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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms - Top 30 Publications

Modulating microRNAs as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Cardiac Fibrosis.

This commentary highlights the findings by Tao et al. (Theranostics 2016; 6: 2068-2083) that targeting miR-433 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for myocardial fibrosis and subsequently discusses the obstacles and prospects associated with the application of therapeutic microRNAs in anti-fibrosis treatment.

Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes: meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials.

Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity, and pre-existing medical condition; and secondarily on individual complications.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD). Data sources Major electronic databases from inception to February 2017 without language restrictions.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall, and in subgroups (interactions).Results IPD were obtained from 36 randomised trials (12 526 women). Less weight gain occurred in the intervention group than control group (mean difference -0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval -0.92 to -0.48 kg, I(2)=14.1%; 33 studies, 9320 women). Although summary effect estimates favoured the intervention, the reductions in maternal (odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.03, I(2)=26.7%; 24 studies, 8852 women) and offspring (0.94, 0.83 to 1.08, I(2)=0%; 18 studies, 7981 women) composite outcomes were not statistically significant. No evidence was found of differential intervention effects across subgroups, for either gestational weight gain or composite outcomes. There was strong evidence that interventions reduced the odds of caesarean section (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99, I(2)=0%; 32 studies, 11 410 women), but not for other individual complications in IPD meta-analysis. When IPD were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I(2)=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy reduce gestational weight gain and lower the odds of caesarean section. There is no evidence that effects differ across subgroups of women.

Sex is a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two long QT syndrome founder populations: a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis.

Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1AP sequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.

Associations of Weight Gain From Early to Middle Adulthood With Major Health Outcomes Later in Life.

Data describing the effects of weight gain across adulthood on overall health are important for weight control.

Changes in the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and the relative telomere length in the process of canceration induced by omethoate.

Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs), with high efficiency, broad-spectrum and low residue, are widely used in China. Omethoate is a broad category of organophosphorous pesticides and is more domestically utilized which has chronic toxic effect on human health caused by long-term, low-dose exposure to Ops, recently its potential genotoxicity has attracted wide attention which can cause chromosomal DNA damage. Thus, the aim of this study is screen susceptible biomarkers and explore the mechanism of canceration induced by omethoate. 180 long-term organophosphorus pesticide-exposed workers and 115 healthy controls were recruited. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was applied to determine the relative telomere length in peripheral lymphocyte DNA as well as p53 and p21 gene expression levels. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the effects of exposure, expression levels, and polymorphisms in genes on the telomere length. The results showed the relative telomere lengths in the exposure group were significantly longer than that in the control group. The messenger RNA expression levels of p53 and p21 in exposure group were significantly lower than that in the control group; telomere lengths of the CA genotype individuals of p21 rs1801270 polymorphism locus were significantly longer than that of the CC genotype in the control group that were estimated using the Bonferroni method; and bivariate correlation analysis showed that the messenger RNA expression level of gene p53 was negatively correlated with telomere length, and the messenger RNA expression level of gene p21 was positively correlated with telomere length. Multivariate analysis found that p53 messenger RNA and p21 messenger RNA had an impact on telomere length. These results demonstrated that the messenger RNA expression levels of p53 and p21 may have a relationship with the changes in telomere length induced by omethoate and provided strong evidence for the mechanism of canceration induced by poison.

MiR-143 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion by targeting DNMT3A in gastric cancer.

Increasing evidence has suggested that MircroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulated in pathogenesis and tumorigenicity in human cancers including gastric cancer (GC). MiR-143 had been reported to function as tumor suppressor in GC progression, however, the underlying function of miR-143 in GC still need to be well known. In the study, we revealed that miR-143 was significantly down-regulated in GC cell lines. Upregulation of miR-143 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, S phase cell proportion and cell cycle related protein levels of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 in GC. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that DNMT3A was a direct target of miR-143 and Upregulation of miR-143 inhibited the DNMT3A mRNA and protein expression levels in GC cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that DNMT3A knockdown rescued the promoting effect of miR-143 inhibitor on cell proliferation in GC. Thus, these results demonstrated that miR-143 targeted DNMT3A in GC cells and inhibit GC tumorigenesis and progression, which may provide a novel therapeutic target of GC.

Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion through regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common urologic malignancy. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) has been suggested as serving pivotal roles in tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance and biological role of CCAT2 in ccRCC remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to identify the function of CCAT2 in ccRCC and its possible molecular mechanism. Expression of CCAT2 was analyzed in 61 ccRCC tissues and two ccRCC cell lines (786-O and ACHN) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The functional roles of CCAT2 in ccRCC were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometric analysis. The influence of CCAT2 on tumorigenesis was monitored by in vivo mice xenograft model. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was evaluated by the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assay and western blot assay. CCAT2 expression was markedly higher in ccRCC cell lines and tissues, being positively associated with tumor size and tumor stage in ccRCC patients. Patients with higher CCAT2 expression had a markedly poorer overall survival than did patients with low CCAT2 expression. Knocking down CCAT2 expression led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of ccRCC cells in vitro as well as the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and CCAT2 overexpression remarkably enhanced these oncogenic properties. In vivo mice xenograft model also showed that knocking CCAT2 expression inhibited the growth of ccRCC xenografts. In conclusion, these results indicated that CCAT2 may play a critical role in ccRCC progression and will be further considered as a biomarker for predicting the survival of ccRCC patients and a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC intervention.

Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.

Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects.

Conjugation of gold nanoparticles and recombinant human endostatin modulates vascular normalization via interruption of anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis.

Several studies have revealed the potential of normalizing tumor vessels in anti-angiogenic treatment. Recombinant human endostatin is an anti-angiogenic agent which has been applied in clinical tumor treatment. Our previous research indicated that gold nanoparticles could be a nanoparticle carrier for recombinant human endostatin delivery. The recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle conjugates normalized vessels, which improved chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle-induced vascular normalization has not been explored. Anterior gradient 2 has been reported to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors and involved in tumor angiogenesis. To date, the precise efficacy of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles on anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis or anterior gradient 2-related signaling cohort remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could normalize vessels in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts, and we further elucidated whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could interrupt anterior gradient 2-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, it was indicated that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles increased pericyte expression while inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and anterior gradient 2 expression in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts. In vitro, we uncovered that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles reduced cell migration and tube formation induced by anterior gradient 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles attenuated anterior gradient 2-mediated activation of MMP2, cMyc, VE-cadherin, phosphorylation of p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrated recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles might normalize vessels by interfering anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer.

Portulaca oleracea extract can inhibit nodule formation of colon cancer stem cells by regulating gene expression of the Notch signal transduction pathway.

To investigate whether Portulaca oleracea extract affects tumor formation in colon cancer stem cells and its chemotherapy sensitivity. In addition, to analyze associated genetic changes within the Notch signal transduction pathway. Serum-free cultures of colon cancer cells (HT-29) and HT-29 cancer stem cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to assess sensitivity. Injections of the stem cells were also given to BALB/c mice to confirm tumor growth and note its characteristics. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of P. oleracea extract was tested on the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The effects of P. oleracea extract on the expression of β-catenin, Notch1, and Notch2 in the HT-29 cells were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The tumor volume of the HT29 cells was two times larger than that of HT29 cancer stem cells. Treatment with P. oleracea extract inhibited the proliferation of both HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells at doses from 0.07 to 2.25 µg/mL. Apoptosis of HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells was assessed by flow cytometry; it was enhanced by the addition of P. oleracea extract. Finally, treatment with P. oleracea extract significantly downregulated the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes in both cell types. The results of this study show that P. oleracea extract inhibits the growth of colon cancer stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it inhibits the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes. Taken together, this suggests that it may elicit its effects through regulatory and target genes that mediate the Notch signal transduction pathway.

Dealing with Uncertainty and Accounting for Social Value Judgments in Assessments of Orphan Drugs: Evidence from Four European Countries.

To better understand the reasons for differences in reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs in four European countries that were not readily apparent from health technology assessment (HTA) reports and operating procedures.

Patient-Reported Outcome and Observer-Reported Outcome Assessment in Rare Disease Clinical Trials: An ISPOR COA Emerging Good Practices Task Force Report.

Rare diseases (RDs) affect a small number of people within a population. About 5000 to 8000 distinct RDs have been identified, with an estimated 6% to 8% of people worldwide suffering from an RD. Approximately 75% of RDs affect children. Frequently, these conditions are heterogeneous; many are progressive. Regulatory incentives have increased orphan drug designations and approvals.

Adaptation of the By-Band randomized clinical trial to By-Band-Sleeve to include a new intervention and maintain relevance of the study to practice.

Recruitment into surgical RCTs can be threatened if new interventions available outside the trial compete with those being evaluated. Adapting the trial to include the new intervention may overcome this issue, yet this is not often done in surgery. This paper describes the challenges, rationale and methods for adapting an RCT to include a new intervention.

Relationship Between Myocardial Function, Body Mass Index, and Outcome After ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Better survival for overweight and obese patients after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been demonstrated. The association between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and left ventricular (LV) structure and function after STEMI, including LV longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain), was evaluated.

Pramipexole-induced limb dystonia and its associated complex regional pain syndrome in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A case report.

