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Respiratory Tract Diseases - Top 30 Publications

First-Line Nivolumab in Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Nivolumab has been associated with longer overall survival than docetaxel among patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In an open-label phase 3 trial, we compared first-line nivolumab with chemotherapy in patients with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive NSCLC.

Hypermethylation of adjacent CpG sites is negatively correlated with the expression of lineage oncogene ASCL1 in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.

Achaete-scute homolog 1 is a lineage oncogene of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Due to the relatively few studies investigating the epigenetic regulation of achaete-scute homolog 1 expression, we wanted to address whether DNA methylation of the achaete-scute homolog 1 CpG island is associated with clinicopathological features in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and to investigate its effect on the expression of this gene. Here, We performed multiplex immunohistochemistry (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA) to check for achaete-scute homolog 1 and Notch homolog 1 expression in 139 pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor samples. Quantitative measurements of achaete-scute homolog 1 CpG island methylation were conducted using the MassARRAY EpiTYPER (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). The correlation between immunohistochemistry data, methylation data, and clinicopathological information was analyzed. Achaete-scute homolog 1 methylation levels were increased in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors compared to those in normal controls (0.107 vs 0.061, p < 0.001), and among the achaete-scute homolog 1 CpG island, only CpG_6 and CpG_7.8 showed higher methylation levels in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (0.208 and 0.135, respectively) compared to those in normal lung tissues (0.072 and 0.087, respectively; p < 0.001). Moreover, the methylation level of CpG_6.7.8 was higher in patients with stage I pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors than in patients with stage II/III pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (0.19 ± 0.16 vs 0.14 ± 0.07, p = 0.012). The hypermethylation of CpG_6.7.8 showed an inverse correlation with achaete-scute homolog 1 protein expression (r = -0.408, p = 0.007, Spearman test). Finally, we found that CpG_6.7.8 of the achaete-scute homolog 1 CpG island is frequently hypermethylated in early-stage pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, and this aberrant hypermethylation is negatively correlated with achaete-scute homolog 1 expression in this tumor spectrum.

Effects of massage therapy on anxiety, depression, hyperventilation and quality of life in HIV infected patients: A randomized controlled trial.

HIV infection is often preceded or accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities. These disorders improve with complementary therapies. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of massage therapy on anxiety, depression, hyperventilation and quality of life in HIV infected patients.

Achaete-scute complex homologue-1 promotes development of laryngocarcinoma via facilitating the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation.

Laryngeal cancer is one of the most common fatal cancers among head and neck carcinomas, whose mechanism, however, remains unclear. The proneural basic-helix-loop-helix protein achaete-scute complex homologue-1, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family, plays a very important role in many cancers. This study aims to explore the clinical value and mechanism of achaete-scute complex homologue-1 in laryngeal cancer. Methods including Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assays, and scratch assay were adopted to further explore the bio-function of achaete-scute complex homologue-1, whose expression was examined in fresh and paraffin chip of laryngeal carcinoma tissues by means of western blot and immunohistochemistry, after the interference of achaete-scute complex homologue-1; achaete-scute complex homologue-1, an overexpression in laryngeal carcinoma whose carcinogenicity potential was confirmed via western blot, was correlative with T classification (p = 0.002), histological differentiation (p = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.000), and poor survival (p = 0.000). Multivariate analysis shows that achaete-scute complex homologue-1 overexpression is an independent prognostic factor unfavorable to laryngeal carcinoma patients (p = 0.000). Moreover, knocking down achaete-scute complex homologue-1 expression could significantly suppress the proliferation, migration, and invasion of laryngeal carcinoma cell in vitro and disorder epithelial-mesenchymal transformation-associated protein expression. Achaete-scute complex homologue-1 plays an important role in the genesis and progression of laryngeal carcinoma and may act as a potential biomarker for therapeutic target and prognostic prediction.

Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to the effect of extracellular acidosis on proliferation and migration of A549 cells.

Acid-sensing ion channels, a proton-gated cation channel, can be activated by low extracellular pH and involved in pathogenesis of some tumors such as glioma and breast cancer. However, the role of acid-sensing ion channels in the growth of lung cancer cell is unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of acid-sensing ion channels in human lung cancer cell line A549 and their possible role in proliferation and migration of A549 cells. The results show that acid-sensing ion channel 1, acid-sensing ion channel 2, and acid-sensing ion channel 3 are expressed in A549 cells at the messenger RNA and protein levels, and acid-sensing ion channel-like currents were elicited by extracellular acid stimuli. Moreover, we found that acidic extracellular medium or overexpressing acid-sensing ion channel 1a promotes proliferation and migration of A549 cells. In addition psalmotoxin 1, a specific acid-sensing ion channel 1a inhibitor, or acid-sensing ion channel 1a knockdown can abolish the effect of acid stimuli on A549 cells. In addition, acid-sensing ion channels mediate increase of [Ca(2+)]i induced by low extracellular pH in A549 cells. All these results indicate that acid-sensing ion channel-calcium signal mediate lung cancer cell proliferation and migration induced by extracellular acidosis, and acid-sensing ion channels may serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for lung cancer.

