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Sex Factors - Top 30 Publications

Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders' self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration). While we did not find any gender differences in leaders' self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders.

Sex differences in long-term mortality among acute myocardial infarction patients: Results from the ISAR-RISK and ART studies.

Mortality rates in females who survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI) exceed those in males. Differences between sexes in age, cardiovascular risk factors and revascularization therapy have been proposed as possible reasons.

Exams disadvantage women in introductory biology.

The gender gap in STEM fields has prompted a great deal of discussion, but what factors underlie performance deficits remain poorly understood. We show that female students underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts across ten large introductory biology course sections in fall 2016 (N > 1500 students). Females also reported higher levels of test anxiety and course-relevant science interest. Results from mediation analyses revealed an intriguing pattern: for female students only, and regardless of their academic standing, test anxiety negatively impacted exam performance, while interest in the course-specific science topics increased exam performance. Thus, instructors seeking equitable classrooms can aim to decrease test anxiety and increase student interest in science course content. We provide strategies for mitigating test anxiety and suggestions for alignment of course content with student interest, with the hope of successfully reimagining the STEM pathway as one that is equally accessible to all.

'Timed Up and Go' test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults.

The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups.

High status males invest more than high status females in lower status same-sex collaborators.

Studies on human cooperation using economic games rarely include ecologically relevant factors. In studies on non-human primates however, both status and sex typically influence patterns of cooperation. Across primate species, high status individuals are more likely to cooperate, though this depends on the species-specific social structure of each sex. Based on human social structure, we predict that higher status males who interact more in hierarchical groups than females, will invest more than high status females in valued same-sex peers after successful cooperation. Across three studies, 187 male and 188 female participants cooperated with a (fictitious) same-sex partner who varied in competence. Participants then divided a reward between themselves and their partner. High status was induced in three different ways in each study, social influence, leadership and power. No overall sex difference in reward sharing was observed. Consistent with the hypothesis however, across all three studies, high status males invested more than high status females in cooperative partners, suggesting that high status males intuitively evaluate sharing rewards with same-sex partners as more beneficial.

Gender difference on the relationship between hyperuricemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among Chinese: An observational study.

Limited evidence is available regarding the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), especially in gender difference. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate gender difference on the association between SUA, hyperuricemia, and NAFLD in the Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 1006 Chinese adults aged between 45 and 59 years old, in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province who were attending their annual health examination in the period between July 2015 and March 2017. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a written questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between SUA, hyperuricemia, and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Wald tests were used to for heterogeneity between males and females. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides (TG), SUA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparagine aminotransferase (AST), and the prevalence of hypertension, hyperuricemia, and NAFLD were significantly higher in male than in female (P < .05). Females had the significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Simple correlation analysis showed that SUA was positively associated with BMI, WC, WHR, TG, ALT, AST and inversely associated with age and HDL-C. After adjusting for confounders, hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in both genders, with odds ratio (95%confidence interval) of 2.645 (1.213-5.768), 1.962 (1.051-3.661), respectively. There was a significant association in NAFLD found in males, compared with females (Wald = 118.589, df = 1, P < .0001).Our findings indicated that the association of SUA with NAFLD was much more closely related in males than in females. Males with hyperuricemia had the higher risk of NAFLD. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Sex differences in risk factor management of coronary heart disease across three regions.

To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD), and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences.

Exposure source prevalence is associated with gender in hepatitis C virus patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. A characterisation of the differences in exposure sources among genders will enable improvements in surveillance actions.

Perinatal ciclosporin A exposure elicits sex-related cardiac dysfunction and inflammation in the rat progeny.

Ciclosporin A (CSA) has been identified with harmful cardiotoxicity but little, if any, is known about the influence of perinatal exposure upon the cardiac function of the progeny. The present work examines the premise that perinatal contact with CSA undermines the cardiac function of sexually mature rats. Administration of CSA (15mg/kg/day sc) to pregnant rats from day 6 of conception till weaning led to a decrease in gradient of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship by a factor of ten for male progeny and a factor of two for female progeny. Perinatally CSA-exposed male, but not female, progeny also demonstrated significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, along with significantly increased JT interval and a tendency towards increased QTc interval, indicating delayed left ventricular (LV) repolarization and perhaps arrhythmogenesis. Conversely, female, but not male, progeny exposed perinatally to CSA showed a delay in atrioventricular (AV) conduction, as demonstrated by significantly prolonged P duration and a tendency towards increased PR interval. CSA increased serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and decreased serum adiponectin levels and cardiac adiponectin receptor expression in male progeny, in contrast to no effects in female progeny. Signs of improved oxidative state (decreased 8-isoprostane and increased catalase activity) appeared only in CSA-exposed female rats. Moreover, cardiac muscle degeneration and pyknosis was more observed in male than in female rats. In brief, the sex plays a key role in determining the extent of the deterioration in functional and inflammatory states of the heart that follow perinatal CSA exposure in rats.

