Flaccid Myelitis Among Children - Washington, September-November 2016.

In October 2016, Seattle Children's Hospital notified the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) and CDC of a cluster of acute onset of limb weakness in children aged ≤14 years. All patients had distinctive spinal lesions largely restricted to gray matter detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), consistent with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). On November 3, DOH issued a health advisory to local health jurisdictions requesting that health care providers report similar cases. By January 24, 2017, DOH and CDC had confirmed 10 cases of AFM and excluded two suspected cases among residents of Washington during September-November 2016. Upper respiratory tract, stool, rectal, serum, buccal, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were tested for multiple pathogens. Hypothesis-generating interviews were conducted with patients or their parents to determine commonalities between cases. No common etiology or source of exposure was identified. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing detected enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in nasopharyngeal swabs of two patients, one of whom also tested positive for adenovirus by PCR, and detected enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in the stool of a third patient. Mycoplasma spp. immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer was elevated in two patients, but both had upper respiratory swabs that tested negative for Mycoplasma spp. by PCR. Clinicians should maintain vigilance for AFM and report cases as soon as possible to state or local health departments.

Alcoholic versus aqueous chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis: the AVALANCHE trial.

Preoperative skin antisepsis is routine practice. We compared alcoholic chlorhexidine with aqueous chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis to prevent surgical site infection after minor skin excisions in general practice.

Effect of Levosimendan on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome in Patients With Low Ejection Fraction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Cardiopulmonary Bypass: The LICORN Randomized Clinical Trial.

Low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with impaired left ventricular function.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 2017 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the commonest leukemia in western countries. The disease typically occurs in elderly patients and has a highly variable clinical course. Leukemic transformation is initiated by specific genomic alterations that impair apoptosis of clonal B cells.

Clinical relevance of transient smartphone blindness.

Comment to "Intraoperative apnea in children after buffered 5% povidone-iodine site sterilization for strabismus surgery".

Uninterrupted Dabigatran versus Warfarin for Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation.

Metabolic reprogramming during hepatitis B disease progression offers novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

Metabolic remodeling occurs in immune cells during an infection. Host cells must upregulate energy production for growth, proliferation, and effector functions to limit the damage imposed by pathogens. One example, the hepatitis B virus, induces hepatic injury in human hepatocytes through dysregulation of aerobic glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Increased glycolytic metabolism mediated by elevated expression of Glut1, glucose influx, and lactate secretion is associated with this Warburg phenotype, a classic metabolic signature also observed in cancer cells. This article brings into focus the tight interaction between HBV infection and metabolic dysfunction and how these processes facilitate the progression of end-stage liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. We also provide evidence and models by which other viruses such as HIV and Zika disrupt their host metabolic machinery. The emergence of the immunometabolism field provides novel opportunities to take advantage of intermediary metabolites and key metabolic pathways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Angiotensin II for the Treatment of Vasodilatory Shock - Promise and Caution.

Gabapentin and Pregabalin for Pain - Is Increased Prescribing a Cause for Concern?

Uninterrupted Dabigatran versus Warfarin for Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation.

Uninterrupted Dabigatran versus Warfarin for Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation.

All That Wheezes….

Adiponectin Mediates Dietary Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Protection Against Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice.

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly. Diets with omega3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (ω3-LCPUFA) correlate with a decreased risk of AMD. Dietary ω3-LCPUFA versus ω6-LCPUFA inhibits mouse ocular neovascularization, but the underlying mechanism needs further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate if adiponectin (APN) mediated ω3-LCPUFA suppression of neovessels in AMD.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

Pelvic organ prolapse is the descent of one or more of the anterior vaginal wall, posterior vaginal wall, the uterus (cervix), or the apex of the vagina (vaginal vault or cuff scar after hysterectomy). Prevalence increases with age. The cause of prolapse is multifactorial but is primarily associated with pregnancy and vaginal delivery, which lead to direct pelvic floor muscle and connective tissue injury. Hysterectomy, pelvic surgery, and conditions associated with sustained episodes of increased intra-abdominal pressure, including obesity, chronic cough, constipation, and repeated heavy lifting, also contribute to prolapse. Most patients with pelvic organ prolapse are asymptomatic. Symptoms become more bothersome as the bulge protrudes past the vaginal opening. Initial evaluation includes a history and systematic pelvic examination including assessment for urinary incontinence, bladder outlet obstruction, and fecal incontinence. Treatment options include observation, vaginal pessaries, and surgery. Most women can be successfully fit with a vaginal pessary. Available surgical options are reconstructive pelvic surgery with or without mesh augmentation and obliterative surgery.

When sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) met Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.

Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is characterized by short-lasting seizures patterned by repetitive and stereotyped motor events in the same person. In autosomal dominant SHE, genetic factors play a well-known key role. In The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin quotes a plausible example of SHE illustrated by his cousin Sir Francis Galton: "the gentleman…lay fast asleep on his back in bed, raising his right arm slowly in front of his face, up to his forehead, and then dropping it with a jerk, so that the wrist fell heavily on the bridge of his nose. The trick did not occur every night, but occasionally, and was independent of any ascertained cause. Sometimes it was repeated incessantly for an hour or more." Similar manifestations during sleep occurred also in the patient's son and granddaughter, suggesting an autosomal inheritance without sex relationship. Differential diagnosis with REM behavior disorder and other parasomnias is discussed. To our knowledge, this could be the first description of a stereotyped SHE pattern with genetic transmission.

A Genetic Variant Associated with Five Vascular Diseases Is a Distal Regulator of Endothelin-1 Gene Expression.

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) implicate the PHACTR1 locus (6p24) in risk for five vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, migraine headache, cervical artery dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, and hypertension. Through genetic fine mapping, we prioritized rs9349379, a common SNP in the third intron of the PHACTR1 gene, as the putative causal variant. Epigenomic data from human tissue revealed an enhancer signature at rs9349379 exclusively in aorta, suggesting a regulatory function for this SNP in the vasculature. CRISPR-edited stem cell-derived endothelial cells demonstrate rs9349379 regulates expression of endothelin 1 (EDN1), a gene located 600 kb upstream of PHACTR1. The known physiologic effects of EDN1 on the vasculature may explain the pattern of risk for the five associated diseases. Overall, these data illustrate the integration of genetic, phenotypic, and epigenetic analysis to identify the biologic mechanism by which a common, non-coding variant can distally regulate a gene and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple vascular diseases.

Novel targeted therapies for cancer cachexia.

Anorexia and metabolic alterations are the main components of the cachectic syndrome. Glucose intolerance, fat depletion, muscle protein catabolism and other alterations are involved in the development of cancer cachexia, a multi-organ syndrome. Nutritional approach strategies are not satisfactory in reversing the cachectic syndrome. The aim of the present review is to deal with the recent therapeutic targeted approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract wasting in cancer patients. Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, β-blockers and antimyostatin peptides. However, a multi-targeted approach seems absolutely essential to treat patients affected by cancer cachexia. This approach should not only involve combinations of drugs but also nutrition and an adequate program of physical exercise, factors that may lead to a synergy, essential to overcome the syndrome. This may efficiently reverse the metabolic changes described above and, at the same time, ameliorate the anorexia. Defining this therapeutic combination of drugs/nutrients/exercise is an exciting project that will stimulate many scientific efforts. Other aspects that will, no doubt, be very important for successful treatment of cancer wasting will be an optimized design of future clinical trials, together with a protocol for staging cancer patients in relation to their degree of cachexia. This will permit that nutritional/metabolic/pharmacological support can be started early in the course of the disease, before severe weight loss occurs. Indeed, timing is crucial and has to be taken very seriously when applying the therapeutic approach.

Profiles of lipids, blood pressure and weight changes among premenopausal Chinese breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy.

Adjuvant chemotherapy improves outcome of patients with early breast cancer. However, chemotherapy may be associated with long term toxicities. In this retrospective cohort study, the objectives were to determine body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and fasting lipids levels of young premenopausal Chinese breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy. Potential factors associated with these parameters were identified.

In Vivo Imaging of Retinal Hypoxia Using HYPOX-4-Dependent Fluorescence in a Mouse Model of Laser-Induced Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO).

To demonstrate the utility of a novel in vivo molecular imaging probe, HYPOX-4, to detect and image retinal hypoxia in real time, in a mouse model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO).

Intimate Strangers.

A PICU nurse writes of walking with parents in their pain.

New CDC Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection.

This updates the 1999 original, published before formal evidence-based guidelines were in routine use.