Treatment outcome comparisons between exons 19 and 21 EGFR mutations for non-small-cell lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion after first-line and second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Recent studies demonstrated a significantly increased frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of first-line and second-line EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of NSCLC with MPEs harboring exon 19 deletion and L858R mutation. From 2010 to 2015, 203 NSCLC patients with MPEs harboring EGFR mutation treated with EGFR-TKIs were reviewed. The efficacy were evaluated with Pearson chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) for patients treated with first-line and second-line EGFR-TKIs were 21.9%, 91.4% and 14.7%, 85.3%, respectively. The overall median PFS and OS of enrolled NSCLC patients with MPE were 9.3 months (95% CI, 8.4-10.2 months), 20.9 months (95% CI, 18.9-22.9 months) after first-line TKIs, and 7.6 months (95% CI, 6.6-8.6 months), 15.3 months (95% CI, 13.6-15.9 months) after second-line TKIs. The exon 19 deletion arm had a longer median PFS (9.4 vs 7.1 months, p=0.003) and OS (16.8 vs 13.8 months, p=0.003) compared with the L858R mutation arm after second-line TKIs. In a conclusion, EGFR genotype was an independent predictor of PFS and OS. No significant side effects differences between the two mutation groups was observed for first or second-line EGFR-TKIs. This study demonstrated that EGFR mutations are significant predictors for advanced NSCLC patients with MPE receiving second-line EGFR-TKIs treatment.

High expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 is predictive of lymphovascular invasion and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 have been shown to play oncogenic role individually. This study aimed to determine the combinatorial role of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 was detected in resected tumor samples from 185 patients with lung adenocarcinoma at stage I-IIIa by immunohistochemistry. Correlations of their immunoscores with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survival were retrospectively investigated. A three-dimensional capillary-like sprouting model was established to assess the effects of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 on angiogenesis in vitro. The results revealed that expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 was elevated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. The high co-expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 was significantly correlated with tumor size, tumor status, nodal status, tumor stage, and lymphovascular invasion, as well as decreased disease-specific survival. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio: 0.205, 95% confidence interval: 0.086-0.491, p < 0.0001) and co-expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 (hazard ratio: 0.293, 95% confidence interval: 0.168-0.510, p < 0.0001) were independent indicators of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, Notch1 enhanced the effects of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 to promote angiogenesis by regulating Flt1 and Flt4 in vitro. In conclusion, co-expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 is associated with tumor progression and lymphovascular invasion and is an independent indicator of poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma. In lung adenocarcinoma patients with high C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 expression, simultaneous inhibition of both factors might be an effective treatment strategy.

Children with Cough and Fever: Up-to-date Imaging Evaluation and Management.

Cough and fever in infants and children are frequent but nonspecific symptoms. Several usual differential diagnoses are under consideration and imaging is often necessary to help arrive at an accurate diagnosis and ensure proper management. A broad spectrum of underlying disorders may be present. Radiologists must remain cognizant of the potential for immune dysfunction and underlying structural abnormalities. A clear understanding of up-to-date imaging evaluation recommendations and characteristic imaging features can assist radiologists and clinicians in arriving at the most accurate diagnosis in a timely manner and help ensure proper management and necessary follow-up imaging assessment.

Respiratory Distress in Neonates: Underlying Causes and Current Imaging Assessment.

The imaging evaluation of the neonate in respiratory distress has been described since the most early days of pediatric radiology but advances in diagnosis and treatment have changed the patient population presenting with these conditions and altered the imaging findings. In this article, the range of conditions that cause neonatal respiratory distress is depicted, including congenital lung malformations and lung disease in both preterm and full-term infants. An updated approach to the imaging of these conditions is reviewed, with a focus on changes that have resulted from advances in treatment and diagnosis.

Vital Signs: Health Care-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Surveillance Data from 20 States and a Large Metropolitan Area - United States, 2015.

Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, is typically acquired through inhalation of aerosolized water containing Legionella bacteria. Legionella can grow in the complex water systems of buildings, including health care facilities. Effective water management programs could prevent the growth of Legionella in building water systems.

Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Case 17-2017. A 14-Year-Old Boy with Acute Fear of Choking while Swallowing.

Assessment of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume in children with epistaxis.

This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and epistaxis in children.

Ultrasonographic assessment of tonsillar volume in children.

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children is the most common anatomical abnormality associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. Perioperative complications associated with adenotonsillectomy are more common in children with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. An objective preoperative method to determine the size of tonsils is missing. This study assessed the validity of ultrasound as a tool for measuring tonsillar size in children.

Epidemiological and economic impact of pandemic influenza in Chicago: Priorities for vaccine interventions.

The study objective is to estimate the epidemiological and economic impact of vaccine interventions during influenza pandemics in Chicago, and assist in vaccine intervention priorities. Scenarios of delay in vaccine introduction with limited vaccine efficacy and limited supplies are not unlikely in future influenza pandemics, as in the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. We simulated influenza pandemics in Chicago using agent-based transmission dynamic modeling. Population was distributed among high-risk and non-high risk among 0-19, 20-64 and 65+ years subpopulations. Different attack rate scenarios for catastrophic (30.15%), strong (21.96%), and moderate (11.73%) influenza pandemics were compared against vaccine intervention scenarios, at 40% coverage, 40% efficacy, and unit cost of $28.62. Sensitivity analysis for vaccine compliance, vaccine efficacy and vaccine start date was also conducted. Vaccine prioritization criteria include risk of death, total deaths, net benefits, and return on investment. The risk of death is the highest among the high-risk 65+ years subpopulation in the catastrophic influenza pandemic, and highest among the high-risk 0-19 years subpopulation in the strong and moderate influenza pandemics. The proportion of total deaths and net benefits are the highest among the high-risk 20-64 years subpopulation in the catastrophic, strong and moderate influenza pandemics. The return on investment is the highest in the high-risk 0-19 years subpopulation in the catastrophic, strong and moderate influenza pandemics. Based on risk of death and return on investment, high-risk groups of the three age group subpopulations can be prioritized for vaccination, and the vaccine interventions are cost saving for all age and risk groups. The attack rates among the children are higher than among the adults and seniors in the catastrophic, strong, and moderate influenza pandemic scenarios, due to their larger social contact network and homophilous interactions in school. Based on return on investment and higher attack rates among children, we recommend prioritizing children (0-19 years) and seniors (65+ years) after high-risk groups for influenza vaccination during times of limited vaccine supplies. Based on risk of death, we recommend prioritizing seniors (65+ years) after high-risk groups for influenza vaccination during times of limited vaccine supplies.

Seeing the Forest through the Phylogenetic Tree.

Spiraling Out of Control.

False positive 18FDG PET-CT results due to exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to oily drug inhalation: A case report.

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare condition due to abnormal presence of oily substances in the lungs. It is a rarely known cause for false positive FDG PET-CT results and can sometimes lead to invasive investigations. Searching and finding the source of the oily substance is one of the keys to the diagnosis. Inhalation of oily drugs during snorting has rarely been described.

The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects.

Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery.A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery.The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients.Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery.

Ophthalmoplegia associated with lung adenocarcinoma in a patient with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: A case report.

The Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a neuromuscular disease; its unique symptoms of LEMS include dry mouth with a metallic taste, constipation, and erectile dysfunction. As it is quite rare, isolated ocular muscle impairment associated with LEMS east to ignore.

Disparities in infant hospitalizations in Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in Quebec, Canada.

Infant mortality is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous populations, but comparable data on infant morbidity are lacking in Canada. We evaluated disparities in infant morbidities experienced by Indigenous populations in Canada.

Evidence of elemene injection combined radiotherapy in lung cancer treatment among patients with brain metastases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

This review evaluates the effectiveness and safety of elemene injection combined radiotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer with brain metastases.

Occupational asthma compensation in the Tunisian Center: cross-sectional study over a period of eight years.

Our study aimed to highlight the epidemiological profile of patients compensated for occupational asthma in the Tunisian Center, to identify their professional characteristics and to determine compensation practices for this occupational disease.

Management of spontaneous pneumothorax: about 138 cases.

Pneumothorax is a collection of air in the pleural cavity. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax in the Department of Pneumology at the Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (2009-2011) with the aim to determine the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, therapeutic and evolutionary manifestation of spontaneous pneumothorax. The study involved 138 patients: 128 men and 10 women (17-83 years), with an average age of 44.5 +/- 17.4 years and sex ratio of 12/8. 81.2% of patients were smokers. Clinical symptomatology was chest pain (92%), dyspnea (60%). Chest radiograph showed total unilateral (110 cases); partial (10 cases); localized (6 cases); bilateral (4 cases); right (51.4%) or left (45.7%) PNO (pneumothorax). During our study period we found that 70% of patients had spontaneous primitive pneumothorax and 30% had PNO secondary to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (44%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (39%). Initial management included patients hospitalization, chest drainage (95%), needle exsufflation (1%), rest and O2 (4%). It enables the lung to stick to the chest wall within 10 days in 63% of patients. Evolution was favorable in 89% of patients. Immediate complications included: subcutaneous emphysema (5 cases); infection (6 cases) and 3 deaths (cardiorespiratory arrest). Late complications included: recurrences in 11.6%; the first recurrence occurred in 13 cases (chest drainage in 11 cases and oxygen therapy in 2 cases) while the second recurrence occurred in 3 cases (surgery). This study shows the role of chest drainage and monitoring in the management of pneumothorax to avoid complications and especially to prevent recurrences, with a possible need to resort to surgery.

