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Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases - Top 30 Publications

PPFIA1 is upregulated in liver metastasis of breast cancer and is a potential poor prognostic indicator of metastatic relapse.

Although the oncogenic role of PPFIA1 (liprin-α1) in breast cancer has been reported, whether its dysregulation is associated with metastasis risk or survival outcomes in breast cancer patients is not clear. Our primary data showed that PPFIA1 expression was significantly higher in liver metastatic breast tumors than in the primary tumors. Then, we tried to pool previous annotated genomic data to assess the prognostic value of PPFIA1 in distant metastasis-free survival, the risk of metastatic relapse, and metastatic relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients by data mining in two large databases, Kaplan-Meier plotter and bc-GenExMiner 4.0. Results from Kaplan-Meier plotter showed that although high PPFIA1 expression was generally associated with decreased distant metastasis-free survival in estrogen receptor+ patients, subgroup analysis only confirmed significant association in estrogen receptor+/N- (nodal negative) group (median survival, high PPFIA1 group vs low PPFIA1 cohort: 191.21 vs 236.22 months; hazard ratio: 2.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-3.5, p < 0.001), but not in estrogen receptor+/N+ (nodal positive) group (hazard ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-3.03, p = 0.12). In estrogen receptor- patients, there was no association between PPFIA1 expression and distant metastasis-free survival, no matter in Nm (nodal status mixed), N-, or N+ subgroups. In bc-GenExMiner 4.0, Nottingham Prognostic Index- and Adjuvant! Online-adjusted analysis validated the independent prognostic value of PPFIA1 in metastatic risks in estrogen receptor+/N- patients. Based on these findings, we infer that high PPFIA1 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator of increased metastatic relapse risk in patients with estrogen receptor+/N- breast cancer, but not in estrogen receptor+/N+ or estrogen receptor- patients.

The HIQA's Health Technology Assessment of Breast Screening: Highlighting Some of the Challenges Posed by Evaluations of Screening Programs.

A review of the Health Information and Quality Authority's (HIQA) assessment of breast cancer surveillance cancer criticized how the results were presented and interpreted. The health technology assessment (HTA) investigated surveillance options for women aged less than 50 years who were at elevated risk of breast cancer. Surveillance strategies using digital mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of the two modalities were modeled on the basis of diagnostic test accuracy. The HTA faced a number of issues, including the use of diagnostic test accuracy as a surrogate for long-term outcomes; modeling interventions that were not considered acceptable to clinicians; and extrapolating for screening intervals and age ranges not directly supported by available evidence. The evaluation of screening programs gives rise to challenges in terms of balancing an adequate exploration of the possible options while also being cognizant of what is appropriately supported by evidence. In this article, the authors of the HIQA report discuss the challenges posed by this particular HTA.

Salt-and-Pepper Skin Changes.

An unusual association between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, mixed connective tissue disease, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report.

In the adult patient, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is uncommon and frequently difficult to diagnose due to its nonspecific presentation and numerous complications.

Prognostic role of methylated GSTP1, p16, ESR1 and PITX2 in patients with breast cancer: A systematic meta-analysis under the guideline of PRISMA.

BRCA1 and RASSF1A promoter methylation has been reported to be correlated with a worse survival in patients with breast cancer. However, the prognostic values of GSTP1, p16, ESR1, and PITX2 promoter methylation in breast cancer remain to be determined. Here, we performed this study to evaluate the prognostic significance of GSTP1, p16, ESR1, and PITX2 promoter methylation in breast cancer.

Role of breast magnetic resonance imaging in predicting malignant invasion of the nipple-areolar complex: Potential predictors and reliability between inter-observers.

In this study, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of malignant invasion of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC).Patients with primary operable breast cancer who underwent preoperative breast MRI and received surgery during January 2011 to December 2013 were collected. The accuracy and potential factors of MRI in predicting nipple invasion were evaluated by comparing preoperative MRI with postoperative histopathologic findings. The consistency of interobservers' variances across different radiologists was also compared.Totally, 704 patients were enrolled in this study, and 56 (8%) patients have pathologic NAC invasion. Several MRI factors were potential predictors of nipple invasion. Only unilateral nipple enhancement on MRI was the most significant independent predictor of NAC involvement in multivariate analysis. The statistical measures, such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of breast MRI were 71.4%, 81.6%, 25.2%, 97.1%, and 80.8%, respectively, in one investigator and 78.6%, 88.1%, 36.4%, 97.9%, and 87.4%, respectively, in the other investigator.MR images showed acceptable accuracy and impressive NPV, but low PPV in evaluation of malignant NAC invasion preoperatively. MRI finding of unilateral nipple enhancement was the most significant predictor of NAC involvement.

Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products and glyoxalase I and long-term outcome in patients with breast cancer.

Receptor for advanced glycation end products and glyoxalase I metabolizing advanced glycation end product precursors may play important role in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Potential relation between soluble forms of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), receptor for advanced glycation end products, glyoxalase I polymorphisms, and long-term outcome (median follow-up of 10.3 years) was studied in 116 patients with breast cancer. Gly82Ser and 2184 A/G RAGE polymorphisms were related to the mortality due to the breast cancer and -419 A/C glyoxalase I polymorphism was related to the overall mortality of the patients suggesting their role not only in the risk of breast cancer but also in the outcome of patients with breast cancer.

Ocular Behçet.

Our study aimed to determine the clinical, therapeutic and prognostic features of ocular involvement in patients with Behçet's disease treated in our Department of ophthalmology. We conducted a retrospective data collection from medical records of 20 patients treated at the military hospital in Laayoune. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination and fluorescein angiography if necessary. OCT exam was performed in two patients. Ten patients had anterior uveitis, complicated in one case by ocular hypertonia; two patients had intermediate uveitis; eight patients had posterior segment involvement complicated in one case by intravitreal hemorrhage. Behcet's Disease (BD) is an systemic idiopathic inflammatory disease currently classified within primary non-necrotizing vasculitis. Ocular involvement is common and severe in Behçet's disease, with the potential to compromise the visual prognosis. Behcet's disease is common in Morocco. It can compromise patient's visual prognosis making the collaboration between ophthalmologists and internists particularly important.

Osteopecilia associated with psoriatic arthritis.

Osteopecilia is a benign and rare condensing osteopathy. Its association with inflammatory rheumatism is very rare. We here report the case of a 25-year old patient with skin psoriasis, presenting with groin pain of inflammatory origin. Physical examination showed limitation of hip motions, lower limb-length inequality and pain on right sacroiliac mobilization. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome and negative immunological assessment. The radiograph of the pelvis revealed osteopecilia associated with destructive coxitis. CT scan of the pelvis showed coxitis and osteopecilia associated with bilateral sacroiliitis. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis associated with osteopecilia was retained. The patient was treated with methotrexate and NSAIDS. Osteopecilia usually is unexpectedly detected. Diagnostic radiology is essential to avoid unnecessary explorations and treatments.

Successful treatment using corticosteroid combined antibiotic for acute acalculous cholecystitis patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

There is no consensus of treatments for acute acalculous cholecystitis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The study was aimed to investigate the effect of the corticosteroid for these patients.A series of patients who were diagnosed as acute acalculous cholecystitis with SLE in the period from January 2012 to December 2016 at our hospital were included. They accepted 2 different conservative treatment strategies initially: the treatment using moxifloxacin (the antibiotic group), and the treatment using corticosteroid combined moxifloxacin (the corticosteroid group). Then clinical manifestations, laboratory features, and outcomes were analyzed.The study identified 22 women Han Chinese patients with the SLE history of 2.8 ± 1.4 year. There was no significant difference in SLE history, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2000), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR), hematologic examination results, and corticosteroid dosage between 2 groups. And there was no significant difference in the symptom of acute cholecystitis, duration of the symptoms, white blood level, and the thickness of gallbladder wall between 2 groups either. However, the SLEDAI-2000 of the corticosteroid group was lower than that of the antibiotic group (7.3 ± 1.4 vs 10.7 ± 3.0, P = .03), so was the SLICC/ACR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs 0.3 ± 0.5, P = .01). Moreover, total 11 of 12 patients were successfully treated in the corticosteroid group, only 1 patient got cholecystectomy because no improvement after conservative treatment. While 4 of 10 patients were successfully treated by moxifloxacin alone, 6 patients had to accept cholecystectomy in the antibiotic group. The rate of successful conservative treatment in the corticosteroid group was higher than that of the antibiotic group (P = .02). All patients were followed up at least 6 months, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence of abdominal pain between 2 groups (P = .37).The corticosteroid plays an important role in the management of the acalculous cholecystitis patient with SLE, and it should be considered as a first line of treatment.

Rituximab alone as induction therapy for membranous lupus nephritis: A multicenter retrospective study.