This case may be due to basal ganglia dysfunction, which was probably caused by abnormal activation of dopamine 1-like receptor (D1R) boosted by pramipexole binding on dopamine 3-like receptor (D3R) in a situation where D3R was overexpressed by the chronic treatment of L-dopa.

Effectiveness of corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis of shoulder: A meta-analysis.

Primary adhesive capsulitis is mainly characterized by spontaneous chronic shoulder pain and the gradual loss of shoulder motion. The main treatment for adhesive capsulitis is a trial of conservative therapies, including analgesia, exercise, physiotherapy, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drugs, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Previously, it was reported that intra-articular corticosteroid lead to fast pain relief and improvement of range of motion (ROM). The objective of this study was to determine whether corticosteroid injections would lead to better pain relief and greater improvement in ROM.

Sepsis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae associated with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a splenectomized patient for spherocytosis: A case report.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome that is characterized by an inappropriate hyperinflammatory immune response - primary, as a consequence of a genetic defect of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes or - secondary, in the progression of infections, rheumatic or autoimmune diseases, malignancies or metabolic diseases.

The effect of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury after pediatric congenital heart surgery: A prospective randomized trial.

Dexmedetomidine has been reported to have a renal protective effect after adult open heart surgery. The authors hypothesized that intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine would attenuate the decrease in renal function after pediatric open heart surgery.

Peripheral monocytosis as a predictive factor for adverse outcome in the emergency department: Survey based on a register study.

Monocytosis is associated with chronic infections such as tuberculosis or endocarditis as well as rheumatic and myeloproliferative disorders. Monocytes are also involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and stroke. The value of monocytosis as a prognostic marker in different diagnostic groups in the emergency setting, however, has not been investigated so far.The aim of the article is to study monocytosis as an outcome factor in the emergency setting.In a Swiss register study, we analyzed monocyte counts in 4238 patients aged >18 years who were admitted to the emergency department of a regional tertiary care hospital. Monocytosis was defined as 0.8×10 cells/L. Diagnoses were grouped into infection, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, or other. Thirty-day mortality was defined as the primary endpointA total of 1217 patients with monocytosis were identified. Patients with monocytosis at admission suffered more frequently from respiratory symptoms (17.7% vs 8.9%, P <.001) and infection as the final diagnosis (20.8% vs 10.3%, P <.001) while neurological diagnoses were significantly lower in the monocytosis group (15.3% vs 30.9%, P <.001). Patients with monocytosis suffered from more comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tumor, diabetes, or renal failure but not dementia. When adjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, and main diagnosis, the 30-day mortality (P = .002) and length of stay (P = .001) were significantly higher in patients with monocytosis. The 30-day mortality in patients with monocytosis was most notably influenced by a cardiological diagnosis (odds ratio 3.91).An increased monocyte count predicts adverse outcome in patients admitted to the emergency department. Mechanistic studies will be necessary to specify the potentially detrimental role of monocytosis in critical illness.

Association of ventricular arrhythmia and in-hospital mortality in stroke patients in Florida: A nonconcurrent prospective study.

Stroke remains one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Current evidence identified electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in 50% of patients with an acute stroke. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the presence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in adult patients hospitalized in Florida with acute stroke increased the risk of in-hospital mortality.Secondary data analysis of 215,150 patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalized in the state of Florida collected by the Florida Agency for Healthcare Administration from 2008 to 2012. The main outcome for this study was in-hospital mortality. The main exposure of this study was defined as the presence of VA. VA included the ICD-9 CM codes: paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (427.1), ventricular fibrillation (427.41), ventricular flutter (427.42), ventricular fibrillation and flutter (427.4), and other - includes premature ventricular beats, contractions, or systoles (427.69). Differences in demographic and clinical characteristics and hospital outcomes were assessed between patients who developed versus did not develop VA during hospitalization (χ and t tests). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between VA and in-hospital mortality.VA was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality after adjusting for all covariates (odds ratio [OR]: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.6-1.2). There was an increased in-hospital mortality in women compared to men (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.1-1.14), age greater than 85 years (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 3.5-4.3), African Americans compared to Whites (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.04-1.2), diagnosis of congestive heart failure (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 2.0-2.3), and atrial arrhythmias (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 2.0-2.2). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke had increased odds of in-hospital mortality (OR: 9.0; 95% CI: 8.6-9.4) compared to ischemic stroke.Identifying VAs in stroke patients may help in better target at risk populations for closer cardiac monitoring during hospitalization. The impact of implementing methods of quick assessment could potentially reduce VA associated sudden cardiac death.

Cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma: A case report.

Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection.

Impact of obesity on the short-term outcomes of single-port laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer in the Asian population: A retrospective cohort study.

Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is being increasingly performed for treating colorectal cancer. Here, we aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of SPLS for colorectal cancer in obese patients through a comparison of their short-term outcomes with those of nonobese patients.A total of 323 patients who underwent SPLS for colorectal cancer at our center between March 2009 and August 2014 were enrolled. The outcomes were analyzed according to the body mass index (BMI) category: nonobese (BMI < 25), obese I (BMI: 25.0-29.9), and obese II (BMI ≥ 30).Of the 323 patients, 233 (72.1%), 80 (24.8%), and 10 (3.1%), were assigned to the nonobese, obese I, and obese II groups, respectively. The clinicopathologic patient characteristics, such as age, gender, tumor location, and previous laparotomy, were similar among the 3 groups. The mean operative time (nonobese vs obese I vs and obese II groups: 269.2 vs 270.4 vs 342.8 minutes, respectively) and estimated surgical blood loss (277.7 vs 260.5 vs 387.0 mL, respectively) were greater in the obese II group than in the nonobese and obese I groups, although the difference was not significant (P = .247 and P = .205, respectively). However, the time to passage of flatus significantly differed among the groups (P = .040); in particular, this value was significantly longer in the obese II group than in the obese I group (P = .031). None of the other parameters, including conversion to open or conventional laparoscopic surgery and intra- and postoperative morbidity, significantly differed among the 3 groups.SPLS for colorectal cancer can be safely performed in obese Asian patients with equivalent short-term outcomes as compared with that in nonobese patients. Hence, SPLS can be safely recommended for colorectal cancer in obese patients if the surgeon is experienced. Nevertheless, the technique used warrants further investigation, and a large-scale prospective study is required.

Chronic Health Conditions and Key Health Indicators Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older US Adults, 2013-2014.

To examine disparities in chronic conditions and health indicators among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 50 years or older in the United States.

Orbital fractures treated in Auckland from 2010-2015: review of patient outcomes.

The purpose of this study was to review patient outcomes from surgical reconstruction of isolated orbital fractures, performed by the Auckland District Health Board (ADHB) Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery service (OMFS), from 2010 to 2015. In particular, we wished to assess titanium as an orbital reconstructive material and compare outcomes with the international literature.

The role of acromioplasty when repairing rotator cuff tears-no difference in pain or functional outcome at 24 months in a cohort of 2,441 patients.

The role of acromioplasty with rotator cuff repair remains unclear. This study aims to test the null hypothesis-that acromioplasty in conjunction with rotator cuff repair has no effect on improvement in pain or shoulder function at two years follow up.

Inhibition of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 Prevents Conjunctival Fibrosis in an Experimental Model of Glaucoma Filtration Surgery.

To evaluate the effect of treatment with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor inhibitor (MCP-Ri) to maintain bleb survival and prevent fibrosis in an experimental model of glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS).

An Ilomastat-CD Eye Drop Formulation to Treat Ocular Scarring.

The purpose of this study was to develop a topical matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor preparation for antiscarring therapy.

Spatial Entropy Pursuit for Fast and Accurate Perimetry Testing.

To propose a static automated perimetry strategy that increases the speed of visual field (VF) evaluation while retaining threshold estimate accuracy.

Risk of surgical site infection, acute kidney injury, and Clostridium difficile infection following antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin plus a beta-lactam versus either drug alone: A national propensity-score-adjusted retrospective cohort study.

The optimal regimen for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial. Use of combination prophylaxis with a beta-lactam plus vancomycin is increasing; however, the relative risks and benefits associated with this strategy are unknown. Thus, we sought to compare postoperative outcomes following administration of 2 antimicrobials versus a single agent for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Potential harms associated with combination regimens, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), were also considered.

Rap2B promotes angiogenesis via PI3K/AKT/VEGF signaling pathway in human renal cell carcinoma.

Human renal cell carcinoma which is a highly vascular tumor is the leading cause of death from urologic cancers. Angiogenesis has a pivotal role in oncogenesis and in the viability and expansion of renal cell carcinoma. Rap2B, as a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein of the Ras family, was first discovered in the early 1990s during the screening of a platelet complementary DNA library. Previous studies have shown that Rap2B aberrantly expressed in human carcinogenesis and promoted the development of tumors via multiple signaling pathways. However, the function of Rap2B in tumor angiogenesis that is necessary for tumor growth and metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of Rap2B in angiogenesis in renal cell carcinoma by Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells growth assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. We found that Rap2B promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our data illustrated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway is involved in Rap2B-mediated upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and renal cell carcinoma angiogenesis. Taken together, these results revealed that Rap2B promotes renal cell carcinoma angiogenesis via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, which suggests that Rap2B is a novel therapeutic target for renal cell carcinoma anti-angiogenesis therapy.