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Stomatognathic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Biomarker MicroRNAs for Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Identified Based on Gene Expression Data and MicroRNA-mRNA Network Analysis.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most malignant tumors with high mortality rate worldwide. Biomarker discovery is critical for early diagnosis and precision treatment of this disease. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules which often regulate essential biological processes and are good candidates for biomarkers. By integrative analysis of both the cancer-associated gene expression data and microRNA-mRNA network, miR-148b-3p, miR-629-3p, miR-27a-3p, and miR-142-3p were screened as novel diagnostic biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma based on their unique regulatory abilities in the network structure of the conditional microRNA-mRNA network and their important functions. These findings were confirmed by literature verification and functional enrichment analysis. Future experimental validation is expected for the further investigation of their molecular mechanisms.

Nasoseptal flap reconstruction after oropharyngeal cancer resection: A case report.

The nasoseptal flap has been widely used to reconstruct skull base defects with excellent success rates. Recently, there were several attempts to use this flap for other defects. Patient concerns: We present the case of the nasoseptal flap reconstruction after oropharyngeal cancer resection.

Lingual alveolar soft part sarcoma responsive to pazopanib: A case report.

The multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as cediranib, sunitinib and pazopanib have been reported to be effective for alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS). The efficacy of pazopanib for the patient with lingual ASPS has yet to be reported.

Rare esophageal ulcers related to Behçet disease: A case report.

The fundamental pathogenesis of Behçet disease (BD) is still unclear and controversial. Many cases of oral aphthous ulcers and genital ulcers related to BD are reported; nevertheless, idiopathic giant esophageal ulcers related to BD are rare. A rare case for esophageal ulcers related to BD is presented.

Experience of weekly cisplatin concurrent with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly sensitive to radiotherapy. Locally advanced NPC has a relatively poor prognosis if treated with radiotherapy alone. Several studies have demonstrated that chemoradiotherapy confers survival benefit in locally advanced NPC. However, a small proportion of patients are resistant to chemotherapy based on cisplatin. So, it is important to make a valuable and inexpensive schedule for these patients. After 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy that consisted of gemcitabine and cisplatin (80 mg/m, every 3 weeks) or paclitaxel and cisplatin (80 mg/m, every 3 weeks), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate efficacy. A total of 13 patients with extensive nodal disease or/and bulky tumors volume were determined with a stable disease (SD) and enrolled in this study. Cisplatin at a dose of 30 mg/m administered weekly concurrent with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was used to treat these patients resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The efficacy was evaluated by tumor response and the change of tumor volume. After the completion of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), the overall tumor response was a complete response (CR) for 4 of 13 (30.8%) patients and partial response (PR) for 9 of 13 (69.2%) patients. The mean primary tumor volume was reduced by 59.7% and 89.8% at the 24th fraction of IMRT and after the completion of IMRT, respectively. The mean nodal volume was reduced by 63.8% and 93.5% at the 24th fraction of IMRT and after completion of IMRT, respectively. The study showed that weekly cisplatin concurrent with IMRT improved the treatment parameters for locally advanced NPC with resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on cisplatin. It was a valuable and relatively inexpensive schedule to improve the prognosis for these patients.

A qualitative exploration of physical, mental and ocular fatigue in patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) affects exocrine glands such as those producing the tear film, leading to dry and painful eyes, but is also associated with fatigue. The experience of fatigue in pSS, and its relationship with sicca symptoms, is poorly understood.

Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in Patients With Sjögren's Syndrome.

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but the risk of IHD in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated the prevalence and risk of IHD with SjS compared to controls from the general population using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample 2011 database.

FBXW7 expression affects the response to chemoradiotherapy and overall survival among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: A single-center retrospective study.

FBXW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain containing-7) is a tumor suppressor protein that regulates the degradation of various oncoproteins in several malignancies. However, limited information is available regarding FBXW7 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the clinical significance of FBXW7 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. The FBXW7 expression patterns in oral squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues from 15 patients who underwent radical resection were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. In addition, immunohistochemistry was performed using paraffin-embedded sections from biopsy specimens obtained from 110 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgery after 5 fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. The associations of FBXW7 expression with various clinicopathological features and prognosis were evaluated in these patients. As a results, in the 15 matched samples, the FBXW7 expression was significantly decreased in the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues compared to that in the adjacent normal tissues. In the clinicopathological analysis, compared to high protein expression, low FBXW7 expression was found to significantly associate with a poor histological response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that low FBXW7 expression was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, and FBXW7 expression was found to be an independent predictor of overall survival in the multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that FBXW7 may function as a tumor suppressor protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, FBXW7 could be a potential biomarker for predicting not only the clinical response to chemoradiotherapy but also overall survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

An atypical lipomatous tumor mimicking a giant fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx: A case report.