Recuperating lung decoction attenuates inflammation and oxidation in cigarette smoke-induced COPD in rats via activation of ERK and Nrf2 pathways.

Oxidative/antioxidative imbalance and chronic inflammation are the main contributors to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the effect of recuperating lung decoction (RLD) on inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with COPD induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We used intravenous infusion of LPS combined with cigarette smoke exposure as a COPD rat model. We observed that RLD treatment increased the protein level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG but decreased 8-OHdG and 4-HNE in the serum. Furthermore, RLD significantly inhibited the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β induced by cigarette smoke exposure, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and alleviated the severity of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Mechanistically, RLD treatment prevented disease through downregulation of phosphorylated-ERK and Nrf2 expression, which regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. RLD treatment exerted a dramatic therapeutic effect on COPD. This study revealed a mechanism that RLD functions on the regulation of ERK signalling to inhibit inflammation.

An unanticipated diagnosis with bedside ultrasonography in patients with acute abdominal pain: rectus hematoma.

Although abdominal pain is a common presentation in emergency departments, rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is among the rarest diagnosis. Here we present 2 cases of RSH likely caused by coughing due to upper respiratory tract infection. The two described cases were diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography and confirmed as RSH by computed tomography. Review of patient history and use of ultrasonography are important to avoid misdiagnosisof RSH.

Hepatic hematoma in neonates: about a case.

Hepatic hematoma is a condition of unrecognized origin which can become extremely serious and whose diagnosis is often made during perinatal autopsy. It is often characterised by nonspecific clinical manifestations and a long delay before biological presentation.The diagnosis is essentially based on ultrasound and treatment is often conservative.We here report a case of a full-term newborn with asymptomatic hepatic haematoma due to obstetrical trauma.

Isolated double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV): a case study conducted at the National University Hospital CNHU-HKM in Cotonou, Benin.

Double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a very rare cardiac defect in which the right ventricle is divided by anomalous muscle bundle into two chambers. It is associated with other malformations in 80-90% of cases. Clinical presentation varies and depends on the extent of the intraventricular obstruction. We here report the case of a 16-year old teenager with isolated DCRV revealed by recurrent syncopes. The diagnosis was made using Doppler echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical resection of the abnormal muscle band.

Dorsolumbar cold abscess revealing Pott's disease.

Tuberculous cold abscesses are a rare and unusual form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We here report the case of a 27-year old patient with a 5-month history of left dorsolumbar swelling presenting with dorsolumbar cold abscess revealing Pott's disease without neurological complications. Examination of pus sample collected at the time the abscess was incised and drained helped to confirm the diagnosis of cold abscesses of TB origin. The patient underwent 12 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment which lead to a faster recovery; the sequelae was slight gibbosity.

Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy versus vaginal sacrospinous fixation for vaginal vault prolapse, a randomized controlled trial: SALTO-2 trial, study protocol.

Hysterectomy is one of the most performed surgical procedures during lifetime. Almost 10 % of women who have had a hysterectomy because of prolapse symptoms, will visit a gynaecologist for a surgical correction of a vaginal vault prolapse thereafter. Vaginal vault prolapse can be corrected by many different surgical procedures. A Cochrane review comparing abdominal sacrocolpopexy to vaginal sacrospinous fixation considered the open abdominal procedure as the treatment of first choice for prolapse of the vaginal vault, although operation time and hospital stay is longer. Literature also shows that hospital stay and blood loss are less after a laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy compared to the abdominal technique. To date, it is unclear which of these techniques leads to the best operative result and the highest patient satisfaction. Prospective trials comparing vaginal sacrospinous fixation and laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy are lacking. The aim of this randomized trial is to compare the disease specific quality of life of the vaginal sacrospinous fixation and laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy as the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse.

Cascade Fumarate Hydratase mutation screening allows early detection of kidney tumour: a case report.

Fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which results in a major defect in cellular metabolism. It presents in infancy with progressive encephalopathy, hypotonia, seizures and failure to thrive and is often fatal in childhood. It is caused by mutations in the FH gene (1q42.1) that result in deficiency of the citric acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase, resulting in accumulation of fumaric acid. Heterozygous germline mutations in the FH gene predispose to an aggressive autosomal dominant inherited early-onset kidney cancer syndrome: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC).