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Respiratory Tract Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Surveillance for Silicosis Deaths Among Persons Aged 15-44 Years - United States, 1999-2015.

Silicosis is usually a disease of long latency affecting mostly older workers; therefore, silicosis deaths in young adults (aged 15-44 years) suggests acute or accelerated disease.* To understand the circumstances surrounding silicosis deaths among young persons, CDC analyzed the underlying and contributing causes(†) of death using multiple cause-of-death data (1999-2015) and industry and occupation information abstracted from death certificates (1999-2013). During 1999-2015, among 55 pneumoconiosis deaths of young adults with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) code J62 (pneumoconiosis due to dust containing silica),(§) 38 (69%) had code J62.8 (pneumoconiosis due to other dust containing silica), and 17 (31%) had code J62.0 (pneumoconiosis due to talc dust) listed on their death certificate. Decedents whose cause of death code was J62.8 most frequently worked in the manufacturing and construction industries and production occupations where silica exposure is known to occur. Among the 17 decedents who had death certificates listing code J62.0 as cause of death, 13 had certificates with an underlying or a contributing cause of death code listed that indicated multiple drug use or drug overdose. In addition, 13 of the 17 death certificates listing code J62.0 as cause of death had information on decedent's industry and occupation; among the 13 decedents, none worked in talc exposure-associated jobs, suggesting that their talc exposure was nonoccupational. Examining detailed information on causes of death (including external causes) and industry and occupation of decedents is essential for identifying silicosis deaths associated with occupational exposures and reducing misclassification of silicosis mortality.

HPV16 E6/E7 upregulates HIF-2α and VEGF by inhibiting LKB1 in lung cancer cells.

Long-term persistent infection of HPV16 E6/E7 is frequently associated with lung cancers, especially in non-smokers and in Asians. However, molecular mechanisms of HPV16 E6/E7 induction of lung cancer are not fully understood. Using bi-directional genetic manipulation and four well-established lung cancer cell lines, we showed HPV16 E6/E7 downregulated expression of liver kinase B1 at both protein and messenger RNA levels; liver kinase B1 downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α at protein level but not at messenger RNA level, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor at both protein and messenger RNA levels. This is the first study to show hypoxia-inducible factor 2α as a downstream effector of liver kinase B1 in lung cancer cells. Our results indicate that HPV16 E6/E7 indirectly upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by inhibition of liver kinase B1 expression and upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α expression, thus propose a human papillomavirus-liver kinase B1-hypoxia-inducible factor 2α-vascular endothelial growth factor axis for the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. Our study also provides new evidence to support the critical role of liver kinase B1 in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-related lung cancer and suggests novel therapeutic targets.

High expression of SLC34A2 is a favorable prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Dysregulation of SLC34A2 (NaPi2b) in tumors has attracted wide attention, but its expression and function in non-small cell lung cancer remains unclear. By examining its expression in lung adenocarcinoma and correlation to patient outcome, we aimed to explore its prognostic and therapeutic values in this deadly disease. Overall, 175 cases of lung adenocarcinoma sample were included in this study. Histological subtyping of them was diagnosed according to standards of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society in 2011. Protein expression of SLC34A2 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase in these samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were examined using amplification refractory mutation system. Statistical analysis was performed using software of Pearson's correlation coefficient. High expression of SLC34A2 was identified in about 2/3 patients and correlated with significantly better patient's overall survival. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were detected in about 53% of patients with no statistically significant difference to patient's overall survival. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement was found in 8 out of 175 patients, harboring this abnormality leads to shorter overall survival. No correlation has been found between SLC34A2 expression and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma. High expression of SLC34A2 is present in about 3/4 lung adenocarcinoma samples and predicts better outcome. Since it is a membrane protein, antibody-based drugs targeting this marker might bring new resolution to this deadly disease.

Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in Adults: A Review.

Asthma affects about 7.5% of the adult population. Evidence-based diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment can improve functioning and quality of life in adult patients with asthma.

Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children.

Epidemiological studies support a link between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and a higher risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections. However, whether winter supplementation of vitamin D reduces the risk among children is unknown.

Association of Changing Hospital Readmission Rates With Mortality Rates After Hospital Discharge.

The Affordable Care Act has led to US national reductions in hospital 30-day readmission rates for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. Whether readmission reductions have had the unintended consequence of increasing mortality after hospitalization is unknown.

