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Respiratory Tract Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Effect of Azithromycin on Airflow Decline-Free Survival After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: The ALLOZITHRO Randomized Clinical Trial.

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Previous studies have suggested that azithromycin may reduce the incidence of post-lung transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

Comment to "Intraoperative apnea in children after buffered 5% povidone-iodine site sterilization for strabismus surgery".

All That Wheezes….

Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to identify the clinical symptoms and physical examination findings associated with pneumonia to improve timely diagnosis, prevent significant morbidity, and limit antibiotic overuse.

Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy and the assessment of the cytotoxic impact of some benzimidazole derivatives.

Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy is one of the major strategy of increasing cytotoxicity of bioreductive agents. This research intended to examine new selected benzimidazole derivatives as a substrate for nitroreductase, the enzyme involved in nitroreduction which is responsible to the production of cytotoxic metabolites. In this way, the selectivity and strength of cytotoxicity can be raised. The effect of benzimidazoles on virus transfected cells and non-virus transfected cells A549 cell line was established by Annexin V + propidium iodide test, western blot, and polymerase chain reaction analysis of specific pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the corresponding gene expression and additionally nitroreductase gene expression. Our results proved the pro-apoptotic properties of all tested compounds in normoxia and hypoxia, especially according to virused A549 cells where the time of exposition was reduced from 48 to 4 h. In this shorten period of time, the strongest activity was shown by N-oxide compounds with nitro-groups. The apoptosis was confirmed by generation of BAX gene and protein and reduction of BCL2 gene and protein.

Recuperating lung decoction attenuates inflammation and oxidation in cigarette smoke-induced COPD in rats via activation of ERK and Nrf2 pathways.

Oxidative/antioxidative imbalance and chronic inflammation are the main contributors to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the effect of recuperating lung decoction (RLD) on inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with COPD induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We used intravenous infusion of LPS combined with cigarette smoke exposure as a COPD rat model. We observed that RLD treatment increased the protein level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG but decreased 8-OHdG and 4-HNE in the serum. Furthermore, RLD significantly inhibited the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β induced by cigarette smoke exposure, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and alleviated the severity of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Mechanistically, RLD treatment prevented disease through downregulation of phosphorylated-ERK and Nrf2 expression, which regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. RLD treatment exerted a dramatic therapeutic effect on COPD. This study revealed a mechanism that RLD functions on the regulation of ERK signalling to inhibit inflammation.

Patient attitudes towards community-based tuberculosis DOT and adherence to treatment in an urban setting; Kampala, Uganda.

High Tuberculosis treatment default rate (17%) and sub-optimal treatment completion rates (45%) has burdened Kampala. Nevertheless, there are observable increase in the number of patients on TB DOT; from 6% to 29% in two consecutive annual reports. The main objective was to determine the association of TB patient attitudes towards community-based observers on the TB drug adherence on directly observed treatment for TB in Kampala.

Ulcerative colitis with acute pleurisy: A case report and review of the literature.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, are associated with a large number of extraintestinal manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations are infrequently seen in patients with IBD. Moreover, serositis including pleural and pericardial manifestations in UC is rare.

Alveolar recruitment maneuver attenuates extravascular lung water in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

The alveolar recruitment maneuver (RM) has been reported to improve oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may be related to reduced extravascular lung water (EVLW) in animals. This study was designed to investigate the effects of RM on EVLW in patients with ARDS.

Decreasing incidence and mortality among hospitalized patients suffering a ventilator-associated pneumonia: Analysis of the Spanish national hospital discharge database from 2010 to 2014.

The aim of this study was to describe trends in the incidence and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) among hospitalized patients in Spain (2010-2014).This is a retrospective study using the Spanish national hospital discharge database from year 2010 to 2014. We selected all hospital admissions that had an ICD-9-CM code: 997.31 for VAP in any diagnosis position. We analyzed incidence, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, procedures, pathogen isolations, and hospital outcomes.We identified 9336 admissions with patients suffering a VAP. Incidence rates of VAP decreased significantly over time (from 41.7 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2010 to 40.55 in 2014). The mean Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was 1.08 ± 0.98 and it did not change significantly during the study period. The most frequent causative agent was Pseudomonas and there were not significant differences in the isolation of this microorganism over time. Time trend analyses showed a significant decrease in in-hospital mortality (IHM), from 35.74% in 2010 to 32.81% in 2014. Factor associated with higher IHM included male sex, older age, higher CCI, vein or artery occlusion, pulmonary disease, cancer, undergone surgery, emergency room admission, and readmission.This study shows that the incidence of VAP among hospitalized patients has decreased in Spain from 2010 to 2014. The IHM has also decreased over the study period. Further investigations are needed to improve the prevention and control of VAP.

