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Radiotherapy Dosage - Top 30 Publications

Long-term Outcomes of a Dose-reduction Trial to Decrease Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Soft Tissue-matched Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.

We experienced an unexpected high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients undergoing image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using helical tomotherapy in our initial 2.2 Gy/fraction schedule for prostate cancer; hence, a dose-reduction trial from 2.2 Gy to 2 Gy/fraction was conducted using modified planning target volume (PTV) contouring.

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Primary and Metastatic Liver Disease.

The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment outcomes and toxicities in patients with liver disease treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT).

Reliable Radiation Technique to Minimize Ovarian Dose During Radiation Prophylaxis of Heterotopic Ossification.

Scattered radiation during radiotherapy (RT) directed at the hip joint poses concerns about ovarian function in patients of reproductive age. Here, we report the impact of using a split-beam technique (SBT) and different photon energies on the total ovary dose during radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification (HO).

Brachytherapy for Buccal Cancer: From Conventional Low Dose Rate (LDR) or Mold Technique to High Dose Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT).

To examine the effectiveness of newly-installed high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for buccal cancer.

Hypofractionated Nodal Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Was Not Associated With Increased Patient-Reported Arm or Brachial Plexopathy Symptoms.

To determine whether nodal radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer using modest hypofractionation (HF) with 2.25 to 2.5 Gy per fraction (fx) was associated with increased patient-reported arm symptoms, compared with conventional fractionation (CF) ≤2 Gy/fx.

High dose irradiation after pleurectomy/decortication or biopsy for pleural mesothelioma treatment.

The role played by radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication or surgical biopsy in malignant pleural mesothelioma is uncertain. We treated patients with accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy and intensity-modulated arc therapy in an attempt to keep lung toxicity to a minimum. The present study reports the feasibility and toxicity of this approach.

Dosimetric comparison of CT-guided iodine-125 seed stereotactic brachytherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy in the treatment of NSCLC.

This study aimed to assess the dosimetric differences between iodine-125 seed stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An SBT plan and an SBRT plan were generated for eleven patients with T1-2 NSCLC. Prescription of the dose and fractionation (fr) for SBRT was 48Gy/4fr. The planning aim for SBT was D90 (dose delivered to 90% of the target volume)≥120Gy. Student's paired t test was used to compare the dosimetric parameters. The SBT and SBRT plans had comparable PTV D90 (104.73±2.10Gyvs.107.64±2.29Gy), and similar mean volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100%) (91.65% vs.92.44%, p = 0.410). The mean volume receiving 150% of the prescribed dose (V150%) for SBT was 64.71%, whereas it was 0% for SBRT. Mean heterogeneity index (HI) deviation for SBT vs. SBRT was 0.73 vs. 0.19 (p<0.0001), and the mean conformity index (CI) for SBT vs. SBRT was 0.77 vs. 0.81 (p = 0.031). The mean lung doses (MLD) in SBT were significantly lower than those in SBRT (1.952±0.713 vs. 5.618±2.009, p<0.0001). In conclusion, compared with SBRT, SBT can generate a comparable dose within PTV, while the organs at risk (OARs) only receive a very low dose. But the HI and CI in SBT were lower than in SBRT.

Microdosimetric Evaluation of Current and Alternative Brachytherapy Sources-A Geant4-DNA Simulation Study.

Radioisotopes such as 75Se, 169Yb, and 153Gd have photon energy spectra and half-lives that make them excellent candidates as alternatives to 192Ir for high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of current (192Ir, 125I, 103Pd) and alternative (75Se, 169Yb, 153Gd) brachytherapy radionuclides using Monte Carlo simulations of lineal energy distributions.

Effect of age-dependent bone electron density on the calculated dose distribution from kilovoltage and megavoltage photon and electron radiotherapy in paediatric MRI-only treatment planning.

MRI-only treatment planning (TP) can be advantageous in paediatric radiotherapy. However, electron density extraction is necessary for dose calculation. Normally, after bone segmentation, a bulk density is assigned. However, the variation of bone bulk density in patients makes the creation of pseudo CTs challenging. This study aims to assess the effects of bone density variations in children on radiation attenuation and dose calculation for MRI-only TP.

Cervical cancer treated with reduced-volume intensity-modulated radiation therapy base on Sedlis criteria (NCCN VS RTOG).

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of different target volumes in pelvic radiotherapy in postoperative treatment of cervical cancer based on the Sedlis criteria.

Toward Personalized Dosimetry with 32P Microparticle Therapy for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

To develop a Monte Carlo model for patient-specific dosimetry of 32P microparticle localized internal radionuclide therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer.