Screening of specific nucleic acid aptamers binding tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients and identification of their activities.

Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnostic methods, the status of early detection was not achieved. So, a new diagnostic method is needed. The aim of this study is to obtain the highly specific nucleic acid aptamers with strong affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients for targeting the serum. Aptamers specifically binding to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients were screened from the random single-stranded DNA library with agarose beads as supports and the serum as a target by target-substituting subtractive SELEX technique and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Subsequently, the secondary single-stranded DNA library obtained by 10 rounds of screening was amplified to double-stranded DNA, followed by high-throughput genome sequence analysis to screen aptamers with specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Finally, six aptamers obtained by 10 rounds of screening were identified with high specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Compared with other five aptamers, the aptamer 43 was identified both with the highest specificity to bind target molecule and without any obvious affinity to non-specific proteins. The screened aptamers have relatively high specificity to combine tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients, which provides breakthrough points for early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

HBXIP suppression reduces cell proliferation and migration and its overexpression predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that the high expression of HBXIP has been correlated with many cancers. With evaluation of the functional role of HBXIP in non-small-cell lung cancer, the primary aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between HBXIP expression and the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients. The protein levels of HBXIP were detected using western blotting in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Cell proliferation and migration assays were measured to evaluate the function of HBXIP in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. A total of 120 non-small-cell lung cancer patients with strict follow-up and 60 adjacent non-tumor lung tissues were selected for immunohistochemical staining of the HBXIP protein. The localization of the HBXIP protein was detected in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cells using immunofluorescence staining. The correlation between HBXIP expression and the clinicopathological features of non-small-cell lung cancer patients was analyzed by a chi-squared and Fisher's exact test. The overall survival rates of all of the non-small-cell lung cancer patients were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. In function, we showed that suppression of HBXIP decreased A549 cell proliferation and migration. HBXIP protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic staining pattern in non-small-cell lung cancer using immunohistochemical staining in paraffin-embedded non-small-cell lung cancer tissues and immunofluorescence staining in A549 cells. The HBXIP protein had strong positive staining in the non-small-cell lung cancer tissues, which was significantly higher than the percentage of adjacent non-tumor tissues. The overexpression of HBXIP was closely correlated with histological grade, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and lower overall survival rates of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Moreover, multivariate analysis suggested that HBXIP emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor along with clinical stage in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. In conclusion, a high level of expression of HBXIP is associated with the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer and may be a useful biomarker for poor prognostic evaluation and a potential molecular therapy target for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

Community acquired pneumonia incidence before and after proton pump inhibitor prescription: population based study.

Objective To examine the risk of community acquired pneumonia before and after prescription of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and assess whether unmeasured confounding explains this association.Design Cohort study and self controlled case series.Setting Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1990 to 2013) in UK.Participants Adult patients with a new prescription for a PPI individually matched with controls.Main outcome measures Association of community acquired pneumonia with PPI prescription estimated by three methods: a multivariable Cox model comparing risk in PPI exposed patients with controls, corrected for potential confounders; a self controlled case series; and a prior event rate ratio (PERR) analysis over the 12 month periods before and after the first PPI prescription.Results 160 000 new PPI users were examined. The adjusted Cox regression showed a risk of community acquired pneumonia 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 1.79) times higher for patients exposed to PPI than for controls. In the self controlled case series, among 48 451 PPI exposed patients with a record of community acquired pneumonia, the incidence rate ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.25) in the 30 days after PPI prescription but was higher in the 30 days before a PPI prescription (1.92, 1.84 to 2.00). The Cox regressions for prior event rate ratio similarly showed a greater increase in community acquired pneumonia in the year before than the year after PPI prescription, such that the analysis showed a reduced relative risk of pneumonia associated with PPI use (prior event rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.99).Conclusion The association between the use of PPIs and risk of community acquired pneumonia is likely to be due entirely to confounding factors.

Risk of severe pulmonary embolism in cancer patients receiving bevacizumab: Results from a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data.

To evaluate the association between severe pulmonary embolism events and bevacizumab, we conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating the incidence and risk of pulmonary embolism associated with bevacizumab-based therapy. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to September 2016 for randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab with no bevacizumab on cancer patients. Incidence rates, relative risks, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. The primary end point was the association of bevacizumab with pulmonary embolism. Subgroup analyses were performed according to tumor type, dose, and publication status. In total, 23 randomized controlled trials were included. For patients receiving bevacizumab, the overall incidence of severe pulmonary embolism events was 1.76% (95% confidence interval = 1.25%-2.27%). Cancer patients treated with bevacizumab did not increase the risk of pulmonary embolism events (relative risk = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.80-1.25). No significant differences in pulmonary embolism incidence or risk among subgroup analyses were observed. No evidence of publication bias was observed. This study suggested that bevacizumab may not increase the risk of pulmonary embolism in cancer patients.

Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 degradation induced by NEDD4 promotes acquired erlotinib resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, is a critical issue in the treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutant-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Recent evidence suggests that downregulation of gene of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 plays an important role in acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various types of cancers, including lung cancer. It was reported that the E3 ubiquitin ligase neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene (NEDD4) (also known as NEDD4-1) negatively regulated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 protein levels through poly-ubiquitination and proteolysis in carcinomas of the prostate, lung, and bladder. Whether this process plays a role in epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer has not been studied extensively. In view of this, we investigated the involvement of NEDD4 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 in acquired erlotinib resistance with tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive (HCC827) or tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant (Erlotinib-resistant HCC827/ER cells which harbored exon 19 deletion. Overexpression of NEDD4 in HCC827/ER cells was detected, and the reverse correlation between NEDD4 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 expression in these cells was also revealed. In HCC827/ER cells with knockdown of NEDD4, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 and p-Akt expressions were decreased; the sensitivity of HCC827/ER cells to erlotinib was partially restored. Similar results were also observed in vivo. In H1650/ER cells harboring both exon 19 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 deletion, expression of p-Akt and sensitivity to erlotinib were not affected by simple knockdown of NEDD4 but affected after transfection of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 into H1650/ER cells. Our results demonstrate that NEDD4 may promote the acquired resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer cells to erlotinib by decreasing phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 protein expression. Targeted decrease in NEDD4 expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy for tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies.

Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening.

Antibiotics for acute respiratory infections in general practice: comparison of prescribing rates with guideline recommendations.

To compare the current rate of antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Australian general practice with the recommendations in the most widely consulted therapeutic guidelines in Australia (Therapeutic Guidelines).

Correlation of iodine uptake and perfusion parameters between dual-energy CT imaging and first-pass dual-input perfusion CT in lung cancer.

To investigate the potential relationship between perfusion parameters from first-pass dual-input perfusion computed tomography (DI-PCT) and iodine uptake levels estimated from dual-energy CT (DE-CT).The pre-experimental part of this study included a dynamic DE-CT protocol in 15 patients to evaluate peak arterial enhancement of lung cancer based on time-attenuation curves, and the scan time of DE-CT was determined. In the prospective part of the study, 28 lung cancer patients underwent whole-volume perfusion CT and single-source DE-CT using 320-row CT. Pulmonary flow (PF, mL/min/100 mL), aortic flow (AF, mL/min/100 mL), and a perfusion index (PI = PF/[PF + AF]) were automatically generated by in-house commercial software using the dual-input maximum slope method for DI-PCT. For the dual-energy CT data, iodine uptake was estimated by the difference (λ) and the slope (λHU). λ was defined as the difference of CT values between 40 and 70 KeV monochromatic images in lung lesions. λHU was calculated by the following equation: λHU = |λ/(70 - 40)|. The DI-PCT and DE-CT parameters were analyzed by Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis, respectively.All subjects were pathologically proved as lung cancer patients (including 16 squamous cell carcinoma, 8 adenocarcinoma, and 4 small cell lung cancer) by surgery or CT-guided biopsy. Interobserver reproducibility in DI-PCT (PF, AF, PI) and DE-CT (λ, λHU) were relatively good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]Inter = 0.8726-0.9255, ICCInter = 0.8179-0.8842; ICCInter = 0.8881-0.9177, ICCInter = 0.9820-0.9970, ICCInter = 0.9780-0.9971, respectively). Correlation coefficient between λ and AF, and PF were as follows: 0.589 (P < .01) and 0.383 (P < .05). Correlation coefficient between λHU and AF, and PF were as follows: 0.564 (P < .01) and 0.388 (P < .05).Both the single-source DE-CT and dual-input CT perfusion analysis method can be applied to assess blood supply of lung cancer patients. Preliminary results demonstrated that the iodine uptake relevant parameters derived from DE-CT significantly correlated with perfusion parameters derived from DI-PCT.