Turkish recreational divers: a comparative study of their demographics, diving habits, health and attitudes towards safety.

In Turkey, scuba diving has become more popular and accessible in the past decade and there has been a commensurate rise in the number of certified divers. This new generation of recreational divers has not been described in detail previously. The aim of this study was to profile this group, while investigating any gender differences and making comparisons with the global diving community.

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Clear More Slowly in Men Than Women, but Are Less Likely to Become Established.

Rigorous estimates for clearance rates of untreated chlamydia infections are important for understanding chlamydia epidemiology and designing control interventions, but were previously only available for women.

Interventions to address unequal gender and power relations and improve self-efficacy and empowerment for sexual and reproductive health decision-making for women living with HIV: A systematic review.

Many women living with HIV experience gendered power inequalities, particularly in their intimate relationships, that prevent them from achieving optimal sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and exercising their rights. We assessed the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-efficacy and empowerment of women living with HIV to make SRH decisions through a systematic review.

Systematic Review of Sex-Specific Reporting of Data: Cholinesterase Inhibitor Example.

To improve the value of research for older adults, we examine sex-specific reporting of data from drug trials for the management of dementia. These data are important because they may influence considerations ranging from the health of populations to shared decision-making by individual patient and caregiver about the risk and benefit of a drug therapy.

Are the Early Postoperative Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Elderly Women Worse Compared to Men's?

To investigate the impact of gender difference in early postoperative outcomes in elderly patients (aged 70 or older) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

Sex differences in survival after myocardial infarction in Sweden, 1987-2010.

In this nationwide study, we investigated age-specific and sex-specific trends in sex differences in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) that occurred outside hospital.

FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation.

Proposed equations and reference values for calculating bone health in children and adolescent based on age and sex.

The Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for measuring BMD and bone mineral content (BMC). In general, DXA is ideal for pediatric use. However, the development of specific standards for particular geographic regions limits its use and application for certain socio-cultural contexts. Additionally, the anthropometry may be a low cost and easy to use alternative method in epidemiological contexts. The goal of our study was to develop regression equations for predicting bone health of children and adolescents based on anthropometric indicators to propose reference values based on age and sex.

Sex disparities in ideal cardiovascular health.

To quantify the gap in the distribution of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) between men and women accounting for comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychological confounding factors.

The mediating role of recovery opportunities on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective.

A lack of sufficient recovery during and after work may help to explain impaired health in the long run. We aimed to increase knowledge on the mediating role of recovery opportunities (RO) during and after work on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective. We used data on RO from a Swedish national survey in 2011 and linked these to sickness absence (>14 days) two years later among the general working population (N = 7,649). Mediation of the relationship between gender and sickness absence by exposure to RO was studied through linear regression. We conducted separate analyses for RO during and after work and for three different age groups (16-29; 30-49; 50-64). The sample consisted of 3,563 men and 4,086 women. Sickness absence was higher among the women than among the men (11 days vs 5 days, p<0.001). Men reported statistically significantly more positive on their RO than women. RO during (ß 0.3-1.8) and after work (ß 0.4-0.6) mediated the relationship between gender and sickness absence. Mediation effects existed across age groups, with the strongest effects of RO during work found among the age group between 50 and 64 years of age (attenuation 36%). Our results indicate that gender inequality is also reflected in worse RO among women. This partially explains the increased risk of future sickness absence, particularly among those above 50 years of age. These findings show that RO during work deserve more attention in working life research.

Androgen-mediated sex bias impairs efficiency of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors in males.

Proinflammatory leukotrienes (LTs) are produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) aided by 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). LT biosynthesis inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation as treatments for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we have revealed a sex bias in the efficiency of clinically relevant LT biosynthesis inhibitors, showing that their effects are superior in females. We found that androgens cause these sex differences by impeding the LT-biosynthetic 5-LO/FLAP complex assembly. Lower doses of the FLAP inhibitor MK886 were required to reduce LTB4 levels in exudates of female versus male mice and rats. Following platelet-activating factor-induced shock, MK886 increased survival exclusively in female mice, and this effect was abolished by testosterone administration. FLAP inhibitors and the novel-type 5-LO inhibitors licofelone and sulindac sulfide exhibited higher potencies in human blood from females, and bioactive 5-LO/FLAP complexes were formed in female, but not male, human and murine leukocytes. Supplementation of female blood or leukocytes with 5α-dihydrotestosterone abolished the observed sex differences. Our data suggest that females may benefit from anti-LT therapy to a greater extent than males, prompting consideration of sex issues in LT modifier development.

Response to "Review of the Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury".

Sex-specific differences in the modulation of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) by hyperoxia in vivo and in vitro: Role of Hif-1α.

Male premature neonates are more susceptible than females to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The reasons underlying sexually dimorphic outcomes in premature neonates are not known. GDF15 (Growth and differentiation factor 15) is a secreted cytokine and plays a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we sought to elucidate the sex-specific expression of Gdf15 in the lung in vivo in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury and its regulation by Hif-1α, and to delineate the differences in GDF15 expression in male and female human umbilical venous endothelial cells in an in vitro model of oxygen toxicity. Following hyperoxia exposure (95% FiO2, PND (postnatal day 1-5: saccular stage of lung development), neonatal male mice (C57BL/6) show increased GDF15 and decreased HIF-1α expression compared to female mice. For the in vitro experiments, male and female HUVECs were exposed to room air condition (21% O2, 5% CO2) or in hyperoxia condition (95% O2, 5% CO2) for up to 72h. Male HUVECs had greater expression of GDF15 mRNA and protein. To study the inter-relationship between GDF15 and HIF-1α, we measured the expression of GDF15 in H441 cells after HIF-1α knockdown using promoter dual luciferase reporter assay, which showed that HIF-1α and GDF15 expression are inversely related under normoxia and hyperoxia. The results indicate that sex differences exist in the expression and modulation of GDF15 by HIF-1α in neonatal hyperoxic injury both in vivo and in vitro. These differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in BPD.

Sex-specific mortality differences in heart failure patients with ischemia receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Recent studies have reported prognosis differences between male and female heart failure patients following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, the potential clinical factors that underpin these differences remain to be elucidated.

The difference between men and women.

Sex-specific genetic analysis indicates low correlation between demographic and genetic connectivity in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos).

The degree of gene flow within and among populations, i.e. genetic population connectivity, may closely track demographic population connectivity. Alternatively, the rate of gene flow may change relative to the rate of dispersal. In this study, we explored the relationship between genetic and demographic population connectivity using the Scandinavian brown bear as model species, due to its pronounced male dispersal and female philopatry. Thus, we expected that females would shape genetic structure locally, whereas males would act as genetic mediators among regions. To test this, we used eight validated microsatellite markers on 1531 individuals sampled noninvasively during country-wide genetic population monitoring in Sweden and Norway from 2006 to 2013. First, we determined sex-specific genetic structure and substructure across the study area. Second, we compared genetic differentiation, migration/gene flow patterns, and spatial autocorrelation results between the sexes both within and among genetic clusters and geographic regions. Our results indicated that demographic connectivity was not a reliable indicator of genetic connectivity. Among regions, we found no consistent difference in long-term gene flow and estimated current migration rates between males and females. Within regions/genetic clusters, only females consistently displayed significant positive spatial autocorrelation, indicating male-biased small-scale dispersal. In one cluster, however, males showed a dispersal pattern similar to females. The Scandinavian brown bear population has experienced substantial recovery over the last decades; however, our results did not show any changes in its large-scale population structure compared to previous studies, suggesting that an increase in population size and dispersal of individuals does not necessary lead to increased genetic connectivity. Thus, we conclude that both genetic and demographic connectivity should be estimated, so as not to make false assumptions about the reality of wildlife populations.

Gender-differences in the associations between circulating creatine kinase, blood pressure, body mass and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in asymptomatic asians.