Monte Carlo simulation of secondary neutron dose for scanning proton therapy using FLUKA.

Proton therapy is a rapidly progressing field for cancer treatment. Globally, many proton therapy facilities are being commissioned or under construction. Secondary neutrons are an important issue during the commissioning process of a proton therapy facility. The purpose of this study is to model and validate scanning nozzles of proton therapy at Samsung Medical Center (SMC) by Monte Carlo simulation for beam commissioning. After the commissioning, a secondary neutron ambient dose from proton scanning nozzle (Gantry 1) was simulated and measured. This simulation was performed to evaluate beam properties such as percent depth dose curve, Bragg peak, and distal fall-off, so that they could be verified with measured data. Using the validated beam nozzle, the secondary neutron ambient dose was simulated and then compared with the measured ambient dose from Gantry 1. We calculated secondary neutron dose at several different points. We demonstrated the validity modeling a proton scanning nozzle system to evaluate various parameters using FLUKA. The measured secondary neutron ambient dose showed a similar tendency with the simulation result. This work will increase the knowledge necessary for the development of radiation safety technology in medical particle accelerators.

Long-term Tumor Control and Late Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Hypofractionated (2.2 Gy) Soft-tissue-matched Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.

We report the long-term tumor control and toxicity outcomes of patients undergoing hypofractionated (2.2 Gy) image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using tomotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

Hypofractionated Postoperative IMRT in Prostate Carcinoma: A Phase I/II Study.

To report the outcome of hypofractionated radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer (PCa) using simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT).

Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy to the Resection Bed for Intracranial Metastases.

To retrospectively report the outcomes of a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with surgery and hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to the resection cavities of brain metastases (BMs).

Recommendations for the Optimal Radiation Dose in Patients With Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Report of the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group.

To determine the optimal radiation dose for treatment of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) with solitary or localized, multifocal or recurrent skin lesions.

Radiation dose to heart base linked with poorer survival in lung cancer patients.

Advances in radiotherapy (RT) have allowed an increased proportion of lung cancer patients to be treated curatively. High doses delivered to critical thoracic organs can result in excess mortality with tolerance doses poorly defined. This work presents a novel method of identifying anatomical dose-sensitive regions within the thorax.

Repair and time-dose factor: The example of spinal cord irradiation.

The question whether a reirradiation is possible, with either curative of palliative intent, is a frequent issue and a true therapeutic challenge, in particular for a critical organ sensitive to cumulative dose, such as the spinal cord. Preclinical experimental data, based on debatable models that are hardly transferable to patients, suggest that there is a possibility of reirradiation, beyond the classical threshold for dose constraints, taking into account the "time-dose factor". Although the underlying biological mechanisms are however uncertain, scarce clinical data seem to confirm that the tolerance of spinal cord to reirradiation does exist, provided that a particular attention to total dose is given. In the context where modern stereotactic irradiation facilities expand therapeutic perspectives, we review the literature on possibilities of reirradiation, through the example of spinal cord reirradiation.

Impact of radiation technique, radiation fraction dose, and total cisplatin dose on hearing : Retrospective analysis of 29 medulloblastoma patients.

To analyze the incidence and degree of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) resulting from different radiation techniques, fractionation dose, mean cochlear radiation dose (Dmean), and total cisplatin dose.

Lung dose constraints for normo-fractionated radiotherapy and for stereotactic body radiation therapy.

Radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is common after radiation therapy and represents cornerstone toxicities after treatment of thoracic malignancies. From a review of literature, the objective of this article was to summarize clinical and non-clinical parameters associated with the risk of RILD in the settings of normo-fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). For the treatment of lung cancers with a normo-fractionated treatment, the mean lung dose (MLD) should be below 15-20Gy. For a thoracic SBRT, V20Gy<10% and MLD<6Gy are recommended. One should pay attention to central tumors and respect specific dose constraints to the bronchial tree. The recent technological improvements may represent an encouraging way to decrease lung toxicities. Finally, our team developed a calculator in order to predict the risk of radiation pneumonitis.

Hypofractionated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) plus temozolomide in good prognosis patients with glioblastoma: a multicenter phase II study by the Brain Study Group of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO).

A multicenter phase II study for assessing the efficacy and the toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy with SIB plus temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma was carried out by the Brain Study Group of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology.

Low-dose-rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer in Low-resource Settings.

In areas with limited health care, it is important to identify and implement effective treatment methods and to optimize available resources. We investigated the implementation of a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy program for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in a low-resource setting such as Puerto Rico (PR), where PCa is the main cause of cancer-associated death.

Hypofractionated irradiation of prostate cancer: What is the radiobiological understanding in 2017?