The immediate effect of facial candling on inflammatory mediators, substance P, symptoms severity, and quality of life in allergic rhinitis patients: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Asian countries have a variety of ethnic groups and culture that provide their own traditional treatment in health care. Facial candling appears to be one of the popular traditional treatments in Southeast Asian. The complementary medicine practitioners promote that the facial candling treatment would help in reducing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and other problems related to sinus. Due to the lack of evidence available, the effectiveness of this treatment method and its mechanism, however, remains unknown. The objective of this research is therefore to study impact of facial candling on inflammatory mediators, substance P (SP), symptoms severity, and quality of life (QoL) in allergic rhinitis patients.

Assessment of cytomegalovirus and cell-mediated immunity for predicting outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

The clinical importance of pulmonary cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is uncertain. We therefore determined the association of CMV infection with outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP by assessing CMV viral load and CMV-specific T-cell response.We prospectively enrolled all non-HIV-infected patients with confirmed PCP, over a 2-year period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction from bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to measure CMV viral load, and CMV enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood were used to measure CMV-specific T-cell responses. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.A total of 76 patients were finally analyzed. The mortality in patients with high BAL CMV viral load (>2.52 log copies/mL, 6/32 [18%]) showed a nonsignificant trend to be higher than in those with low CMV viral load (2/44 [5%], P = .13). However, the mortality in patients with low CMV-specific T-cell responses (<5 spots/2.0 × 10 PBMC, 6/29 [21%]) was significantly higher than in patients with high CMV-specific T-cell response (2/47 [4%], P = .048). Moreover, the 2 strata with high CMV viral load and low CMV-specific T-cell responses (4/14 [29%]) and low CMV viral load and low CMV-specific T-cell responses (2/15 [13%]) had poorer outcomes than the 2 strata with high CMV viral load and high CMV-specific T-cell responses (2/18 [11%]) and low CMV viral load and high CMV-specific T-cell responses (0/29 [0%]).These data suggest that the CMV replication and impaired CMV-specific T-cell responses adversely affect the outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP.

All That Wheezes...

Ventilation in Extremely Preterm Infants and Respiratory Function at 8 Years.

Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvements in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy during the newborn period and in lung function at 8 years of age in children whose birth was extremely premature.

Phase II Study of the Efficacy and Safety of High-dose Pemetrexed in Combination with Cisplatin Versus Temozolomide for the Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Brain Metastases.

The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of high-dose pemetrexed with cisplatin versus combination with temozolomide in patients with brain metastases (BM) of lung adenocarcinoma. After standard whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT, 30 Gy/10 fractions), patients with BM of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were given high-dose pemetrexed (900 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of each cycle (3 weeks), and cisplatin was administered on days 1-3 in the cisplatin-treated group. The temozolomide-treated group was treated as follows: 75 mg/m(2) temozolomide orally with concurrent WBRT followed by 150 mg/m(2) temozolomide on days 1-5 with high-dose pemetrexed (900 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of each cycle (3 weeks). Six cycles later, high-dose pemetrexed (900 mg/m(2)) monotherapy or the best available supportive therapy was administered to both groups. An evaluation was carried out every 2-3 cycles. The primary end-points were objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points included safety and tolerability. Thirty-two patients in the pemetrexed plus cisplatin (PC) group and 28 patients in the pemetrexed plus temozolomide (PT) group were enrolled from November 2013 to October 2015. The ORR was 68.8% and 75%, in the PC and PT groups, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p=0.711). The median PFS rates of the PC and PT groups were 13.6 months and 16.9 months, respectively, and the median OS rates of the PC and PT groups were 18.9 months and 19.3 months, respectively. There were no differences in PFS and OS between the two groups. There were no grade 4 or higher side-effects in either group, but grade 3 side-effects such as leucopenia (2/32, 6.3%), nausea/vomiting (2/32, 6.3%), alopecia (1/32, 3.1%), rash (3/32, 9.4%) and renal insufficiency (1/32, 3.1%) were observed in the PC group, whereas the PT-group-only showed the following grade 3 side-effects: leucopenia (1/28, 3.6%) and nausea/vomiting (2/28, 7.1%). The data showed that the PT group achieved the same efficacy in PFS and OS as the PC group but with fewer toxicities. Therefore, high-dose pemetrexed plus temozolomide may be a better regimen for treating NSCLC with BM due to its better safety.

