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Sex Factors - Top 30 Publications

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Clear More Slowly in Men Than Women, but Are Less Likely to Become Established.

Rigorous estimates for clearance rates of untreated chlamydia infections are important for understanding chlamydia epidemiology and designing control interventions, but were previously only available for women.

The difference between men and women.

Analysis of case-parent trios for imprinting effect using a loglinear model with adjustment for sex-of-parent-specific transmission ratio distortion.

Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the minor allele in control-trios can be added to the loglinear model to adjust for TRD. Adjusting the model removes the inflation in the genotype relative risk (RR) estimate and Type 1 error introduced by non-sex-of-parent-specific TRD. We now propose to further extend this model to estimate an imprinting parameter. Some evidence suggests that more than 1% of all mammalian genes are imprinted. In the presence of imprinting, for example, the offspring inheriting an over-transmitted disease allele from the parent with a higher expression level in a neighboring gene is over-represented in the sample. TRD mechanisms such as meiotic drive and gametic competition occur in a sex-of-parent-specific manner. Therefore, sex-of-parent-specific TRD (ST) leads to over-representation of maternal or paternal alleles in the affected child. As a result, ST may bias the imprinting effect when present in the sample. We propose a sex-of-parent-specific transmission offset in adjusting the loglinear model to account for ST. This extended model restores the correct RR estimates for child and imprinting effects, adjusts for inflation in Type 1 error, and improves performance on sensitivity and specificity compared to the original model without ST offset. We conclude that to correctly interpret the association signal of an imprinting effect, adjustment for ST is necessary to ensure valid conclusions.

"If my husband leaves me, I will go home and suffer, so better cling to him and hide this thing": The influence of gender on Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission participation in Malawi and Uganda.

The role of gender in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) participation under Option B+ has not been adequately studied, but it is critical for reducing losses to follow-up. This study used qualitative methods to examine the interplay of gender and individual, interpersonal, health system, and community factors that contribute to PMTCT participation in Malawi and Uganda. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in PMTCT, women lost to follow-up, government health workers, and stakeholders at organizations supporting PMTCT as well as focus group discussions with men. We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis. We found many similarities in key themes across respondent groups and between the two countries. The main facilitators of PMTCT participation were knowledge of the health benefits of ART, social support, and self-efficacy. The main barriers were fear of HIV disclosure and stigma and lack of social support, male involvement, self-efficacy, and agency. Under Option B+, women learn about their HIV status and start lifelong ART on the same day, before they have a chance to talk to their husbands or families. Respondents explained that very few husbands accompanied their wives to the clinic, because they felt it was a female space and were worried that others would think their wives were controlling them. Many respondents said women fear disclosing, because they fear HIV stigma as well as the risk of divorce and loss of economic support. If women do not disclose, it is difficult for them to participate in PMTCT in secret. If they do disclose, they must abide by their husbands' decisions about their PMTCT participation, and some husbands are unsupportive or actively discouraging. To improve PMTCT participation, Ministries of Health should use evidence-based strategies to address HIV stigma, challenges related to disclosure, insufficient social support and male involvement, and underlying gender inequality.

Gender difference in relationship between serum ferritin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Korean adults.

The present study was conducted to assess the gender difference in the relationship between serum ferritin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in Korean adults.

Are Female Applicants Rated Higher Than Males on the Multiple Mini-Interview? Findings From the University of Calgary.

The multiple mini-interview (MMI) improves reliability and validity of medical school interviews, and many schools have introduced this in an attempt to select individuals more skilled in communication, critical thinking, and ethical decision making. But every change in the admissions process may produce unintended consequences, such as changing intake demographics. In this article, two studies exploring gender differences in MMI ratings are reported.

Sex-specific effect of CPB2 Ala147Thr but not Thr325Ile variants on the risk of venous thrombosis: A comprehensive meta-analysis.

Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), encoded by the Carboxypeptidase B2 gene (CPB2), is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis and plays a role in the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis. Experimental findings support a functional role of genetic variants in CPB2, while epidemiological studies have been unable to confirm associations with risk of venous thrombosis. Sex-specific effects could underlie the observed inconsistent associations between CPB2 genetic variants and venous thrombosis.

Gender differences and psychotropic polypharmacy in psychiatric patients in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis of the PESSOAS Project.

We aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic polypharmacy in Brazilian psychiatric patients by gender. Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical data were obtained through face-to-face interviews and medical charts of 2,475 patients. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as the use of two or more psychotropic drugs and occurred in 85.7% of men (95%CI: 83.6%-87.6%) and 84.9% of women (95%CI: 82.8%-86.8%; p > 0.05). The mean number of psychotropic drugs/patient was 2.98 ± 1.23 and most common combinations included antipsychotics. Multivariate analysis showed that for both genders, previous hospitalization, severe mental illness, multiple psychiatric diagnoses and an insufficient number of professionals in the health care unit was associated with psychotropic polypharmacy. However, other correlates such as inpatient care, use of non-psychotropic drugs, living in unstable conditions and current smoking vary among them. Psychotropic polypharmacy was a common practice in this national sample. The results highlighted the need for national guidelines to manage patients with mental illness, considering the difference among genders and disease severity, to reduce the burden of polyphamacy in this population.

Gender difference in the association between aminotransferase levels and hypertension in a Chinese elderly population.

Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between serum aminotransferase levels and hypertension, and have yielded inconsistent results.A cross-sectional study was performed in a Chinese rural elderly population. A total of 2174 participants with normal range of aminotransferase levels and without excessive drinking were included in the present study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured on fasting morning serum samples using the Kinetic method. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg and/or receiving treatment for hypertension. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the association between gender-specific aminotransferase levels and hypertension.Increased serum ALT but not AST level was positively associated with hypertension. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the association of hypertension and ALT level was only significant in women: for each 1 IU/L elevation of ALT level, the adjusted odds ratio (OR), and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was 1.04 (1.01, 1.07); the ORs of hypertension increased across tertiles of ALT, and the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.00, 1.17 (0.85, 1.60), and 1.63 (1.15, 2.31 (P value for trend = .021). Furthermore, the association was only significant in central obesity women or nondrinking women.ALT level was significantly associated with hypertension only in women in a Chinese rural elderly population. Further studies are warranted to explore the possible gender-related association and to extend them to different populations.

Age, gender and UV-exposition related effects on gene expression in in vivo aged short term cultivated human dermal fibroblasts.

Ageing, the progressive functional decline of virtually all tissues, affects numerous living organisms. Main phenotypic alterations of human skin during the ageing process include reduced skin thickness and elasticity which are related to extracellular matrix proteins. Dermal fibroblasts, the main source of extracellular fibrillar proteins, exhibit complex alterations during in vivo ageing and any of these are likely to be accompanied or caused by changes in gene expression. We investigated gene expression of short term cultivated in vivo aged human dermal fibroblasts using RNA-seq. Therefore, fibroblast samples derived from unaffected skin were obtained from 30 human donors. The donors were grouped by gender and age (Young: 19 to 25 years, Middle: 36 to 45 years, Old: 60 to 66 years). Two samples were taken from each donor, one from a sun-exposed and one from a sun-unexposed site. In our data, no consistently changed gene expression associated with donor age can be asserted. Instead, highly correlated expression of a small number of genes associated with transforming growth factor beta signalling was observed. Also, known gene expression alterations of in vivo aged dermal fibroblasts seem to be non-detectable in cultured fibroblasts.

Serum biochemistry panels in African buffalo: Defining reference intervals and assessing variability across season, age and sex.

Serum biochemical parameters can be utilized to evaluate the physiological status of an animal, and relate it to the animal's health. In order to accurately interpret individual animal biochemical results, species-specific reference intervals (RI) must be established. Reference intervals for biochemical parameters differ between species, and physiological differences including reproductive status, nutritional resource availability, disease status, and age affect parameters within the same species. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish RI for biochemical parameters in managed African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), (2) assess the effects of age, sex, pregnancy, and season on serum biochemistry values, and (3) compare serum biochemistry values from a managed herd to a free-ranging buffalo herd and to values previously published for captive (zoo) buffalo. Season profoundly affected all biochemistry parameters, possibly due to changes in nutrition and disease exposure. Age also affected all biochemical parameters except gamma glutamyl transferase and magnesium, consistent with patterns seen in cattle. Sex and reproductive status had no detectable effects on the parameters that were measured. The biochemical profiles of managed buffalo were distinct from those observed in the free-ranging herd and captive buffalo. Biochemical differences between buffalo from captive, managed, and free-ranging populations may be related to nutritional restriction or lack of predation in the context of management or captivity. The reference intervals provided in this study, in addition to the seasonal and age-related patterns observed, provide a foundation for health investigations that may inform management strategies in this ecologically and economically important species.