For prostate cancer, hypofractionation has been based since 1999 on radiobiological data, which calculated a very low alpha/beta ratio (1.2 to 1.5Gy). This suggested that a better local control could be obtained, without any toxicity increase. Consequently, two types of hypofractionated schemes were proposed: "moderate" hypofractionation, with fractions of 2.5 to 4Gy, and "extreme" hypofractionation, utilizing stereotactic techniques, with fractions of 7 to 10Gy. For moderate hypofractionation, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used to calculate the equivalent doses of the new protocols. The available trials have often shown a "non-inferiority", but no advantage, while the equivalent doses calculated for the hypofractionated arms were sometimes very superior to the doses of the conventional arms. This finding could suggest either an alpha/beta ratio lower than previously calculated, or a negative impact of other radiobiological parameters, which had not been taken into account. For "extreme" hypofractionation, the use of the LQ model is discussed for high dose fractions. Moreover, a number of radiobiological questions are still pending. The reduced overall irradiation time could be either a positive point (better local control) or a negative one (reduced reoxygenation). The prolonged duration of the fractions could lead to a decrease of efficacy (because allowing for reparation of sublethal lesions). Finally, the impact of the large fractions on the microenvironment and/or immunity remains discussed. The reported series appear to show encouraging short to mid-term results, but the results of randomized trials are still awaited. Today, it seems reasonable to only propose those extreme hypofractionated schemes to well-selected patients, treating small volumes with high-level stereotactic techniques.

Optimization of radiotherapy fractionation schedules based on radiobiological functions.

To present a method for optimizing radiotherapy fractionation schedules using radiobiological tools and taking into account the patient´s dose-volume histograms (DVH).

The influence of plan modulation on the interplay effect in VMAT liver SBRT treatments.

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) uses multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, gantry speed, and dose rate to modulate beam fluence, producing the highly conformal doses required for liver radiotherapy. When targets that move with respiration are treated with a dynamic fluence, there exists the possibility for interplay between the target and leaf motions. This study employs a novel motion simulation technique to determine if VMAT liver SBRT plans with an increase in MLC leaf modulation are more susceptible to dosimetric differences in the GTV due to interplay effects. For ten liver SBRT patients, two VMAT plans with different amounts of MLC leaf modulation were created. Motion was simulated using a random starting point in the respiratory cycle for each fraction. To isolate the interplay effect, motion was also simulated using four specific starting points in the respiratory cycle. The dosimetric differences caused by different starting points were examined by subtracting resultant dose distributions from each other. When motion was simulated using random starting points for each fraction, or with specific starting points, there were significantly more dose differences in the GTV (maximum 100cGy) for more highly modulated plans, but the overall plan quality was not adversely affected. Plans with more MLC leaf modulation are more susceptible to interplay effects, but dose differences in the GTV are clinically negligible in magnitude.

Role of radiotherapy fractionation in head and neck cancers (MARCH): an updated meta-analysis.

The Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in squamous cell Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH) showed that altered fractionation radiotherapy is associated with improved overall and progression-free survival compared with conventional radiotherapy, with hyperfractionated radiotherapy showing the greatest benefit. This update aims to confirm and explain the superiority of hyperfractionated radiotherapy over other altered fractionation radiotherapy regimens and to assess the benefit of altered fractionation within the context of concomitant chemotherapy with the inclusion of new trials.

Microbeam radiation therapy - grid therapy and beyond: a clinical perspective.

Microbeam irradiation is spatially fractionated radiation on a micrometer scale. Microbeam irradiation with therapeutic intent has become known as microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). The basic concept of MRT was developed in the 1980s, but it has not yet been tested in any human clinical trial, even though there is now a large number of animal studies demonstrating its marked therapeutic potential with an exceptional normal tissue sparing effect. Furthermore, MRT is conceptually similar to macroscopic grid based radiation therapy which has been used in clinical practice for decades. In this review, the potential clinical applications of MRT are analysed for both malignant and non-malignant diseases.

Can the Day 0 CT-scan predict the post-implant scanning? Results from 136 prostate cancer patients.

Post-implant CT-scanning is an essential part of permanent prostate brachytherapy. However, the evaluation of post-implant CT dosimetry is not straightforward due to the edema that can modify the dose to the prostate and to the organs at risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the timing of the post-implant CT-scan on the dosimetric results and to verify if the Day 0 scan findings can predict Day 50 scanning.

Inter- and Intrafractional Variation in the 3-Dimensional Positions of Pancreatic Tumors Due to Respiration Under Real-Time Monitoring.

To quantify the 3-dimensional pancreatic tumor motion during the overall treatment course using real-time orthogonal kilovoltage X-ray imaging.