Cardiac metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism: A case report.

Cardiac metastasis is known as a rare complication of head and neck malignancy.

Association of Positive Airway Pressure With Cardiovascular Events and Death in Adults With Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Sleep apnea (obstructive and central) is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk factors and increased risks of cardiovascular disease. Positive airway pressure (PAP) provides symptomatic relief, whether delivered continuously (CPAP) or as adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), but the associations with cardiovascular outcomes and death are unclear.

Enhanced Influenza Surveillance Using Telephone Triage and Electronic Syndromic Surveillance in the Department of Veterans Affairs, 2011-2015.

Telephone triage (TT) is a method whereby medical professionals speak by telephone to patients to assess their symptoms or health concerns and offer advice. These services are often administered through an electronic TT system, which guides TT professionals during the encounter through the use of structured protocols and algorithms to help determine the severity of the patients' health issue and refer them to appropriate care. TT is also an emerging data source for public health surveillance of infectious and noninfectious diseases, including influenza. We calculated Spearman correlation coefficients to compare the weekly number of US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) TT calls with other conventional influenza measures for the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons, for which there were a total of 35 666 influenza-coded TT encounters. Influenza-coded calls were strongly correlated with weekly VA influenza-coded hospitalizations (0.85), emergency department visits (0.90), influenza-like illness outpatient visits (0.92), influenza tests performed (0.86), positive influenza tests (0.82), and influenza antiviral prescriptions (0.89). The correlation between VA-TT and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national data for weekly influenza hospitalizations, influenza tests performed, and positive influenza tests was also strong. TT correlates well with VA health care use and CDC data and is a timely data source for monitoring influenza activity.

Pancreatic-pleural fistula in children: a rare cause of great abundant pleurisy.

Pancreatic-pleural fistula is a very rare complication of false cysts of the pancreas. Our study aimed to describe this rare pathology affecting children. We emphasized the importance of evoking this diagnosis in the presence of great abundant pleurisy even in the absence of the digestive signs. We here report the case of a 2-year old child with false cyst of the pancreas complicated by pleural fistula detected after great abundant pleurisy with no digestive signs associated.

Imaging of complicated frontal sinusitis.

Complications occur in 3% of the cases of frontal sinusitis. These are mainly oculo-orbital, intracranial and osteomyelitis. Our aim is to describe the contribution of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis of these complications and their post-treatment monitoring. within a 15 years period (2000-2014), 10 patients with complicated frontal sinusitis were included into this retrospective study. 10 patients (9 males) aged 9 to 70 year old (mean 28). Two of these patients (20%) had a history of craniofacial trauma. Frontal headache was present in all cases (100%), frontal swelling in 8 cases (80%) and unilateral palpebral edema in 3 cases (30%). A CT scan of the face and brain was performed in all cases and revealed frontal osteomyelitis in 6 cases (60%), extradural empyema in 3 cases (33%), intracranial frontal abscess in 2 cases (20%) and occulo-orbital complications in 3 cases (30%). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in one patient and demonstrated thrombosis of the upper longitudinal sinus. 40% of our patients associated 2 complications. Cross-sectional imaging is important in early and accurate diagnosis of complicated frontal sinusitis.

Evaluation of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer for cell count and screening of malignant cells of serous cavity effusion.