Meerkat close calling patterns are linked to sex, social category, season and wind, but not fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations.

It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing. The aim of this study was to identify proximate factors that influence variation in call rate and acoustic structure of meerkat close calls. Specifically, we investigated whether close calling behavior is associated with sex, age and rank, or stress hormone output (i.e., measured as fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations) as individual traits of the caller, as well as with environmental conditions (weather) and reproductive seasonality. To disentangle the effects of these factors on vocal behavior, we analyzed sound recordings and assessed fGCM concentrations in 64 wild but habituated meerkats from 9 groups during the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. Dominant females and one-year old males called at significantly higher rates compared to other social categories during the reproductive season. Additionally, dominant females produced close calls with the lowest mean fundamental frequencies (F0) and the longest mean pulse durations. Windy conditions were associated with significantly higher call rates during the non-reproductive season. Fecal GCM concentrations were unrelated to close calling behavior. Our findings suggest that meerkat close calling behavior conveys information regarding the sex and social category of the caller, but shows no association with fGCM concentrations. The change in call rate in response to variation in the social and ecological environments individuals experience indicates some degree of flexibility in vocal production.

No Interactive Effects of Sex and Persistent Cytomegalovirus on Immune Phenotypes in Young Children: The Generation R Study.

Persistent infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) differentially affect the host immune phenotype in middle-aged males and females. Because CMV already impacts on T-cell memory at a young age, we studied whether these effects were modified by sex in 1,079 children with an average age of 6 years. Sex and CMV independently impacted on multiple B-cell and T-cell subsets. However, there was no significant effect of their interaction. Importantly, the effects of sex and CMV were in part explained by age and infection with other herpesviruses. Thus, immune aging is likely to be more complex, with involvement of hormonal changes with age, socioeconomic status, birth characteristics, and pathogen exposure.

Exposure Opportunity: The Advantages of Including Men in Analyses of Female-Related Risk Factors.

Intuitively, researchers do not include subjects who do not have the opportunity to be exposed, such as men in studies on oral contraceptives (OCs). We aimed to explore in which situations it is nevertheless beneficial to do so. We considered the effect of including men in case-control analyses of 8 different hypothetical data sets on the effect of OC use and venous thrombosis. In all scenarios, OC use was the exposure of interest, sex the factor that determined exposure opportunity, and air travel another risk factor. In some of these scenarios, sex and air travel were included as confounders or effect modifiers. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Standard errors of the estimated log odds ratios, including and excluding men, were compared. We also studied the effect of including men using data from 1999-2004 from a case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis, conducted in the Netherlands. In all hypothetical examples, and in the real-data study, addition of men to the analysis yielded the same odds ratios when correctly adjusting for confounding. Moreover, use of additional subjects often led to more precise estimates. We suggest that subjects who do not have the opportunity to be exposed should not routinely be excluded from epidemiologic studies.

Mitochondria: a central target for sex differences in pathologies.

It is increasingly acknowledged that a sex and gender specificity affects the occurrence, development, and consequence of a plethora of pathologies. Mitochondria are considered as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce the majority of energy-rich phosphate bonds in the form of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) but they also participate in many other functions like steroid hormone synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ionic regulation, and cell death. Adequate cellular energy supply and survival depend on mitochondrial life cycle, a process involving mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and quality control via mitophagy. It appears that mitochondria are the place of marked sexual dimorphism involving mainly oxidative capacities, calcium handling, and resistance to oxidative stress. In turn, sex hormones regulate mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are the origin of serious mitochondrial genetic diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also an important parameter for a large panel of pathologies including neuromuscular disorders, encephalopathies, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), metabolic disorders, neuropathies, renal dysfunction etc. Many of these pathologies present sex/gender specificity. Here we review the sexual dimorphism of mitochondria from different tissues and how this dimorphism takes part in the sex specificity of important pathologies mainly CVDs and neurological disorders.

Sex-Related Differences in Clinical Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Biochemical Factors in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Due to the sex differences in physiological and psychological factors, it can be speculated that clinical presentation of symptoms in male and female patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) might be different.

Genetic risk scores, sex and dietary factors interact to alter serum uric acid trajectory among African-American urban adults.

Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout among others, is affected by both genetic and dietary factors, perhaps differentially by sex. We evaluated cross-sectional (SUAbase) and longitudinal (SUArate) associations of SUA with a genetic risk score (GRS), diet and sex. We then tested the interactive effect of GRS, diet and sex on SUA. Longitudinal data on 766 African-American urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity across the Lifespan study were used. In all, three GRS for SUA were created from known SUA-associated SNP (GRSbase (n 12 SNP), GRSrate (n 3 SNP) and GRStotal (n 15 SNP)). Dietary factors included added sugar, total alcohol, red meat, total fish, legumes, dairy products, caffeine and vitamin C. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. SUAbase was higher among men compared with that among women, and increased with GRStotal tertiles. SUArate was positively associated with legume intake in women (γ=+0·14; 95 % CI +0·06, +0·22, P=0·001) and inversely related to dairy product intake in both sexes combined (γ=-0·042; 95 % CI -0·075, -0·009), P=0·010). SUAbase was directly linked to alcohol consumption among women (γ=+0·154; 95 % CI +0·046, +0·262, P=0·005). GRSrate was linearly related to SUArate only among men. Legume consumption was also positively associated with SUArate within the GRStotal's lowest tertile. Among women, a synergistic interaction was observed between GRSrate and red meat intake in association with SUArate. Among men, a synergistic interaction between low vitamin C and genetic risk was found. In sum, sex-diet, sex-gene and gene-diet interactions were detected in determining SUA. Further similar studies are needed to replicate our findings.

A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet has sex-specific effects on fetal glucocorticoids with little consequence for offspring metabolism and voluntary locomotor activity in mice.

Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11β-HSD1 or 11β-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.

Sex-specific cognitive abnormalities in early-onset psychosis.

Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls.

Gender and other risk factors associated with risky behaviours among Nigerian adolescents.

Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined. Male was a risk factor for theft (OR = 2.1; 95%CI = 1.17-3.95), bullying (OR = 2.76; 95%CI = 1.37-5.56) and fighting (OR = 2.14; 95%CI = 1.35-3.40). Fifty-two (17.3%) of the students were of high-risk behaviour group. Furthermore, private school (β = 1.05; P = 0.010), poor perceived relationship with teachers (β = 1.21; P = 0.002), polygamy (β = 1.20; P = 0.002) and lifetime cigarette use (β = 1.07; P = 0.027) were predictors of high-risk behaviour group. Substantial proportion of adolescents in Nigeria exhibit risky behaviours of which gender and other factors play a significant role.

Gender differences of neuropsychological profiles in cognitively normal older people without amyloid pathology.

To investigate the impact of sex on cognition among cognitively normal older people without amyloid pathology.

Gender Disparities in the Food Insecurity-Overweight and Food Insecurity-Obesity Paradox among Low-Income Older Adults.

Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are increasing among older adults. Food insecurity is a nutrition-related factor that coexists with obesity among low-income individuals. The majority of the research on the food insecurity-obesity paradox has been conducted on low-income mothers and children, with research lacking on large diverse samples of older adults.

Effect of gender on evidence-based practice for Australian patients with acute coronary syndrome: A retrospective multi-site study.

Early acute coronary syndrome (ACS) care occurs in the emergency department (ED). Death and disability from ACS are reduced with access to evidence-based ACS care. In this study, we aimed to explore if gender influenced access to ACS care.

Advanced theory of mind in adolescence: Do age, gender and friendship style play a role?

The ability to recursively infer the mental states of others to explain their complex behavior in ambiguous social situation may be called Advanced Theory of Mind (aToM). The relations between two components of aToM, cognitive and affective, measured on a behavioral level in 151 Polish 13-year-olds and 174 16-year-olds was examined. The role of age, gender and friendship style and its relations to the cognitive and affective aToM was explored. Cognitive aToM was only weakly to moderately related to affective aToM. Across both age groups females scored higher than males. Males' aToM abilities did not differ according to age, but they scored higher in the cognitive aToM than affective ToM. Also, different aspects of friendship style were significant predictors of both aToM abilities. The implications for two aToM components within a gendered social context were discussed.

Effect of gender on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Objective: To analyze the effect of gender on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Data of 1 195 patients with NSCLC were analyzed by Chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank tests and Cox regression models. Results: Women had a longer survival than men (median overall survival 31.64 versus 22.71 months, P<0.01) in the participants of this study. Differences seen in overall survival remained the similar, after stratified by age, pathologic types, clinical stage, sizes, pleural effusion and surgery of the patients, respectively. Data from the multivariate analysis revealed that factors as smoking, clinical stage, metastatic when diagnosis was made and surgery, but not gender, were independent prognostic factors for patients with NSCLC. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that smoking was a major confounding factor, affecting the relationship between gender and prognosis of NSCLC. Conclusion: Gender did not seem an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients while the survival advantages of females might be attributed to the lower prevalence of smoking in this population.

The importance of teacher support: Differential impacts by gender and sexuality.

Teachers play an important role in shaping the experiences of high school students with regard to patterns of heteronormativity and binary gender norms, particularly for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. A climate survey of high school students (n = 953) in the United States examined the association between students' well-being and their relationships with teachers. The sample was majority white (65.8%) and multiracial (14.1%). Cisgender (cis)-girls (49.6%), cis-boys (41.2%), and trans students (9.2%), as well as heterosexual (78.4%) and LGBQ students (21.6%) were represented. Regression models indicate teachers' use of oppressive language and their intervention in situations of bias and students' trust and comfort with teachers were significantly associated with students' self-esteem. Teachers' use of biased language was directly associated with student self-reported grades. Moderation tests indicate teacher relationships are strongly associated with heterosexual and cisgender students' wellbeing. Recommendations for teacher education and future research are discussed.

Drug abuse and eating disorders in women: symptoms of gender discomfort?

The article discusses drug abuse and eating disorders from the critical gender and healthcare perspectives, postulating that subjective suffering can be expressed in the body through psychosomatic illnesses. From this perspective, craving for drugs or superfluous consumer goods, just as illness from self-imposed hunger in pursuit of an ideal of slimness, as in anorexia and bulimia, can be symptoms that expose the woman's suffering. A review in the fields of public health and feminist theories highlights the magnitude of the phenomena of medicalization and commodification of health in the psychiatrization of female discomfort. In the gender transition in capitalist societies, social demands for the performance of old and new women's roles accentuate feelings of inadequacy, expressed as the gender discomfort permeating drug abuse and eating disorders, analyzed as diseases of protest. The study proposes to reclaim the ideals of the Program for Comprehensive Women's Healthcare to deal with such challenges.

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Various Age- and Sex-Specific Groups of Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys. We noted age- and sex-dependent changes in CD28+ (an essential T cell costimulatory molecule) and CD95+ (an apoptotic surface marker) T cells and various levels of cytokines in the plasma. In immune assays of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IFNγ and perforin responses were significantly higher in female than in male monkeys and in young adults than in juvenile and geriatric groups, despite similar lymphocyte (particularly T cell) populations in these groups. Our current findings may be useful in exploring Aotus monkeys as a model system for the study of aging, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and age-associated differences in vaccine efficacy, and other challenges particular to pediatric and geriatric patients.

Influence of age, sex and HCMV-serostatus on blood lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy adults.

Using a standardized immunophenotyping procedure we studied thirty-eight distinct subpopulations of T, B and NK lymphocytes in 253 healthy blood donors aged from 19 to 67. We analysed the influence of age, sex and HCMV seropositivity on each lymphocyte subpopulations and established reference ranges. We observed that aging influences the largest number of lymphocyte subpopulations with a slow increase of CD8+ EMRA T lymphocytes and of the numbers of circulating Tregs. The proportion of HLA-DR+ cells among Tregs increased with age and was correlated to the proportion of HLA-DR+ cells among effector T CD4+ lymphocytes. Sex had a major impact on absolute counts of CD4+ T cells which were higher in females. HCMV-seropositivity was associated with higher frequencies of CD8+ EMRA memory T lymphocytes while a high frequency of terminally differentiated EMRA CD4+ T cells was observed in 80% of HCMV-positive individuals and in none of the HCMV seronegative individuals.

How do men and women help? Validation of a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior.

The current study sought to address gender differences in prosocial behavior by creating and validating a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior that more fully captures the ways that men help others. The new measure is directed toward family, friend, and strangers, and has five factors: defending, emotional support, inclusion, physical helping, and sharing. In Study 1, CFA analyses performed on a sample of 463 emerging adults online (mean age 23.42) revealed good model fit and divergent validity for each of the five factors. Study 2 replicated the analyses on a sample of 453 urban adolescents in the Northwest (mean age 18.37). Results established that all factors had good model fit, construct validity, and convergent validity. The discussion focuses on implications of this measure for future prosocial research including an increased diversity in how people (particularly men) help others and developmental differences toward different targets of prosocial behavior.