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Respiratory Tract Diseases - Top 30 Publications

The national cost of asthma among school-aged children in the United States.

Recent research has quantified the national health care resource use (HCRU) and health care expenditure (HCE) burden associated with adult asthma; however, estimates specific to school-aged children are more than 2 decades old.

Age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity score is associated with the risk of empyema in patients with COPD.

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher risk of pneumonia than the general population due to their impaired lung defense. They also have a higher risk of empyema and more comorbidities than patients without COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of empyema in patients with COPD after adjusting for age and comorbidities using the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI).Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database. COPD patients were defined as inpatients aged >40 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for COPD. In total, 558,660 COPD patients were enrolled and separated into 3 groups by ACCI score to represent the severity of comorbidity (≤2, 3-5, and >5). Other comorbidities assessed included autoimmune diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyslipidemia, chest wall injury, and thoracostomy.Of the 558,660 patients, 36,556 (6.54%) had low ACCI scores (≤2), 208,292 (37.28%) had moderate ACCI scores (3-5), and 313,812 (56.17%) had high ACCI scores (>5). The mean ages of the low, moderate, and high groups were 50.66, 70.62, and 78.05 years, respectively. The hazard ratio (HRs) for empyema were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.40) in the moderate ACCI group and 1.55 (95% CI = 1.39-1.72) in the high ACCI group compared with the low ACCI group. The overall incidence of empyema in COPD patients was 2.57 per 1000 person-years.This is the first study to use ACCI scores to analyze the risk of empyema in patients with COPD. Patients with high ACCI scores were older and had more complicated comorbidities, resulting in a higher risk of empyema and poor prognosis. The subgroup analysis indicated that COPD patients with comorbid autoimmune disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chest wall injury, or history of thoracostomy did not have a higher risk of empyema than patients without these comorbidities.Empyema is an important issue in patients with COPD and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the risk factors for empyema, close monitoring, and early intervention may improve patient outcomes and decrease mortality.

Clinical and diagnostic features of angiosarcoma with pulmonary metastases: A retrospective observational study.

Angiosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis is a rare, fatal disease that often presents with multiple pulmonary nodules and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. We herein review the detailed clinical characteristics of pulmonary metastatic angiosarcoma and determine a reasonable diagnostic strategy.The medical records of 11 patients with pulmonary angiosarcoma were reviewed.The mean age of the patients was 45.7 years (range, 30-71 years). All patients were male. The most common symptom was hemoptysis (8/11). Common initial misdiagnoses were tuberculosis (5/11), vasculitis (2/11), nontuberculous infectious disease (1/11), and constrictive pericarditis (1/11). Chest computed tomography (CT) of patients with hemoptysis showed bilateral, randomly distributed, variably shaped, and differently sized nodules, as well as ground-glass opacities (GGO) (8/11). The right heart was the most common primary tumor site (8/11), but the sensitivity of echocardiography was limited; CT angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed more atrial masses. CT-guided needle biopsy was difficult to perform in most patients because of the small size of the nodules. The diagnosis was made by surgical biopsy of either the lung (3/9) or heart (6/9). The median overall survival of patients who underwent lung biopsy and those who underwent cardiac/pericardiac biopsy was 4.1 and 1.4 months, respectively (P = .098). The median overall survival of the 9 available patients was 5.0 months (95% confidence interval, 0.500-8.544).Angiosarcoma with pulmonary metastases should be considered in patients with hemoptysis and concurrent GGO and nodules on their chest CT scan. Careful cardiologic monitoring is necessary for these patients, even without any cardiac symptoms or signs, and enhanced cardiac MRI is the first recommendation. Surgical biopsy is reliable for histological diagnosis, but the safety of the lung biopsy should be carefully assessed. When primary cardiac tumors are identified, heart biopsy should be preferentially considered.

Secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy caused by non-pleural or pulmonary tumors.

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by digital clubbing, periosteal reaction, polyarthralgia, arthritis, and synovitis. Herein, we report a case series of patients with secondary HOA caused by non-pleural or pulmonary tumors.The radiologic databases of 2 tertiary university hospitals were retrospectively screened for secondary HOA patients. In addition, a systemic review of the published case reports. Only HOA cases with non-pleural or pulmonary malignancies were involved into the study. HOA in primary pleural or pulmonary malignant or benign disorders, as well in inflammatory diseases were excluded. In all cases, plain radiography was performed and clinical signs were documented.In our databases, 6 patients with secondary HOA were identified. In addition, the systemic review yielded 24 eligible patients. The most prevalent primary tumors were nasopharyngeal carcinoma and esophageal cancer in 6 patients (20%), respectively. In 17 patients, (56.7%) HOA was associated with lung metastases, and in 10 patients (33.3%), no lung metastases were detected. In 14 patients (46.7%), HOA was symptomatically before a tumor diagnosis was made. Plain radiography displayed typically features with periostal enlargement in every case.This study is the first report about secondary HOA caused by non-pleural or pulmonary tumors. Various primary tumors were identified, including several rare tumors such as sarcomas. HOA is a rare disorder with typically radiologically findings, which is not only associated with lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma and can even occur in tumor patients without lung metastasis.