The optimal treatment for pure membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) remains undetermined. Rituximab constitutes a promising therapeutic option for lupus nephritis and is currently being evaluated for use in idiopathic membranous nephritis. We retrospectively analysed the efficacy and tolerance of rituximab as a monotherapy in the induction treatment of pure MLN.We retrospectively investigated SLE patients with biopsy-proven pure class V lupus nephritis presenting with a protein-to-creatinine ratio of at least 2 g/g and treated with rituximab as monotherapy. A background low dose of corticosteroids (≤20 mg/day) was allowed, as was hydroxychloroquine; higher doses of steroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs fell under the exclusion criteria. Remission status was evaluated at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after rituximab.The study included 15 patients (13 women, median age 37 years, 27% with extra-renal manifestations, median SLE duration 1.5 years). The median protein-to-creatinine ratio was 4.9 g/g, 80% of the patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria, the median serum albumin was 24 g/L, the median serum creatinine was 0.7 mg/dL, and the median eGFR was 122 mL/min/1.73 m. The median follow-up was 29 months (6-112 months). Treatment failure occurred in 2 patients. However, remission was recorded in the remaining 13 (87%, complete remission in 8 patients) with a median time to remission of 5 months. Median proteinuria decreased from 4.9 g/g to 0.16 g/g at month 12 and to 0.11 g/g at month 24. Median serum albumin increased to 36.5 g/L at month 24, and all patients had serum albumin levels greater than 30 g/L at month 12. Renal function remained stable in all patients. Relapse of proteinuria was recorded in 3 patients (at 12, 29, and 34 months). No patients experienced serious adverse events.Rituximab as monotherapy may represent an effective treatment for pure MLN with an excellent tolerance profile.

Breast liposarcoma with solitary metastasis to the pleura: A case report.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women worldwide. Our patient presented with a history of breast liposarcoma (LPS) and was found to have pleural metastasis during the initial workup.

The impact of systemic lupus erythematosus on women's sexual functioning: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

A number of studies have reported the relationship between women's sexual problems and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper was to explore the impact of SLE on women's sexual function.

Sunbeds and skin cancer risk: quantifying a baseline estimate of sunbed facilities in South Africa prior to implementation of sunbed regulations.

In 2009, ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices, i.e. sunbeds and tanning booths, were officially classified as carcinogenic to human health (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

A leprosy clinical severity scale for erythema nodosum leprosum: An international, multicentre validation study of the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale.

We wished to validate our recently devised 16-item ENLIST ENL Severity Scale, a clinical tool for measuring the severity of the serious leprosy associated complication of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). We also wished to assess the responsiveness of the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale in detecting clinical change in patients with ENL.

Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.

Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high.

Clearance of viable Mycobacterium ulcerans from Buruli ulcer lesions during antibiotic treatment as determined by combined 16S rRNA reverse transcriptase /IS 2404 qPCR assay.

Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is effectively treated with rifampicin and streptomycin for 8 weeks but some lesions take several months to heal. We have shown previously that some slowly healing lesions contain mycolactone suggesting continuing infection after antibiotic therapy. Now we have determined how rapidly combined M. ulcerans 16S rRNA reverse transcriptase / IS2404 qPCR assay (16S rRNA) became negative during antibiotic treatment and investigated its influence on healing.

High expression of Rac1 is correlated with partial reversed cell polarity and poor prognosis in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

The change of cell polarity is usually associated with invasion and metastasis. Partial reverse cell polarity in IDC-NOS may play a role in lymphatic tumor spread. Rac1 is a kind of polarity related protein. It plays an important role in invasion and metastasis in tumors. We here investigated the expression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity status in breast cancer and evaluated their value for prognosis in breast cancer. The association of the expression of Rac1 and MUC-1 with clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance was evaluated in 162 cases of IDC-NOS paraffin-embedded tissues by immunohistochemical method. The Rac1 messenger RNA expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 30 breast cancer patients, which was divided into two groups of partial reverse cell polarity and no partial reverse cell polarity. We found that lymph node metastasis of partial reverse cell polarity patients was higher than no partial reverse cell polarity patients (Z = -4.030, p = 0.000). Rac1 was upregulated in partial reverse cell polarity group than no partial reverse cell polarity group (Z = -3.164, p = 0.002), and there was correlationship between the expression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity status (rs = 0.249, p = 0.001). The level of Rac1 messenger RNA expression in partial reverse cell polarity group was significantly higher compared to no partial reverse cell polarity group (t = -2.527, p = 0.017). Overexpression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity correlates with poor prognosis of IDC-NOS patients (p = 0.011). Partial reverse cell polarity and lymph node metastasis remained as independent predictors for poor disease-free survival of IDC-NOS (p = 0.023, p = 0.046). Our study suggests that partial reverse cell polarity may lead to poor prognosis of breast cancer. Overexpression of Rac1 may lead to polarity change in IDC-NOS of the breast. Therefore, Rac1 could be a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Identification and prognostic value of anterior gradient protein 2 expression in breast cancer based on tissue microarray.

