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Sex Factors - Top 30 Publications

Age- and sex-related difference of lipid profile in patients with ischemic stroke in China.

Age- and sex-related differences of lipid profiles were not well understood among ischemic stroke patients in China. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between lipid abnormalities and ischemic stroke in China. A retrospective analysis was performed involving 2074 patients with ischemic stroke who admitted to Meizhou People's Hospital (Huangtang Hospital), Meizhou Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University between January 1, 2014 and March 1, 2017. Our study indicated that there were significant differences in total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL), and Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) between male and female patients. Meanwhile, different lipid levels including TC, TG, and ApoA were observed for patients of various age groups. The nonelderly patients tended to have higher lipid levels than elderly patients. Isolated low HDL (namely, normal LDL + low HDL + normal TG) was the most common lipid abnormalities in patients. In conclusion, there was age- and sex-related difference in lipid profiles among patients with ischemic stroke. Age, sex as well as some other factors should be carefully considered for lipid management in patients with ischemic stroke in China.

Effects of gender and age on prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic HCV infection: A community-based cross-sectional study in an HCV-hyperendemic area.

This study investigated the effects of age and gender on the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic HCV infection.Demographic and clinical data of 8489 subjects (3671 males, 4818 females; mean age 47.5 years) receiving township-wide health examinations between September 2012 and August 2013 were analyzed. The main endpoint was prevalence of cholelithiasis. Risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, concomitant diseases, lifestyle, laboratory parameters, and HCV status) were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between cholelithiasis and variables.Cholelithiasis was more prevalent among HCV subjects than non-HCV subjects (females: 8.1% vs 4.2%; males: 9.1% vs 3.9%; both P < .001); rates ranged from 5.6% to 8.3% in females and 4.7% to 10.6% in males. HCV status and age were associated with cholelithiasis occurrence (OR = 2.17 for HCV vs non-HCV; OR = 2.44, 3.54 for age 45-55, and >55 vs <45 years; all P < .05). Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between cholelithiasis and age/sex interaction terms (OR = 0.517 for age >55 vs <45 for sex; P = .011). Cholelithiasis prevalence was significantly associated between age and sex interaction terms but not anymore if considering positive HCV status. All noninvasive tests for liver fibrosis were associated with cholelithiasis but only fibrosis-4 index was significantly associated (OR = 1.28, P = .019).Age, gender, and HCV infection are associated with increased risk and prevalence of cholelithiasis. After age of 55 years, cholelithiasis is more prevalent among HCV-positive males than females. Females of age 55 and more may be protected against cholelithiasis as sex hormones decrease.

Effect of Gender on Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Full extent of gender differences on postoperative outcomes has never been studied on large scale, specifically postoperative complications. This study aims to assess the effect of gender on 30-day morbidity and mortality after major surgery. A retrospective cohort study was carried out using data of patients undergoing major surgeries from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2008 and 2011. Demographics, pre- and perioperative risk factors, as well as 30-day morbidities, both overall and specific, were reviewed. The 30-day mortality data were also assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, basic (Adj1) and extended (Adj2), were used to assess the association between gender and outcomes. Out of 1,409,131 patients, 57.2 per cent were females. Females had lower prevalence of most system-specific risk variables. Overall morbidities were also lower in females versus males, even after adjustment for variables [total overall morbidity: ORadj2 = 0.9 (0.89-0.92), P < 0.0001] except in some cases such as after cardiac surgeries [ORadj2 = 1.29 (1.14-1.44), P < 0.0001] and vascular surgeries [ORadj2 = 1.14 (1.10-1.18), P < 0.0001], where overall morbidities of females were higher. Specific morbidities were also lower in females than in males in all types of complications except central nervous system-related postoperative complications [ORadj2 = 1.15 (1.08-1.22), P < 0.0001] and return to the operating room [ORadj2 = 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P < 0.0001]. The 30-day mortality rate for females was lower than males [ORadj2 = 0.99 (0.96-1.03), P = 0.94]. Female gender was associated with less perioperative morbidity and mortality versus males, but they did worse after cardiovascular procedures and had more central nervous system-related complications. These outcomes should be taken into consideration by surgeons and should be evaluated further in future studies.