A case-control study of the association between self-reported occupational and recreational physical activity and lung cancer.

This case-control study with a Fujian population investigated whether self-reported occupational and recreational physical activity may be associated with lung cancer.The population comprised 1622 patients with newly diagnosed primary lung cancer and 1622 age- and gender-matched healthy controls.High-intensity occupational physical activity was associated with significantly higher risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.354, 95% CI: 1.068-1.717), especially nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (OR = 1.384, 95% CI: 1.087-1.762). Moderate or low intensity recreational physical activity was associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. The protective effect of recreational physical activity was observed in current or former smokers, but not never-smokers, and in subjects with normal or high BMI, but not low BMI, as well as people without a history of chronic lung disease. The frequency of recreational physical activity was associated with a linear reduction in the risk of lung cancer (P < .001), and also specifically nonsmall cell lung cancer (P < .001).Occupational and recreational physical activity was associated with different effects on the risk of lung cancer in a Fujian population. While recreational physical activity was associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, occupational physical activity was associated with increased risk of lung cancer.

Risk factors and the surgery affection of respiratory complication and its mortality after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

The aim of this study is to estimate the risk factors of both respiratory complication (RC) and mortality after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (TCSCI). Between July 2005 and July 2015, in 181 patients (142 males and 39 females; mean age 41.0 years) with acute TCSCI, we compared the difference and odds ratio in RC group (n = 73) with that of non-RC group (n = 108), and also death group (n = 15) and survival group (n = 166). We collected injury-related information after half a year of injury, which is as follows: the causes of injury, time of surgery, ICU (intensive care unit) days, ventilator days, ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) classification, neurological injury, CIPS (Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score), and BMI (body mass index). Besides these, we gathered the general information such as age, gender, smoking history, and use of steroids. The study compared perioperative parameters; surgery-related and instrumentation- and graft-related complication rates; clinical parameters; patient satisfaction; and radiologic parameters. Variations like gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.269, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.609-2.646]), smoking history (OR = 2.902, 95% CI [1.564-5.385]), AIS grade (grade A) (OR = 6.439, 95% CI [3.334-12.434]), neurological level (C1-C4) (OR = 2.714, 95% CI [1.458-5.066]), and steroid use (OR = 2.983, 95% CI [1.276-6.969]) have a facilitated effect on RC. When we estimated surgery-related affection, only the time of surgery and anterior approach compared with posterior has significant difference in RC (P < .05). Between death and survival group, the aspect of age, non-surgical, CPIS, AIS grade, and BMI have statistically significant difference. Survival analysis reveals significant difference in aforementioned groups. In patients suffering from acute TCSCI, those who are old, have long smoking history, complete spinal cord injury, C1-C4, high CPIS, and fat have high incidence of RC and mortality.

Update: Increase in Human Infections with Novel Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses During the Fifth Epidemic - China, October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017.

Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1). This report summarizes new viral and epidemiologic features identified during the fifth epidemic of Asian H7N9 in China and summarizes ongoing measures to enhance pandemic preparedness. Infections in humans and poultry were reported from most areas of China, including provinces bordering other countries, indicating extensive, ongoing geographic spread. The risk to the general public is very low and most human infections were, and continue to be, associated with poultry exposure, especially at live bird markets in mainland China. Throughout the first four epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections, only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were detected among human, poultry, and environmental specimens and samples. During the fifth epidemic, mutations were detected among some Asian H7N9 viruses, identifying the emergence of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses as well as viruses with reduced susceptibility to influenza antiviral medications recommended for treatment. Furthermore, the fifth-epidemic viruses diverged genetically into two separate lineages (Pearl River Delta lineage and Yangtze River Delta lineage), with Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses emerging as antigenically different compared with those from earlier epidemics. Because of its pandemic potential, candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) were produced in 2013 that have been used to make vaccines against Asian H7N9 viruses circulating at that time. CDC is working with partners to enhance surveillance for Asian H7N9 viruses in humans and poultry, to improve laboratory capability to detect and characterize H7N9 viruses, and to develop, test and distribute new CVV that could be used for vaccine production if a vaccine is needed.

Using Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy and Dye Injection to Aid in Video-Assisted Lung Resection.

Small (2 cm) peripheral lung lesions and ground glass opacities remain a difficult subset of lung lesions for the diagnosis and management of lung cancer. Surgical biopsy is more difficult for these lesions because intraoperative localization has to be made without the aid of direct visualization or manual palpation. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy can be used in the operating room to identify a small peripheral lesion and marked using an injection of methylene blue, which can be seen on the visceral pleura of the lung. We present our initial experience using this technique. The sample was eight patients who had peripheral lesions with an average size of 19 mm. Surgical wedge biopsy was diagnostic in all cases, with an average procedure time of 28 minutes. There were no complications from this procedure. In conclusion, these data suggest that electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy can be performed safely with high diagnostic accuracy by the operating thoracic surgeon, but further data are needed to establish its utility and safety.

Moving Upstream - Anti-TSLP in Persistent Uncontrolled Asthma.

Zoonotic Chlamydia caviae Presenting as Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Severe and Difficult-to-Treat Asthma in Adults.

Drug Treatment for Early-Stage COPD.

Airway Mucins in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Clinical Factors Associated With Chest Imaging Findings in Hospitalized Infants With Bronchiolitis.

Despite recommendations against routine imaging, chest radiography (CXR) is frequently performed on infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. We conducted a review of 811 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis to identify clinical factors associated with imaging findings. CXR was performed on 553 (68%) infants either on presentation or during hospitalization; 466 readings (84%) were normal or consistent with viral illness. Clinical factors significantly associated with normal/viral imaging were normal temperature (odds ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03-2.67) and normal oxygen saturation (odds ratio = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.1-2.83) on presentation. Afebrile patients with normal oxygen saturations were nearly 3 times as likely to have a normal/viral CXR as patients with both fever and hypoxia. Our findings support the limited role of radiography in the evaluation of hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis, especially patients without fever or hypoxia.

Screen Time Engagement Is Increased in Urban Children With Asthma.

Physical activity in children has been shown to play a role in its relationship to asthma, both in terms of prevalence and incidence. One measure of physical activity in children is sedentary behavior, which might be measured by the degree of engagement with media electronic screens. We found that children with asthma, as compared with children without asthma, engage in significantly more hours of screen time (median 35 vs 26 h/wk, P = .004). In this birth cohort, those who developed a diagnosis of asthma at 8 years of age were significantly more engaged in electronic screen time than their peers. No other clinical or lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with a diagnosis of asthma. Further study will be needed to determine directionality of this finding.

Robot-assisted Extracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Adrenal Metastases in Oligometastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with adrenal metastases in oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Correlation of Radiation Pneumonitis History Before Nivolumab with Onset of Interstitial Lung Disease and Progression-free Survival of Patients with Pre-treated Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Nivolumab has a promising efficacy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line or later treatment, and after radiotherapy as abscopal effect. However, the effects of radiation pneumonitis history before nivolumab have not been clarified. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the correlation of a history of radiation pneumonitis before nivolumab with onset of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and progression-free survival (PFS) after nivolumab treatment in patients with previously treated NSCLC.

Gefitinib Enhances Mitochondrial Biological Functions in NSCLCs with EGFR Mutations at a High Cell Density.

Gefitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and has been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with EGFR mutations. Here we demonstrated that gefitinib induced a significantly enhanced biological activity of succinate-tetrazolium reductase (STR) in mitochondria and mitochondrial membrane potential in HCC827 cells (EGFR mutation NSCLCs, sensitive to gefitinib) at a high cell density.

Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement.


Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that affects persons of all ages and is associated with millions of medical visits, hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations, and thousands of deaths during annual winter epidemics of variable severity in the United States. Elderly persons have the highest influenza-associated hospitalization and mortality rates. The primary method of prevention is annual vaccination. Early antiviral treatment has the greatest clinical benefit; otherwise, management includes adherence to recommended infection prevention and control measures as well as supportive care of complications.

Therapeutic Mechanism of Glucocorticoids on Cellular Crescent Formation in Patients With Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease.

This study aimed to explore the therapeutic mechanism of glucocorticoids (GCs) in antiglomerular basement membrane disease.

Predictive Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Tuberculous Pleural Effusion in Patients With Cancer and Pleural Effusion.

Patients with cancer are at an increased risk of tuberculosis. As pleural effusion has great clinical significance in patients with cancer, the differential diagnosis between tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is important. However, the predictive factors and treatment outcomes of TPE in patients with cancer have rarely been studied.

Effect of Prepregnancy Pertussis Vaccination in Young Infants.

Maternal antibodies to pertussis can hamper infant immune responses to pertussis vaccines. The effect a maternal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster between 2 consecutive pregnancies is investigated.

Does treating obstructive sleep apnea improve control of Tx-resistant hypertension?