Over the years, with the advancement in hematology analyzer technology, the use of fluid analysis method has seen a drastic increase in clinical examinations. Cell counting and classification in independent body fluid analysis method are conducted by semiconductor laser flow cytometry and nucleic acid fluorescence staining techniques. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in cell counting and to screen malignant cells with serous cavity effusion. Specimens (N = 206) with serous cavity effusion from our hospital were included in this study. Manual and instrumental methods for cell counting, nucleated cell classification, and high-fluorescent cells (HFC) were used in this study. The correlation between RBC, nucleated cell count (NUC), the percentages of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN%), and mononuclear cells (MN%) was statistically analyzed using manual and instrumental methods. The regression equations of RBC, NUC, PMN%, and MN% in the manual and instrumental methods were RBC y = 0.88x + 426.4; NUC y = 0.85x + 33.4; PMN% y = 0.91x + 4.2; and MN% y = 0.91x + 5.1. Correlation coefficient R was 0.99, 0.98, 0.90, and 0.90 (P < .001). ROC curve analysis showed that when the cut-off value of HFC% was 4.4% and HFC# was 24.5/μL, area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence interval were 0.707, 0.792, 0.558, 0.637-0.777; 0.708, 0.753, 0.550, 0.635-0.780, respectively. XN-1000 hematology analyzer body fluid method can accurately and rapidly count cell and nucleated cell classification with serous cavity effusion. HFC can indicate the possible existence of malignant cells; however, further investigations are required to validate its efficacy.

Microarray expression profile of circular RNAs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but debilitating and life-threatening complication of acute pulmonary embolism. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), presenting as covalently closed continuous loops, are RNA molecules with covalently joined 3'- and 5'-ends formed by back-splicing events. circRNAs may be significant biological molecules to understand disease mechanisms and to identify biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of circRNAs in CTEPH.

Nivolumab-induced myasthenia gravis in a patient with squamous cell lung carcinoma: Case report.

Nivolumab (Nivo) is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been used to treat advanced melanoma, nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma since 2015. Nivo is associated with several side effects, including hepatitis, pneumonitis, acute renal failure, endocrine disorder, and other immune-related adverse events. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old man with squamous cell lung carcinoma who developed myasthenia gravis (MG) after a third Nivo infusion.

Breast liposarcoma with solitary metastasis to the pleura: A case report.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women worldwide. Our patient presented with a history of breast liposarcoma (LPS) and was found to have pleural metastasis during the initial workup.

Overlap syndrome of COPD and OSA in Koreans.

Overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. There have been no reports available on the overlap syndrome for Koreans. Our primary aim was to identify prevalence and predictors of the overlap syndrome in Koreans.This is a cross-sectional study with a community-based sample of 1298 participants (mean age, 59.7 ± 6.7) from the cohort of Korean Genomic and Epidemiologic Study during 2013 to 2014. OSA and COPD were assessed by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC < 70%), respectively, based on polysomnography and spirometry measurements. Using logistic regression with adjustment for the confounders identified by univariate analysis, odds ratio (OR) was estimated with 95% confidence interval (CI) of COPD among those with OSA.The prevalence rate of OSA was 45.8%, of which 32.8% were moderate-to-severe (AHI ≥ 15); 10.8% of those having OSA also had COPD, that is, the overlap syndrome. The prevalence of COPD remained the same as 10.8% regardless of the presence of OSA. The mean ratio of FEV1/FVC for those with COPD was 0.77, regardless of OSA. The OR increased for age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and smokers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4), but decreased for body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9) and overweight state (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Risk factors of the overlap syndrome differed by OSA severity, that is, BMI in those with moderate-to-severe OSA, whereas sex (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.6) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) in those with mild OSA.In a population study from Korea, 10.8% of OSA patients had an overlap syndrome with COPD. Although BMI is a well-known risk factor of OSA, it is likely that being overweight may be protective for moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the risk of COPD (i.e., overlap syndrome).

PD-1 Blockade in Mediastinal Gray-Zone Lymphoma.

Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain.

Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8) for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study), the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma: case report and review of literature.

Laryngeal cancer metastases are relatively rare and mainly affect the lung. The medullary localization remains exceptional. We report the case of a patient followed for operated laryngeal cancer and whose oncologic control revealed a medullary localization. A patient followed for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, treated in 2010 by a partial surgery whose endoscopic control at 5 years revealed the presence of right arytenoid edema without suspicious lesions, multiple biopsies were made and which returned negative. A month later, the patient presented a rebel cervical spine pain and a feeling of heaviness of the upper limbs, for which a radiological assessment was done finally objectifying a right hypopharyngeal process and a suspicious right internal jugular lymphadenopathy (biopsy confirmed the squamous type), as well as an intramedullary metastasis. This case is an illustration of an exceptional evolution of this type of cancer and a are metastatic localization difficult to highlight, which leads us to ask the question on the need of simultaneous and systematic radiological and endoscopic control treatment for operated laryngeal cancer.

Neuron-specific enolase, histopathological types, and age as risk factors for bone metastases in lung cancer.