Breast cancer has attracted substantial attention as one of the major cancers causing death in women. It is crucial to find potential biomarkers of prognostic value in breast cancer. In this study, the expression pattern of anterior gradient protein 2 in breast cancer was identified based on the main molecular subgroups. Through analysis of 69 samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found that anterior gradient protein 2 expression was significantly higher in non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues and triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p < 0.05). The data from a total of 622 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analysed. The data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and results from quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction also verified the anterior gradient protein 2 expression pattern. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis. The quantification results revealed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) tumours compared with normal tissues. Anterior gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p < 0.01). In addition, anterior gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) and grade 1 + 2 tissues compared with grade 3 tissues (p < 0.05). Analysis by Fisher's exact test revealed that anterior gradient protein 2 expression was significantly associated with histologic type, histological grade, oestrogen status and progesterone status. Univariate analysis of clinicopathological variables showed that anterior gradient protein 2 expression, tumour size and lymph node status were significantly correlated with overall survival in patients with grade 1 and 2 tumours. Cox multivariate analysis revealed anterior gradient protein 2 as a putative independent indicator of unfavourable outcomes (p = 0.031). All these data clearly showed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in breast cancer and can be regarded as a putative biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.

Incidence and prevalence of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) in Poland - differences between rural and urban regions.

[b] Abstract Introduction.[/b] Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare and potentially severe connective tissue disease, characterized by skin fibrosis and involvement of internal organs. Because of its rarity and heterogeneous clinical presentation, reliable epidemiological studies on SSc have been particularly difficult to carry out. [b]Objectives[/b]. The purpose of this study was to present SSc epidemiology among hospitalized patients in Poland.

The direct costs of drug-induced skin reactions.

[b] Abstract Objective.[/b] The aim of the study was an assessment of direct costs of patients hospitalised for for skin adverse drug reactions during 2002-2012 in the Department of Dermatology at the Military Institute of Medicine (Ministry of Defence) in Warsaw. The analysis was carried out from the perspectives of the public payer and service provider. [b]Materials and method. [/b]The retrospective study was carried out in a group of 164 adult patients due to skin adverse drug reactions. Analysis was based on data from patient medical records and medical orders which provided information on the used resources, including diagnostic tests, medical consultations, medicinal products, hospitalisation duration, together with cost estimation, regardless of the treatment being the cause of the skin reaction. [b]Results[/b]. According to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems(ICD) diagnosis and scores, assigned by the National Healthcare Fund, it has been estimated that patient hospitalisation at the Department of Dermatology for skin drug reaction incurred costs at the average amount of €717.00 per patient. The complex diagnostics and pharmacotherapy of the same group of patients generated costs for the hospital at the average amount of €680 per patient. [b]Conclusions[/b]. As a result of the analysis, the therapy for skin adverse drug effects generates significant costs, both for the payer and the service provider. Since the costs are comparable, it seems that the pricing of medical procedures by the public payer is adequate for the costs incurred by the medical service provider.

Establishment of a risk scoring system for predicting locoregional recurrence in T1 to T2 node-negative breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy: Implications for postoperative radiotherapy.

To establish a risk scoring system for predicting locoregional recurrence (LRR) and explore the potential value of radiotherapy in T1 to T2 node-negative breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy. From January 2001 to February 2008, a total of 353 node-negative T1 to T2 breast cancer cases treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Preliminary screening of the prognostic factors was accomplished by Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis, and survival curves between different groups were compared by log-rank test. Risk factors were determined using Cox proportional hazards model. A categorical risk scoring system was generated according to the Cox model, weighing the relative importance of each risk variable. Median follow-up was 115.7 months (range, 1.2-238.4 months). The overall 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 86.7%-92.9%). Chest wall (53.8%) was found to be the most common site of LRR, followed by supraclavicular nodes (48.7%). Age ≤40 years, primary tumor size ≥4.5 cm and number of nodes resected ≤10 were found to be independent factors for poor prognosis of LRR. Two risk stratifications based on the scoring system were subsequently obtained. The 5-year LRFS was 91.6% (95% CI = 88.5%-94.7%) with low risk (score <2) and 75.7% (95% CI = 61.8%-89.6%) with high risk (score ≥2), respectively (χ = 7.544, P = .006). In addition, significant differences in overall survival (P = .045) and disease-free survival (P = .019) were presented between them. Patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer achieved favorable prognosis in general. Those with risk factors, including age ≤40 years, primary tumor size ≥4.5 cm and number of nodes resected ≤10, were at higher risk of LRR. The established scoring system could help to distinguish the subgroups that might potentially benefit from postoperative radiotherapy.

Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis-three challenges-consequences of the vasculitis process, osteoporosis, and malignancy: A prospective cohort study protocol.

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are common inflammatory conditions. The diagnosis of PMR/GCA poses many challenges since there are no specific diagnostic tests. Recent literature emphasizes the ability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) to assess global disease activity in inflammatory diseases. 18F-FDG PET/CT may lead to the diagnosis at an earlier stage than conventional imaging and may also assess response to therapy. With respect to the management of PMR/GCA, there are 3 significant areas of concern as follows: vasculitis process/vascular stiffness, malignancy, and osteoporosis.

A thermal dysregulation problem after breast cancer surgery; what could be?

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complicated disorder characterized by severe fatigue that is not relieved with rest and associated with physical symptoms such as sleep problems, headache, muscle pain, or joint pain.

A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses.

Uncomplicated skin abscesses are common, yet the appropriate management of the condition in the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unclear.

Case 20-2017 - A 48-Year-Old Man with Weight Loss, Confusion, Skin Lesions, and Pancytopenia.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with MRI monitoring for breast cancer.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is increasingly being offered to patients with breast cancer. No survival benefit has been demonstrated for NACT, but it may serve to reduce tumour size and improve prognosis through the attainment of a pathological complete response (pCR). The role and mode of MRI monitoring during NACT remain unclear.

Downregulation of β-catenin blocks fibrosis via Wnt2 signaling in human keloid fibroblasts.

Keloid is a disorder of fibroproliferative diseases that occurs in wounds, characterized by an exaggerated response to injury. The key factor responsible for the disease process has not been identified. This study sought to elucidate the role of β-catenin in the regulation of keloid phenotypes and signaling. Expression of β-catenin in keloid and normal non-keloid samples was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of β-catenin was achieved by delivering small interfering RNA to target β-catenin. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of keloid cells were measured by functional assays in vitro. The proteins related to keloid fibrosis were measured by Western blotting. β-catenin expression was significantly upregulated in keloid tissue samples compared with the normal non-keloid age-adjusted skin sample counterparts. Functionally, targeting β-catenin with lipofection-delivered small interfering RNA oligonucleotide inhibited the proliferation and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and increased apoptosis of fibroblast cells, accompanied by downregulation of Wnt2 and cyclin D1 as well as the phosphorylation level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in the keloid fibrosis. Our study supports a crucial role of β-catenin in the regulation of fibroproliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. Targeting β-catenin using small interfering RNA oligonucleotide may be a promising approach for preventing excessive fibroproliferative development after wound healing and may lead to the development of novel strategies for restoring keloid diseases.

Pyruvate kinase M2 interacts with mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 and inhibits tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

Tamoxifen has been reported to be associated with antagonism of estrogen-mediated cell growth signaling and activation of estrogen receptor-independent apoptosis events. It has been demonstrated that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 is a direct target of Caspases to amplify the apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we presented that breast cancer MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells under treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen displayed decreased level of pyruvate kinase M2. Western blot results also showed that 4-hydroxytamoxifen induced the activity of pro-apoptotic protein Caspase-3 in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells, as evidenced by the cleavage of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 substrate in a dose-dependent manner. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments were performed to clarify the relationship between pyruvate kinase M2 and mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1. The results indicated that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 was associated with pyruvate kinase M2 in cultured mammalian cells, and the interaction between mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was decreased in response to 4-hydroxytamoxifen treatment. In addition, knockdown of pyruvate kinase M2 upregulated the level of cleaved Caspase-3 and subsequently facilitated the nuclear translocation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1. Our data further supplemented the extensive functions of pyruvate kinase M2 in mediating breast cancer cell viability by substantially abating the mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1-mediated apoptosis. In summary, our results identified that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 is a novel downstream target of pyruvate kinase M2, and knockdown of pyruvate kinase M2 contributes apoptosis via promoting nuclear translocation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 by enhancing Caspase-3-dependent cleavage.

Biological function of long noncoding RNA snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

Long noncoding RNA, snaR (small NF90-associated RNA), has been reported to be upregulated in various cancer cell lines. We evaluated the additional role of snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines.