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Physical Examination - Top 30 Publications

Risk of major congenital malformations in relation to maternal overweight and obesity severity: cohort study of 1.2 million singletons.

Objective To estimate the risks of major congenital malformations in the offspring of mothers who are underweight (body mass index (BMI) <18.5), overweight (BMI 25 to <30), or in obesity classes I (BMI 30 to <35), II (35 to <40), or III (≥40) compared with offspring of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5 to <25) in early pregnancy.Design Population based cohort study.Setting Nationwide Swedish registries.Participants 1 243 957 liveborn singleton infants from 2001 to 2014 in Sweden. Data on maternal and pregnancy characteristics were obtained by individual record linkages.Exposure Maternal BMI at the first prenatal visit.Main outcome measures Offspring with any major congenital malformation, and subgroups of organ specific malformations diagnosed during the first year of life. Risk ratios were estimated using generalised linear models adjusted for maternal factors, sex of offspring, and birth year.Results A total of 43 550 (3.5%) offspring had any major congenital malformation, and the most common subgroup was for congenital heart defects (n=20 074; 1.6%). Compared with offspring of normal weight mothers (risk of malformations 3.4%), the proportions and adjusted risk ratios of any major congenital malformation among the offspring of mothers with higher BMI were: overweight, 3.5% and 1.05 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.07); obesity class I, 3.8% and 1.12 (1.08 to 1.15), obesity class II, 4.2% and 1.23 (1.17 to 1.30), and obesity class III, 4.7% and 1.37 (1.26 to 1.49). The risks of congenital heart defects, malformations of the nervous system, and limb defects also progressively increased with BMI from overweight to obesity class III. The largest organ specific relative risks related to maternal overweight and increasing obesity were observed for malformations of the nervous system. Malformations of the genital and digestive systems were also increased in offspring of obese mothers.Conclusions Risks of any major congenital malformation and several subgroups of organ specific malformations progressively increased with maternal overweight and increasing severity of obesity. For women who are planning pregnancy, efforts should be encouraged to reduce adiposity in those with a BMI above the normal range.

Childhood and Adolescent Obesity as a Winnable Battle-Reply.

Genetic Predisposition to Abdominal Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk-Reply.

Childhood and Adolescent Obesity as a Winnable Battle.

Genetic Predisposition to Abdominal Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Risk.

Should This Patient Have Weight Loss Surgery?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Obesity is an important public health priority in the United States. One third of U.S. adults are obese and therefore can expect higher rates of diabetes mellitus, other obesity-related comorbidities, and mortality. In 2013, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Obesity Society, and the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery issued a guideline that recommended weight loss (bariatric) surgery for all patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m2 or higher and for those with a BMI of 35 kg/m2 or greater in the presence of at least 1 obesity-related comorbidity. Among the 3 most commonly performed surgeries, the amount of excess weight reduction ranges from 49% for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding to 76% for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In accredited centers, perioperative mortality averages 0.3%. In this Beyond the Guidelines, 2 experts in obesity management, a bariatric surgeon and a general internist, discuss the role of weight loss surgery versus dietary and lifestyle modification, both in general and for a specific patient who is eligible for surgery. Ethnic and age-related variability in the effects of obesity on mortality, as well as potential long-term benefits and risks of weight loss surgery for patient subgroups, are discussed.

Body mass index and risk of diabetic retinopathy: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent cause of acquired blindness worldwide. Various studies have reported the effects of body mass index (BMI) on the risk of DR, but the results remain controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and the risk of DR.A systematic search was performed using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases to obtain articles published through December 2016. Articles regarding the association between BMI and the risk of DR were retrieved. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included and then pooled with a random effects model.A total of 27 articles were included in this meta-analysis. When BMI was analyzed as a categorical variable, neither being overweight (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.07; P = .21; I = 65%) nor obesity (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.73-1.30; P = .86) were associated with an increased risk of DR when compared with normal weight. When BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, a higher BMI was not associated with an increased risk of DR (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.01; P = .25; I2 = 79%). The pooled results did not significantly change after the sensitivity analysis.Based on the current publications, neither being overweight nor obesity is associated with an increased risk of DR. Further studies should confirm these findings.

The effect of growth rate and ageing on colour variation of European pond turtles.

Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles. In particular, we wanted to answer the question of whether there is a trade-off between growth and colour expression. We also aimed to explore the effect of body size and age on colour variation. Turtles from a reintroduction-breeding program were recaptured, weighed and measured over an 8-year period to estimate their growth rates and age. We also measured with a spectrometer the reflectance of colour patches in two different body parts: shell and forelimb. We found that turtles with a faster growth rate had brighter limb stripes independently of their age. On the other hand, shell colouration was related to body size with larger turtles having brighter shell stripes and higher values of carotenoid chroma. Our results suggest that fast-growers may afford to express intense colourful limb stripes likely due to their higher intake of carotenoids that would modulate both growth and colour expression. However, shell colouration was related to body size probably due to ontogenetic differences in the diet, as juveniles are strictly carnivorous while adults are omnivorous. Alternatively, shell colouration might be involved in crypsis as the shell is visually exposed to predators.

Statistical Analysis of Organ Morphometric Parameters and Weights in South Iranian Adult Autopsies.

Organ weight is one important indicator to discern normal from abnormal condition in forensic pathology as well as in clinical medicine. The present study aimed to investigate morphometric parameters and organ weights of southern Iranian adults, which can be fundamental sources to be compared to abnormal cases.Morphometric parameters and weights of 6 organs (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, appendix, and brain), which were harvested from 501 southern Iranian adults (385 males and 116 females) during ordinary postmortem examination, were measured.All the organs were heavier in males than in females. Heart, brain, spleen, and right kidney were significantly heavier in males compared to females, but no significant difference was observed between the 2 sexes regarding the weights of the rest of the organs. Moreover, brain and heart became heavier as one got older and most organs were heavier in middle-aged individuals compared to other age groups. Furthermore, various types of correlations were observed between different organs' weights and body parameters.These results can be useful anatomical data for autopsy investigations, clinical practices, and research in southern Iran.

Prenatal ambient air pollution exposure, infant growth and placental mitochondrial DNA content in the INMA birth cohort.

The association between prenatal air pollution exposure and postnatal growth has hardly been explored. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as a marker of oxidative stress, and growth at birth can play an intermediate role in this association.

Arsenic in drinking water and adverse birth outcomes in Ohio.

Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in areas with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. Less is known about the reproductive effects of arsenic at lower levels.

Aerobic or Resistance Exercise, or Both, in Dieting Obese Older Adults.

Obesity causes frailty in older adults; however, weight loss might accelerate age-related loss of muscle and bone mass and resultant sarcopenia and osteopenia.

Psychosocial stress and obesity among children residing in Kaunas City.

An unfavorable psychosocial environment has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity among children. However, the available evidence on the association of low socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships with childhood obesity is scarce. The aim of our study was to conduct a simultaneous evaluation of the risks associated with pathological mother-child relationships, education level, and overweight/obesity among 4-6 year-old children.

Single-trait and multi-trait genome-wide association analyses identify novel loci for blood pressure in African-ancestry populations.

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10-8) for either systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, or for combined traits. Single-trait analyses identified two loci (TARID/TCF21 and LLPH/TMBIM4) and multiple-trait analyses identified one novel locus (FRMD3) for blood pressure. At these three loci, as well as at GRP20/CDH17, associated variants had alleles common only in African-ancestry populations. Functional annotation showed enrichment for genes expressed in immune and kidney cells, as well as in heart and vascular cells/tissues. Experiments driven by these findings and using angiotensin-II induced hypertension in mice showed altered kidney mRNA expression of six genes, suggesting their potential role in hypertension. Our study provides new evidence for genes related to hypertension susceptibility, and the need to study African-ancestry populations in order to identify biologic factors contributing to hypertension.

Cephalometric changes after headgear anchored to the deciduous second molars in the early mixed dentition.

The present study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects of a headgear anchored to the deciduous second molars in the early mixed dentition.

Novel genes involved in severe early-onset obesity revealed by rare copy number and sequence variants.

Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with high heritability (50-75%), which is probably higher in early-onset and severe cases. Although rare monogenic forms and several genes and regions of susceptibility, including copy number variants (CNVs), have been described, the genetic causes underlying the disease still remain largely unknown. We searched for rare CNVs (>100kb in size, altering genes and present in <1/2000 population controls) in 157 Spanish children with non-syndromic early-onset obesity (EOO: body mass index >3 standard deviations above the mean at <3 years of age) using SNP array molecular karyotypes. We then performed case control studies (480 EOO cases/480 non-obese controls) with the validated CNVs and rare sequence variants (RSVs) detected by targeted resequencing of selected CNV genes (n = 14), and also studied the inheritance patterns in available first-degree relatives. A higher burden of gain-type CNVs was detected in EOO cases versus controls (OR = 1.71, p-value = 0.0358). In addition to a gain of the NPY gene in a familial case with EOO and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, likely pathogenic CNVs included gains of glutamate receptors (GRIK1, GRM7) and the X-linked gastrin-peptide receptor (GRPR), all inherited from obese parents. Putatively functional RSVs absent in controls were also identified in EOO cases at NPY, GRIK1 and GRPR. A patient with a heterozygous deletion disrupting two contiguous and related genes, SLCO4C1 and SLCO6A1, also had a missense RSV at SLCO4C1 on the other allele, suggestive of a recessive model. The genes identified showed a clear enrichment of shared co-expression partners with known genes strongly related to obesity, reinforcing their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Our data reveal a higher burden of rare CNVs and RSVs in several related genes in patients with EOO compared to controls, and implicate NPY, GRPR, two glutamate receptors and SLCO4C1 in highly penetrant forms of familial obesity.

Sex difference determined the role of sex hormone-binding globulin in obese children during short-term weight reduction program.

The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels has been observed in obese adults and children. Weight reduction not only increased insulin sensitivity but also elevated serum SHBG levels in obese adults and children. However, the correlation between the changes in insulin resistance indices and serum SHBG concentration during weight reduction program (WRP) is not fully understood, particularly in obese children. This study is to evaluate whether SHBG level is a potential biomarker that can be used to assess insulin resistance in obese children during a short-term WRP. Forty-eight obese Taiwanese children (11.7 ± 2.2 years; 25 boys and 23 girls) participating in 8-week WRP were studied. Anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, insulin resistance indices, and serum SHBG concentration were recorded at baseline and at the end of the WRP. The results showed body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), body fat weight (BFW), and insulin resistance indices such as fasting insulin, fasting insulin to glucose ratio, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, log (HOMA) all significantly decreased after the 8-week WRP. With respect to lipid profiles, only high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased in both sexes. At baseline, insulin resistance indices were inversely correlated with SHBG concentrations in girls, but not in boys. The difference in SHBG after WRP was 2.58 nmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.51, 8.66) in boys and 0.58 nmol/L (95% CI: -5.23, 6.39) in girls. There was a trend toward increased serum SHBG levels in boys (P = .39) and girls (P = .84) after weight loss, but a significantly negative correlation between the change in SHBG and in each of the insulin resistance indices only in the girls after adjusting age and ΔBFW during WRP.In conclusion, short-term WRP has the potential effects of decreased BW, BMI, BF%, and BFW, as well as increased serum HDL-C levels and insulin sensitivity in obese Taiwanese children. Although serum SHBG levels moderately increased in both sexes during short-term WRP, measuring the change in SHBG concentrations might be a potential biomarker to evaluate improvement in insulin resistance in girls only, and not in boys.

The influence of the body mass index (BMI) on selected parameters of the coagulation system in patients with disorders of the balance system taking oral contraceptives.

The objective of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on selected parameters of the coagulation system in patients with disorders of the balance system taking oral contraceptives.

Does Japanese Citrus Fruit Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) Fragrance Have Lavender-Like Therapeutic Effects That Alleviate Premenstrual Emotional Symptoms? A Single-Blind Randomized Crossover Study.

A majority of menstruating women experience some degree of regular recurrences of diverse symptoms-commonly known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS)-during the days before menstruation. Given the multifactorial etiology of PMS, no single treatment is universally recognized as effective, and many women turn to alternative modalities, including aromatherapy. The present study investigated therapeutic effects on premenstrual symptoms using fragrance from yuzu, a Japanese citrus fruit (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), and aromatherapy, from the perspective of autonomic nervous system function.


Body overweight and obesity were considered as a risk factor for many systemic diseases as diabetic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. The lipoic acid and Co Q are considered as coenzymes needed for enhancement metabolic rate. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-obese effect of lipoic acid alone or combined with Co-Q in rats.

Sleep Architecture and Blood Pressure.

Different stages of sleep are associated with significant variability in cardiovascular function, which is mediated by marked changes in balance between 2 components of the autonomic system: parasympathetic and sympathetic. Autonomic control of circulation is essential in ensuring an adequate blood flow to vital organs through constant adjustments of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and redistribution of blood flow. Fluctuations in components of the autonomic nervous system synchronize with electroencephalographic activity during arousal or different stages of sleep. As a result, these can lead to several cardiovascular consequences in those who have underlying heart disease or sleep-disordered breathing.

Changes in Adiposity and Body Composition during Anemia Recovery with Goat or Cow Fermented Milks.

To date, no studies are available about adipose tissue modifications during anemia recovery; therefore, the aim of this study is to provide detailed information about adipose tissue homeostasis during anemia recovery with fermented milks. Forty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days, divided in two groups (normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient diet). Then rats were fed fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with normal-Fe content during 30 days. Ghrelin and adiponectin decreased in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk, whereas leptin and NEFA increased. UCP-1 decreased in anemic rats fed either fermented milk, and irisin greatly increased in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk reduces adiposity, inducing leptin elevation and ghrelin reduction. Conversely, plasma adiponectin concentrations decreased in animals fed fermented goat milk, showing an inverse correlation with NEFA, an important marker of lipid mobilization, indicating increased lipolysis. Irisin up-regulation in animals fed fermented goat milk contributes to a favorable metabolic profile and the browning of adipose tissue during anemia recovery.

Measurement of temporomandibular joint space of patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

This research evaluated the morphological differences of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) between patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) and normal population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Cervical skeletal abnormalities in patients with palatally displaced canine.

To investigate the association between palatally displaced canines and cervical skeletal abnormalities by lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographs and cone-beam CT.

Fitting of the reconstructed craniofacial hard and soft tissues based on 2-D digital radiographs.

In this study, we reconstructed the craniofacial hard and soft tissues based on the data from digital cephalometric radiographs and laser scanning. The effective fitting of the craniofacial hard and soft tissues was performed in order to increase the level of orthognathic diagnosis and treatment, and promote the communication between doctors and patients.

Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism Val158Met and mammographic density: A meta-analysis.

The Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme reduces the methylation of catechol estrogens, which may affect mammographic density. High mammographic density is a known risk factor of breast cancer. Our aim was to perform meta-analysis of the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on mammographic density.

Sympathetic skin response and heart rate variability in predicting autonomic disorders in patients with Parkinson disease.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate sympathetic skin response (SSR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in determining autonomic nervous system (ANS) involvement in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Forty-eight idiopathic PD patients and 30 healthy controls participated in this study. SSR, HRV, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III, the Scales for outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT), Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scale were evaluated. Absent lower limb SSR was determined unilaterally in 2, bilaterally in 1 of 3 advanced PD patients; there was significant difference between PD and control groups in terms of the SSR (P < 0.01), significant prolonged SSR latencies and decreased SSR amplitudes from bilateral hands and feet. Significant difference was noted in HRV between PD and control groups except for root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) and high-frequency (HF) power (P < 0.05). There was a significant different correlation between the parameters of SSR and the SCOPA-AUT, and between the parameters (except HF power) of HRV and the SCOPA-AUT. Some parameters of SSR were relevantly associated with HRV. The right hand SSR amplitude correlated positively with the (SD) of all R-R interval, total spectral power, very low frequency. The right foot amplitude correlated positively with total spectral power. Both SSR and HRV parameters are sensitive in determining ANS dysfunction not only in late but also in the early stage of PD, which can be used for early detection of autonomic dysfunction in patients with PD and have the potential to serve as electrophysiological markers of dysautonomia of PD.

Identification of 4-Aminopyrazolopyrimidine Metabolite That May Contribute to the Hypolipidemic Effects of LY2584702 in Long Evans Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

LY2584702 is an inhibitor of p70 S6 kinase-1 previously developed for the treatment of cancer. In two phase 1 trials in oncology patients, significant reductions of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride were observed. In the current study, we sought to understand the potential mechanism of action of this compound in regulating lipid metabolism. In Long Evans diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, oral administration of LY2584702 for 3-4 weeks led to robust reduction of LDL-C up to 60%. An unexpected finding of liver triglyceride (TG) increase implicated a metabolite of LY2584702, 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-day]pyrimidine (4-APP), in modulation of lipid metabolism in these rats. We showed that low-dose 4-APP, when administered orally for 3-4 weeks to Long Evans DIO rats, produced lipoprotein profile changes that were strikingly similar to LY2584702. Kinetic studies suggested that both LY2584702 and 4-APP had no effect on chylomicron-TG secretion and only exerted a modest effect on hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG secretion. In human hepatoma HepG2 cells, 4-APP, but not LY2584702, increased LDL uptake. We hypothesize that generation of the 4-APP metabolite may contribute to the efficacy of LY2584702 in lowering LDL-C in rats and potentially in humans as well. This mechanism of LDL-C lowering may include inhibition of VLDL production and increase in LDL clearance.

Interaction between FTO rs9939609 and the Native American-origin ABCA1 rs9282541 affects BMI in the admixed Mexican population.

The aim of this study was to explore whether interactions between FTO rs9939609 and ABCA1 rs9282541 affect BMI and waist circumference (WC), and could explain previously reported population differences in FTO-obesity and FTO-BMI associations in the Mexican and European populations.

Ameliorative Effect of Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Extract on Renal Inflammation Associated with Aberrant Energy Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Immoderate fat accumulation causes both oxidative stress and inflammation, which can induce kidney damage in obesity. Previously, Ecklonia cava has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Our group aimed to investigate whether E. cava polyphenol extract (ECPE) improves renal damage in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice through regulation of not only energy metabolism but also oxidative stress and inflammation. After obesity induction by HFD, the mice were treated with different dosages of ECPE (100 or 500 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 12 weeks. ECPE treatment lowered the protein levels related to lipid accumulation (SREBP1c, ACC & FAS), inflammation (NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB, MCP-1, TNF-α & CRP), and oxidative stress (Nrf2, HO-1, MnSOD, NQO1, GPx, 4-HNE and protein carbonyls) in HFD induced obese mice. Moreover, ECPE supplementation significantly up-regulated renal SIRT1, PGC-1α, and AMPK, which are associated with renal energy metabolism. Consequently, the results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory roles of ECPE in obesity-induced renal inflammation.