Maybe. Treating obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure is associated with decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 3 to 5 mm Hg in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. The clinical significance of this small decrease hasn't been evaluated, however.

Periorbital ecchymoses and breathlessness.

A 54-year-old man presented at our facility with a 3-month history of exertional breathlessness and purple blotches around his eyes. Examination revealed bilateral periorbital and perioral ecchymosis, purpuric spots along his waist, and waxy papules on his eyelids. In addition, the patient had macroglossia with nodular infiltration and irregular indentations at the lateral margin of his tongue. The patient also had a raised jugular venous pressure and prominent atrial and ventricular waves. Further examination revealed a fourth heart sound over the left ventricular apex, as well as bilateral basal rales. All other systems were normal except for mild hepatomegaly. Routine hematologic and biochemical lab work was unremarkable. X-rays of the spine and skull were normal, but a chest x-ray showed mild cardiomegaly. An electrocardiogram showed a QS complex from leads V1 to V4 (a pseudo-infarction pattern). An echocardiogram showed biatrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 48%, a speckled pattern on the myocardium, a thickened interatrial septum, and mild pericardial effusion. A color Doppler revealed mild mitral and tricuspid regurgitation with a restrictive pattern of mitral valve flow. Serum protein electrophoresis was normal. WHAT IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS? HOW WOULD YOU TREAT THIS PATIENT?

Latest recommendations for the 2017-2018 flu season.

This season's vaccine has a new H1N1 component and any vaccine, except the live attenuated virus formulation, is suitable for pregnant women.

Surgery for a fracture of the hip within 24 hours of admission is independently associated with reduced short-term post-operative complications.

We aimed to characterise the effect of expeditious hip fracture surgery in elderly patients within 24 hours of admission on short-term post-operative outcomes.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid complicated by papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report and brief literature review.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involves mainly the skin and bone and rarely the thyroid. Meanwhile, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer. Both LCH and PTC could make the thyroid enlarged and hypermetabolic. The coincidence of these 2 events in a patient is rare, and this paper aimed to report such case.

Prognostic value of metabolic variables of 18FFDG PET/CT in surgically resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden measured by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma.We reviewed 127 consecutive patients with pathologically proven stage I lung adenocarcinoma who underwent pretreatment [18F]FDG PET/CT scans in our hospital from 2005 June to 2012 June. The maximum, mean, and peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and computed tomography volume (CTV) were measured. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards model were used with age, gender, TNM stage, clinical stage, histological grade, nodule type, tumor size, and metabolic parameters to predict progression-free survival (PFS). The cut-off point was determined through receiver-operating characteristic curve.In univariate analysis, the histological grade, nodule type, diameter (cut-off value of 2.0 cm), CTV (6.56 cm), SUVmax (3.25 g/mL), SUVmean (1.58 g/mL), SUVpeak (1.84 g/mL), MTV (4.80 cm), and TLG (10.40) were significantly associated with PFS (all P value < .05). Patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, solid nodule type, large size, and high metabolic tumor burden were associated with poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, only histological grade was independent prognostic factors for progression with a P value of .005 (RR, 0.355; 95% CI, 0.173-0.728). Among 5 PET/CT metabolic parameters, only MTV was independent prognostic factors for progression with a P value of .031 (RR, 1.118; 95% CI, 1.010-1.237).Histological grade was an independent predictor for progression in patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma. Among 5 PET/CT metabolic parameters, only MTV was an independent predictor for progression.

The influence of inhaled corticosteroid discontinuation in children with well-controlled asthma.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that requires adherence to both preventative and therapeutic interventions in disease management. Children with asthma are likely to discontinue inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), especially when symptoms are under control. We aimed to investigate the impact of ICS adherence in children whose symptoms were under control.The study is cohort study; 35 children with controlled asthma that had undergone 3 years of follow-up were included. Serum eosinophil count, serum total IgE (tIgE), and lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, FEF20-75%, and PC20) were evaluated at the beginning and end of the follow-up.At baseline, patients in both the adherent and nonadherent groups were similar. After 3 years, the nonadherent group who had discontinued ICS had a decrease in FEV1 (P < .05), FEV1/FVC (P < .05), PEF (P < .05), and FEF20-75% (P < .05). The nonadherent group had no significant improvement in PC20 compared with their values at the beginning of the follow-up, whereas the adherent group had improvement in PC20. Furthermore, there was an increase in serum eosinophil (P < .001) and tIgE (P < .05) in the nonadherent compared with the adherent group.Despite good asthma control, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was detected in a large proportion of children with asthma. ICS discontinuation affected lung function, serum eosinophil count, tIgE, and AHR. Adequate adherence is important in asthma management. The benefits of ICS and the influence of drug discontinuation despite good asthma control may encourage better adherence from patients.