Efficacy and Safety of Nab-Paclitaxel as Second-line Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced and Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

To investigate the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line chemotherapy.

Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Elderly Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Complicated with Hyponatremia: A Retrospective Analysis.

This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of elderly small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients complicated with hyponatremia, thus providing increased attention for appropriate intervention and improving outcomes in symptomatic subjects.

Relationship of Th17/Treg Cells and Radiation Pneumonia in Locally Advanced Esophageal Carcinoma.

Radiation pneumonia is a main side-effect that has limited the clinical usage of radiotherapy in locally advanced esophageal carcinoma. T helper cells 17 (Th 17) and T regulatory cells (Tregs) play an important role in inflammatory diseases. The balance between Treg and Th17 cells is a key factor in the progression of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Whether Tregs and Th17 cells are predictive factors of radiation pneumonia has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the relationships of Treg/Th17 cells and radiation pneumonia in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who received radiotherapy.

Better Clinical Efficiency of TILs for Malignant Pleural Effusion and Ascites than Cisplatin Through Intrapleural and Intraperitoneal Infusion.

To evaluate the clinical efficiency of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compared to cisplatin for malignant pleural effusion and ascites through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion.

Application of Ultrasound-guided Core Needle Biopsy in the Diagnosis of T3 or T4 Stage Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer.

To study the value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of T3 or T4 stage laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, which is difficult by routine methods.

Application of Serum ELAVL4 (HuD) Antigen Assay for Small Cell Lung Cancer Diagnosis.

The ELAVL4 (HuD) is a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein expressed in 100% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells and over 50% of neuroblastoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum HuD concentration in SCLC patients and the possibility of its utilization as a biomarker of small cell lung cancer.

Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Enhances Proliferation of NKT Cells Derived from Patients with Laryngeal Cancer.

The aim of this study was to analyze whether inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by celecoxib and the subsequent enhancement in the proliferation of natural killer T (NKT) cells could play a role in dendritic cell (DC)-based laryngeal cancer (LC) immunotherapy.

Influenza: A Global Perspective.

Influenza is a common respiratory illness in children and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. Inactivated and live influenza vaccines are approved for children and are safe and efficacious. The absolute effectiveness of vaccines varies by year and is influenced by several factors. The reason for recent reduced performance of live-attenuated influenza vaccines is poorly understood, and active research is ongoing. Vaccination programs are less common in tropical and subtropical countries, where unique logistical and feasibility challenges exist. Antiviral medications for prevention and treatment of influenza in children are an important adjunct to vaccines.

Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be used to prioritize management actions and develop educational campaigns.

Surveillance for Silicosis Deaths Among Persons Aged 15-44 Years - United States, 1999-2015.

Silicosis is usually a disease of long latency affecting mostly older workers; therefore, silicosis deaths in young adults (aged 15-44 years) suggests acute or accelerated disease.* To understand the circumstances surrounding silicosis deaths among young persons, CDC analyzed the underlying and contributing causes(†) of death using multiple cause-of-death data (1999-2015) and industry and occupation information abstracted from death certificates (1999-2013). During 1999-2015, among 55 pneumoconiosis deaths of young adults with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) code J62 (pneumoconiosis due to dust containing silica),(§) 38 (69%) had code J62.8 (pneumoconiosis due to other dust containing silica), and 17 (31%) had code J62.0 (pneumoconiosis due to talc dust) listed on their death certificate. Decedents whose cause of death code was J62.8 most frequently worked in the manufacturing and construction industries and production occupations where silica exposure is known to occur. Among the 17 decedents who had death certificates listing code J62.0 as cause of death, 13 had certificates with an underlying or a contributing cause of death code listed that indicated multiple drug use or drug overdose. In addition, 13 of the 17 death certificates listing code J62.0 as cause of death had information on decedent's industry and occupation; among the 13 decedents, none worked in talc exposure-associated jobs, suggesting that their talc exposure was nonoccupational. Examining detailed information on causes of death (including external causes) and industry and occupation of decedents is essential for identifying silicosis deaths associated with occupational exposures and reducing misclassification of silicosis mortality.