Antibiotic prescription strategies and adverse outcome for uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infections: prospective cough complication cohort (3C) study.

Objective To assess the impact on adverse outcomes of different antibiotic prescribing strategies for lower respiratory tract infections in people aged 16 years or more.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting UK general practice.Participants 28 883 patients with lower respiratory tract infection; symptoms, signs, and antibiotic prescribing strategies were recorded at the index consultation.Main outcome measures The main outcomes were reconsultation with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection in the 30 days after the index consultation, hospital admission, or death. Multivariable analysis controlled for an extensive list of variables related to the propensity to prescribe antibiotics and for clustering by doctor.Results Of the 28 883 participants, 104 (0.4%) were referred to hospital for radiographic investigation or admission, or both on the day of the index consultation, or were admitted with cancer. Of the remaining 28 779, subsequent hospital admission or death occurred in 26/7332 (0.3%) after no antibiotic prescription, 156/17 628 (0.9%) after prescription for immediate antibiotics, and 14/3819 (0.4%) after a prescription for delayed antibiotics. Multivariable analysis documented no reduction in hospital admission and death after immediate antibiotics (multivariable risk ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.81, P=0.84) and a non-significant reduction with delayed antibiotics (0.81, 0.41 to 1.64, P=0.61). Reconsultation for new, worsening, or non-resolving symptoms was common (1443/7332 (19.7%), 4455/17 628 (25.3%), and 538/3819 (14.1%), respectively) and was significantly reduced by delayed antibiotics (multivariable risk ratio 0.64, 0.57 to 0.72, P<0.001) but not by immediate antibiotics (0.98, 0.90 to 1.07, P=0.66).Conclusion Prescribing immediate antibiotics may not reduce subsequent hospital admission or death for young people and adults with uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection, and such events are uncommon. If clinicians are considering antibiotics, a delayed prescription may be preferable since it is associated with a reduced number of reconsultations for worsening illness.

Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice chronically infected by Schistosoma mansoni.

We used a murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (SM) infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxicity to investigate if these conditions can interact to modify the pathological manifestations typically observed in each condition. Swiss mice were randomized into four groups: SAL, uninfected; SM, infected; LPS, uninfected + LPS; and SM + LPS, infected + LPS. S. mansoni infection developed over 120 days, after which blood samples and lungs were collected, peritoneal leukocytes were isolated and cultivated for 6 and 24 h after LPS inoculation (1 mL/kg). Infected animals presented marked granulomatous inflammation. LPS exposure transiently modified the profile of leucocyte migration into the lung tissue and increased NO production by isolated leukocytes, without inducing any acute effect on the structure of schistosomiasis granulomas. Beyond modifying lung morphology, S. mansoni and LPS interacted to modulate the circulating levels of cytokines. S. mansoni infection restricted INF-γ upregulation 6 and 24 h after LPS administration. Conversely, 24 h after inoculation, LPS increased IL-2 and IL-5 levels. Our findings indicate that LPS impaired the lung microenvironment by acutely disrupting inflammatory homeostatic mechanisms that control lung schistosomiasis. As schistosomiasis develops as a chronic condition, long-term exposure to endotoxins could aggravate the granulomatous process, an issue that requires further investigation.

The association between ambient inhalable particulate matter and the disease burden of respiratory disease: An ecological study based on ten-year time series data in Tianjin, China.

There is limited evidence available worldwide about the quantitative relationship between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10µm (PM10) and years of life lost (YLL) caused by respiratory diseases (RD), especially regarding long-term time series data. We investigated the quantitative exposure-response association between PM10 and the disease burden of RD. We obtained the daily concentration of ambient pollutants (PM10, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide), temperature and relative humidity data, as well as the death monitoring data from 2001 to 2010 in Tianjin. Then, a time series database was built after the daily YLL of RD was calculated. We applied a generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the burden of PM10 on daily YLL of RD and to determine the effect (the increase of daily YLL) of every 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10 on health. We found that every 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10 was associated with the greatest increase in YLL of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.23) years at a 2-day (current day and previous day, lag01) moving average PM10 concentration for RD. The association between PM10 and YLL was stronger in females and the elderly (≥65 years of age). The association between PM10 and YLL of RD differed according to district. These findings also provide new epidemiological evidence for respiratory disease prevention.

Use of a Digital Health Application for Influenza Surveillance in China.

To examine whether a commercial digital health application could support influenza surveillance in China.

You're the Flight Surgeon.

Milner MR. You're the flight surgeon: an unusual case of pharyngitis. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):439-442.

Osimertinib in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.