Creatine kinase (CK) is a pivotal regulatory enzyme in energy metabolism linked to both blood pressure and cardio-metabolic components. However, data is lacking in a large population of asymptomatic Asians.

Sex-dependent aortic valve pathology in patients with rheumatic heart disease.

Rheumatic heart disease is an autoimmune disease caused by group A streptococci infection and frequently affects the aortic valve. Sex differences are common in the disease progression, treatment, and outcome. However, little is known about the sex differences in the pathology of aortic valves in rheumatic heart disease.

Analysis of case-parent trios for imprinting effect using a loglinear model with adjustment for sex-of-parent-specific transmission ratio distortion.

Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the minor allele in control-trios can be added to the loglinear model to adjust for TRD. Adjusting the model removes the inflation in the genotype relative risk (RR) estimate and Type 1 error introduced by non-sex-of-parent-specific TRD. We now propose to further extend this model to estimate an imprinting parameter. Some evidence suggests that more than 1% of all mammalian genes are imprinted. In the presence of imprinting, for example, the offspring inheriting an over-transmitted disease allele from the parent with a higher expression level in a neighboring gene is over-represented in the sample. TRD mechanisms such as meiotic drive and gametic competition occur in a sex-of-parent-specific manner. Therefore, sex-of-parent-specific TRD (ST) leads to over-representation of maternal or paternal alleles in the affected child. As a result, ST may bias the imprinting effect when present in the sample. We propose a sex-of-parent-specific transmission offset in adjusting the loglinear model to account for ST. This extended model restores the correct RR estimates for child and imprinting effects, adjusts for inflation in Type 1 error, and improves performance on sensitivity and specificity compared to the original model without ST offset. We conclude that to correctly interpret the association signal of an imprinting effect, adjustment for ST is necessary to ensure valid conclusions.

"If my husband leaves me, I will go home and suffer, so better cling to him and hide this thing": The influence of gender on Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission participation in Malawi and Uganda.

The role of gender in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) participation under Option B+ has not been adequately studied, but it is critical for reducing losses to follow-up. This study used qualitative methods to examine the interplay of gender and individual, interpersonal, health system, and community factors that contribute to PMTCT participation in Malawi and Uganda. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in PMTCT, women lost to follow-up, government health workers, and stakeholders at organizations supporting PMTCT as well as focus group discussions with men. We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis. We found many similarities in key themes across respondent groups and between the two countries. The main facilitators of PMTCT participation were knowledge of the health benefits of ART, social support, and self-efficacy. The main barriers were fear of HIV disclosure and stigma and lack of social support, male involvement, self-efficacy, and agency. Under Option B+, women learn about their HIV status and start lifelong ART on the same day, before they have a chance to talk to their husbands or families. Respondents explained that very few husbands accompanied their wives to the clinic, because they felt it was a female space and were worried that others would think their wives were controlling them. Many respondents said women fear disclosing, because they fear HIV stigma as well as the risk of divorce and loss of economic support. If women do not disclose, it is difficult for them to participate in PMTCT in secret. If they do disclose, they must abide by their husbands' decisions about their PMTCT participation, and some husbands are unsupportive or actively discouraging. To improve PMTCT participation, Ministries of Health should use evidence-based strategies to address HIV stigma, challenges related to disclosure, insufficient social support and male involvement, and underlying gender inequality.

Sex initiates adaptive evolution by recombination between beneficial loci.

Current theory proposes that sex can increase genetic variation and produce high fitness genotypes if genetic associations between alleles at different loci are non-random. In case beneficial and deleterious alleles at different loci are in linkage disequilibrium, sex may i) recombine beneficial alleles of different loci, ii) liberate beneficial alleles from genetic backgrounds of low fitness, or iii) recombine deleterious mutations for more effective elimination. In our study, we found that the first mechanism dominated the initial phase of adaptive evolution in Brachionus calyciflorus rotifers during a natural selection experiment. We used populations that had been locally adapted to two environments previously, creating a linkage disequilibrium between beneficial and deleterious alleles at different loci in a combined environment. We observed the highest fitness increase when several beneficial alleles of different loci could be recombined, while the other mechanisms were ineffective. Our study thus provides evidence for the hypothesis that sex can speed up adaptation by recombination between beneficial alleles of different loci, in particular during early stages of adaptive evolution in our system. We also suggest that the benefits of sex might change over time and state of adaptive progress.