Excess Male Infant Mortality: The Gene-Institution Interactions.

Disease and Gender Gaps in Human Capital Investment: Evidence from Niger’s 1986 Meningitis Epidemic.

HIPK2 polymorphisms rs2058265, rs6464214, and rs7456421 were associated with kidney stone disease in Chinese males not females.

Recent studies have shown that genetic factors are involved in the development of kidney stone disease (KSD). A case-control association analysis was performed to investigate the association between homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2; OMIM *606868) polymorphisms and KSD.

Authors and editors assort on gender and geography in high-rank ecological publications.

Peer-reviewed publication volume and caliber are widely-recognized proxies for academic merit, and a strong publication record is essential for academic success and advancement. However, recent work suggests that publication productivity for particular author groups may also be determined in part by implicit biases lurking in the publication pipeline. Here, we explore patterns of gender, geography, and institutional rank among authors, editorial board members, and handling editors in high-impact ecological publications during 2015 and 2016. A higher proportion of lead authors had female first names (33.9%) than editorial board members (28.9%), and the proportion of female first names among handling editors was even lower (21.1%). Female editors disproportionately edited publications with female lead authors (40.3% of publications with female lead authors were handled by female editors, though female editors handled only 34.4% of all studied publications). Additionally, ecological authors and editors were overwhelmingly from countries in the G8, and high-ranking academic institutions accounted for a large portion of both the published work, and its editorship. Editors and lead authors with female names were typically affiliated with higher-ranking institutions than their male peers. This description of author and editor features provides a baseline for benchmarking future trends in the ecological publishing culture.

Sex differences in the outcomes of stent implantation in mini-swine model.

Sex-related differences have been noted in cardiovascular anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment responses, yet we continued to drive evaluation of vascular device development in animal models without consideration of animal sex. We aimed to understand sex-related differences in the vascular responses to stent implantation by analyzing the pooled data of endovascular interventions in 164 Yucatan mini-swine (87 female, 77 male). Bare metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES) were implanted in 212 coronary arteries (63 single BMS implantation, 68 single DES implantation, 33 overlapped BMS implantation, and 48 overlapped DES implantation). Histomorphological parameters were evaluated from vascular specimens at 3-365 days after stent implantation and evaluated values were compared between female and male groups. While neointima formation at all times after implantation was invariant to sex, statistically significant differences between female and male groups were observed in injury, inflammation, adventitial fibrosis, and neointimal fibrin deposition. These differences were observed independently, i.e., for different procedure types and at different follow-up timings. Only subtle temporal sex-related differences were observed in extent and timing of resolution of inflammation and fibrin clearance. These subtle sex-related differences may be increasingly important as interventional devices meld novel materials that erode and innovations in drug delivery. Erodible materials may act differently if inflammation has a different temporal sequence with sex, and drug distribution after balloon or stent delivery might be different if the fibrin clearance speaks to different modes of pharmacokinetics in male and female swine.

Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis.

Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions.

The impact of gender on asthma in the daily clinical practice.

It is up-to-date to consider the potential gender impact on a disease. There are few data about gender difference in asthma. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis in a real-life setting to investigate possible difference between genders.

Factors affecting occlusion pressure and ischemic preconditioning.

To determine the effect of limb selection (upper/lower), cuff width (small (6 cm)/medium (13 cm) upper; medium/large (18 cm) lower) and anthropometry on arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) in ischemic preconditioning (IPC).

Absolute lung size and the sex difference in breathlessness in the general population.

Breathlessness is associated with major adverse health outcomes and is twice as common in women as men in the general population. We evaluated whether this is related to their lower absolute lung volumes.

Sex-specific role of education on the associations of socioeconomic status indicators with obesity risk: A population-based study in South Korea.

No study of obesity risk for people in developed countries has conducted a multi-dimensional analysis of the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. In this paper, we investigated if education functions as either a confounder or an effect modifier in the association of another socioeconomic status indicator with obesity.

Sex differences in facial emotion recognition across varying expression intensity levels from videos.

There has been much research on sex differences in the ability to recognise facial expressions of emotions, with results generally showing a female advantage in reading emotional expressions from the face. However, most of the research to date has used static images and/or 'extreme' examples of facial expressions. Therefore, little is known about how expression intensity and dynamic stimuli might affect the commonly reported female advantage in facial emotion recognition. The current study investigated sex differences in accuracy of response (Hu; unbiased hit rates) and response latencies for emotion recognition using short video stimuli (1sec) of 10 different facial emotion expressions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, contempt, pride, embarrassment, neutral) across three variations in the intensity of the emotional expression (low, intermediate, high) in an adolescent and adult sample (N = 111; 51 male, 60 female) aged between 16 and 45 (M = 22.2, SD = 5.7). Overall, females showed more accurate facial emotion recognition compared to males and were faster in correctly recognising facial emotions. The female advantage in reading expressions from the faces of others was unaffected by expression intensity levels and emotion categories used in the study. The effects were specific to recognition of emotions, as males and females did not differ in the recognition of neutral faces. Together, the results showed a robust sex difference favouring females in facial emotion recognition using video stimuli of a wide range of emotions and expression intensity variations.

Gender disparities in high-quality research revealed by Nature Index journals.

The present study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in high-quality research by analyzing the representation of female authorships in the last decade (from 2008 to 2016).

Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent.

Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the 'new' hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair.

Can mixed assessment methods make biology classes more equitable?

Many factors have been proposed to explain the attrition of women in science, technology, engineering and math fields, among them the lower performance of women in introductory courses resulting from deficits in incoming preparation. We focus on the impact of mixed methods of assessment, which minimizes the impact of high-stakes exams and rewards other methods of assessment such as group participation, low-stakes quizzes and assignments, and in-class activities. We hypothesized that these mixed methods would benefit individuals who otherwise underperform on high-stakes tests. Here, we analyze gender-based performance trends in nine large (N > 1000 students) introductory biology courses in fall 2016. Females underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts, a difference that does not exist with other methods of assessment that compose course grade. Further, we analyzed three case studies of courses that transitioned their grading schemes to either de-emphasize or emphasize exams as a proportion of total course grade. We demonstrate that the shift away from an exam emphasis consequently benefits female students, thereby closing gaps in overall performance. Further, the exam performance gap itself is reduced when the exams contribute less to overall course grade. We discuss testable predictions that follow from our hypothesis, and advocate for the use of mixed methods of assessments (possibly as part of an overall shift to active learning techniques). We conclude by challenging the student deficit model, and suggest a course deficit model as explanatory of these performance gaps, whereby the microclimate of the classroom can either raise or lower barriers to success for underrepresented groups in STEM.

'I followed the flood': a gender analysis of the moral and financial economies of forced migration.

What would a gender analysis of refugee crises reveal if one expanded the focus beyond female refugees, and acts of physical violence? This paper draws on qualitative research conducted in Denmark, Greece, Jordan, and Turkey in July and August 2016 to spotlight the gendered kinship, hierarchies, networks, and transactions that affect refugees. The coping strategies of groups often overlooked in the gender conversation are examined throughout this study, including those of male refugees and those making crossings outside of the context of a family unit. The analysis is theoretically situated at the intersection of critical humanitarianism and the politics of vulnerability, and rooted in debates about the feminisation of refugees and corresponding protection agendas. A key contribution of this work is the ethnographic tracing of how refugees embody these politics along their journeys. In closing, the paper sketches out some implications of the findings for humanitarian practice and identifies avenues for further research.

Videofluoroscopic analysis of different volumes of liquid bolus swallowing in healthy individuals: comparison between height and sex.

The volume of swallowed bolus affects the pharyngeal transit duration. The sex and corporal height of individuals may likely influence this effect. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sex and corporal height on the pharyngeal transit modification produced by the swallowed bolus volume.

Sex-dependent modulation of ultrasonic vocalizations in house mice (Mus musculus musculus).

House mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are surprisingly complex and have features of bird song, but their functions are not well understood. Previous studies have reported mixed evidence on whether there are sex differences in USV emission, though vocalization rate or other features may depend upon whether potential receivers are of the same or opposite sex. We recorded the USVs of wild-derived adult house mice (F1 of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus), and we compared the vocalizations of males and females in response to a stimulus mouse of the same- or opposite-sex. To detect and quantify vocalizations, we used an algorithm that automatically detects USVs (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD). We found high individual variation in USV emission rates (4 to 2083 elements/10 min trial) and a skewed distribution, with most mice (60%) emitting few (≤50) elements. We found no differences in the rates of calling between the sexes overall, but mice of both sexes emitted vocalizations at a higher rate and higher frequencies during opposite- compared to same-sex interactions. We also observed a trend toward higher amplitudes by males when presented with a male compared to a female stimulus. Our results suggest that mice modulate the rate and frequency of vocalizations depending upon the sex of potential receivers.

The gender gap in self-rated health and education in Spain. A multilevel analysis.

Women tend to report poorer self-rated health than men. It is also well established that education has a positive effect on health. However, the issue of how the benefits of education on health differ between men and women has not received enough attention and the few existing studies which do focus on the subject do not draw a clear conclusion. Therefore, this study aims to analyse whether the positive influence of educational attainment on health is higher for women and whether education helps to overcome the gender gap in self-rated health.

Recession, employment and self-rated health: a study on the gender gap.

Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap.

Incidence and hospital mortality due to heart failure. Are there any differences by sex?

Long-term sex-differential effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on in vitro cytokine responses.

High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide. There were no differences between the two doses of NVAS, and thus they were analysed combined as NVAS (any dose) v. placebo. All analyses were performed unstratified and by sex. NVAS increased the chance of having a scar after BCG vaccination in females (NVAS v. placebo: 96 v. 71 %, proportion ratio: 1·24; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·42), but not in males (P for interaction=0·012). NVAS was associated with significant sex-differential effects on the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios (TNF-α:IL-10) to PPD, tetanus toxoid and medium alone, which were increased in females but decreased in males. In addition, IL-17 responses tended to be increased in NVAS v. placebo recipients in males but not in females, significantly so for the PHA stimulation. The study corroborates sex-differential effects of VAS on the immune system, emphasising the importance of analysing VAS effects by sex.

Cognitive appraisal of exposure to specific types of trauma - a study of gender differences.

The role of gender in posttraumatic cognitions has increasingly been approached. The current study comparatively evaluates posttraumatic cognitions in men and women exposed to specific nonsexual trauma (motor vehicle accidents, work - related accidents, burns).

Sex difference in the interaction of alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus on the risk of cirrhosis.

The joint effect of the interaction of alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the risk of cirrhosis is still unexplored because a large sample size is required for this investigation.

Perspective: Bridging the gender gap.

Sex differences in the characteristics and short-term prognosis of patients presenting with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

We sought to examine sex-related differences in the characteristics and outcome in patients presenting with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE).

Sex and age differences in physical performance: A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations.

To determine the age- and sex-specific differences of physical fitness performances and Body Mass Index (BMI) in basic training and the operational Army.

Sex as a Biological Variable in Emergency Medicine Research and Clinical Practice: A Brief Narrative Review.

The National Institutes of Health recently highlighted the significant role of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in research design, outcome and reproducibility, mandating that this variable be accounted for in all its funded research studies. This move has resulted in a rapidly increasing body of literature on SABV with important implications for changing the clinical practice of emergency medicine (EM). Translation of this new knowledge to the bedside requires an understanding of how sex-based research will ultimately impact patient care. We use three case-based scenarios in acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke and important considerations in pharmacologic therapy administration to highlight available data on SABV in evidence-based research to provide the EM community with an important foundation for future integration of patient sex in the delivery of emergency care as gaps in research are filled.