Can patients with femoral neck fracture benefit from preoperative thromboprophylaxis?: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

The effectiveness of preoperative thromboprophylaxis remains obscure in patients with femoral neck fracture. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether these patients benefit from preoperative thromboprophylaxis.

Acute pancreatitis induced by etoposide-lobaplatin combination chemotherapy used for the treatment of lung cancer: A case report and literature review.

Drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is a rare type of pancreatitis that is not usually observed in the clinical practice. It is generally difficult to distinguish from acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by other causes.

Effects of somatostatin/octreotide treatment in neonates with congenital chylothorax.

The influence of somatostatin/octreotide treatment on outcomes of neonates with congenital chylothorax remains controversial. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with somatostatin/octreotide therapy in neonates with this very rare disease.Fourteen neonates with congenital chylothorax who were treated with somatostatin (3.5-7 μg/kg/h, before 2016) or octreotide (1-6 μg/kg/h, after January 2016), along with traditional management between 2013 and 2016, were retrospectively reviewed in this observational study. Their daily volumes of pleural drainage and parameters of respiratory support were recorded, and the potential side effects of somatostatin/octreotide were screened.Four patients (28.6%) had a unilateral presentation of pleural effusion, whereas 10 patients (71.4%) had a bilateral presentation. Twelve patients (85.7%) survived until discharge without later recurrence or death, whereas 2 patients (14.3%) died within the first 3 days after birth. Somatostatin/octreotide treatment was maintained for a median period of 6 days (range 1-16 days). The chest tube was removed after a median duration of 14 days (range 2-51 days), and no patient needed pleurodesis or thoracic duct ligation surgery. The average daily drain output within 3 days post-treatment (median 62 mL, range 10-651 mL) was significantly lower than that before treatment (median 133 mL, range 70-620 mL) (P = .002). The need for ventilation support was reduced in most patients (85.7%) after the initiation of somatostatin/octreotide therapy. No serious side effects were identified.Somatostatin/octreotide treatment reduced pleural drainage and respiratory support without significant side effects. Further randomized controlled studies with more patients are necessary to ascertain the benefits of somatostatin/octreotide in neonates with congenital chylothorax.

Risk factors of lymph node metastasis in lung squamous cell carcinoma of 3 cm or less in diameter.

Through literature review we cannot find an efficient risk factor of lymph node metastasis in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of pathological lymph node status in patients with lung SCC of 3 cm or less in diameter, to provide some reference for the fellow surgeons in the decision of operative option.In total, we analyzed 154 patients with lung SCC of 3 cm or less in diameter who underwent lobectomy or bilobectomy or pneumonectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. The relationship between lymph node status and clinical characteristics were examined.Lymph node metastases were present in 48 patients (31.2%) of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis indicated that, age <60 years old (P = .007), tumor location of central-type (P = .003), tumor long axis >2 cm but ≤3 cm (P = .047) were associated with lymph node metastasis, and their odd ratios (OR) were 3.120, 3.359, and 5.196, respectively. Group analysis of the 74 peripheral lung SCC showed that those with the tumor long axis ≤2 cm had a lower rate of lymph node metastasis (7.9% vs 27.8%, P = .025).Age <60 years old, tumor location of central-type, and tumor long axis >2 cm but ≤3 cm are risk factors of lymph node metastasis in lung SCC. Systematic lymph node dissection or sampling is recommended when tumor central-type location and/or long axis >2 cm in lung SCC are present.

Asymptomatic congenital tuberculosis: A case report.

Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is described as a rare, but severe disease. In contrast to the cases with severe symptoms reported so far, we describe a child with asymptomatic congenital TB.