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high metastatic ability and bone is the most common site of distant metastasis of it. However, the independent risk factors for bone metastases of lung cancer remain largely to be elucidated. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the correlation between clinical-pathological parameters, serum levels of neuron-specific enolase and CYFRA21-1, and bone metastases in lung cancer patients. The results revealed that patients with bone metastases were younger than those without metastases. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent type of histopathology in patients with bone metastases. And the incidence of bone metastasis in patients with adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than those with other histopathological subtypes ( p < 0.001). Furthermore, the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase was significantly higher in patients with bone lesions than those without bone metastases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients' age (odds ratio = 1.024, p < 0.001), concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (odds ratio = 1.212, p = 0.004), and histopathological types (odds ratio = 0.995, p = 0.001) were the independent risk factors for bone metastases in patients with lung cancer. Thus, physicians should pay attention to these factors in order to identify bone metastasis earlier while patient was primarily diagnosed as having lung cancer.

Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of choice of effective empiric antibiotic therapy.

<b>Introduction.</b> Multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients has become one of the most hazardous pathogens in health care settings. The aim of the study was to analyze pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in patients hospitalized because of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), who were admitted to the Pulmonology Ward of the Masovian Specialistic Hospital in Radom (MSS). The incidence and drug sensitivity of these non-fermenting rods were evaluated, and compliance with antimicrobial procedure with the algorithm of the guidelines in applicable recommendations, was estimated. This should result in determining the local patterns of resistance and verifying therapeutic procedures in accordance with the assumptions of hospital antibiotic policy. In addition, the study examined the effectiveness of empiric and targeted therapy according to the clinical condition of the patient, and the eradication of A. baumannii, in comparison with the aggravating factors of the patient. <b>Materials and Method.</b> The retrospective study included 90 patients with exacerbation of COPD whose etiological factor of infection was A. baumannii, hospitalized in the Department of Pulmonology (MSS) in 2012-2016. <b>Results.</b> Studies were conducted on 90 patients with COPD exacerbation from which A. baumannii was isolated. Co-infections with other bacterial species among 41 patients were additionally noted. The majority of A. baumannii strains showed a high resistance (90%) to fluoroquinolones, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam. For strains causing a co-infection, drug resistance was successively 44-56%, 44%, 44%. All of patients received empirical therapy. The most commonly used drug was amoxicillin with a clavulanic acid, often combined with fluoroquinolone. This type of therapy was effective among 10% of patients. The mortality in this group was determined at 29%. Among 79% of patients with COPD, a targeted therapy was performed which proved to be effective in 58% of treated cases by susceptibility testing. The highest efficacy was observer after the use of colistin and carbapenems. <b>Conclusion.</b> In the performed study, the infections caused by multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, were observed in COPD, which should be taken into consideration in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy. Simultaneously, the local resistance patterns of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative strains co-infecting COPD should be considered in empirical treatment. Moreover, both additional clinical complication and co-infections contribute to a more severe course of diseases. In this study, the mortality percent exceeded 29%.

The quality of life of farmers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

<b>Introduction and objective.</b> COPD is a medical state characterized by chronically poor airflow, and typically worsens over time. Farmers have an increased risk of COPD because of being exposed to ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic dust, and organic dust. The quality of life of the ill depends on biomedical as well as psychosocial factors, the impact of which has not been a frequent subject of studies among COPD patients. The aim of the study was to indicate the factors that have negative and positive influence on the quality of life of farmers suffering from COPD. <b>Materials and method.</b> The study was conducted among 84 farmers treated for COPD in the Department of Pneumology, Oncology and Allergology of the Medical University in Lublin, Poland. The differences between the farmers concerned: severity of the disease, level of education and income, frequency of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol, kinds of support they receive from their families, and the level of depression and anxiety experienced by the patients. <b>Results.</b> The study revealed that most patients suffered from depressive and anxiety disorders, and the level of depression higher among the patients who smoked more. Lack of family support had significant influence on exacerbation of the patient's depressive and anxiety symptoms. Patients who had recently experienced a critical situation presented with more severe COPD symptoms, lower quality of life and a higher level of depression. Higher income of the patients had positive influence on their quality of life. Farmers addicted to alcohol suffered from a higher level of anxiety.