Giant fibrovascular polyps (GFVPs) found in the hypopharynx are exceedingly rare. These are benign tumors which are identified by CT or MRI and usually treated based on symptoms. Even more rarely, pathology may identify one of these masses as an atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT). This paper will present a case of an ALT of the hypopharynx that was originally classified as a GFVP, highlighting the difficulty in distinguishing between them and the importance of making the correct diagnosis.

Orthognathic Surgery and Rhinoplasty to Address Nasomaxillary Hypoplasia.

The treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia is challenging. The phenotype of Binder "syndrome" includes the following: midfacial hypoplasia, class III malocclusion, small or absent anterior nasal spine, flattened nose, horizontal nostrils, short columella, acute nasolabial angle, and a flat frontonasal angle. A staged approach is used, with orthognathic surgery to achieve vertical maxillary length and sagittal advancement, followed by rhinoplasty aimed to increase nasal tip projection, rotation, and columellar length. This article details the diagnosis and treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia, demonstrating the senior author's (D.M.S.) preferred approach and technical steps.

Genetic Defects in Tooth Enamel Can Lead to Cavities.

Epstein-Barr virus infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma risk: A meta-analysis.

The evidence for association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is inconsistent in the literature. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify this association.

Pipoxolan Exhibits Antitumor Activity Toward Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Through Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Apoptosis.

Pipoxolan is frequently prescribed as a smooth muscle relaxant. Pipoxolan has also been shown to have anticancer activity. Our study investigated whether pipoxolan induced apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were measured by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and flow cytometry, respectively. Apoptotic-related proteins were assessed by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. Following exposure of TW206 OSCC cells to pipoxolan, a time-dependently decrease in MMP and an increase in ROS were observed. However, these effects were significantly abrogated by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Since high levels of ROS were produced early in the treatment, intracellular ROS seemed to play a key role in pipoxolan-induced apoptosis. In HSC-3 OSCC cells, our results demonstrated that pipoxolan treatment caused a time-dependent increase of protein expression of active caspase-3 and -9, cytosolic cytochrome c, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-like protein 4 (BAX). However, expression of BCL2 itself was reduced. Clearly, such an increase in BAX/BCL2 ratio would be associated with apoptosis. In addition, pipoxolan markedly suppressed the protein expression of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT). These data suggest that pipoxolan acts against HSC-3 in vitro via intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways, and inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling.

Anticancer Effects of Colchicine on Hypopharyngeal Cancer.

Colchicine is an alkaloid widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as gout. It suppresses cell division by inhibiting mitosis. We investigated the anticancer effects of colchicine on human hypopharyngeal cancer cells and the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects. XTT cell proliferation assay showed that colchicine inhibited the growth and proliferation of human hypopharyngeal cancer cells (FaDu and SNU1041) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Colchicine also inhibited the migration, invasion, and adhesion of hypopharyngeal cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased after treatment with colchicine. Further investigation revealed that colchicine inhibited the phosphorylation of the FAK/SRC complex and paxillin. Tumor volume ratios in colchicine-treated mice (0.1 mg/kg, every 2 days for 14 days) increased less than in control mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that colchicine can suppress cell invasion, migration, and adhesion through reduced expression of MMP9, the uPA system, and the FAK/SRC complex. Colchicine has the potential to prevent disease progression in hypopharyngeal cancer and may have application as an adjunctive treatment.

Quantitative Structure-Cytotoxicity Relationship of Aurones.

Seventeen aurones were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis based on their cytotoxicity and tumor-specificity, in order to find their new biological activities.

Quantitative Structure-Cytotoxicity Relationship of Newly Synthesized Piperic Acid Esters.

Eleven piperic acid esters were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis based on their cytotoxicity and tumor-specificity, in order to find their new biological activities.

Role of Neurokinin 3 Receptor Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

The neurokinin 3 receptor (NK-3R) is differentially expressed in the central nervous system including cases of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of NK-3R signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well known.

Tetrandrine Induces Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma NPC-TW 039 Cells by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ca(2+)/Calpain Pathways.

Tetrandrine is an alkaloid extracted from a traditional China medicine plant, and is considered part of food therapy as well. In addition, it has been widely reported to induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells. However, the mechanism of Tetrandrine on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC) is still questioned. In our study, we examined whether Tetrandrine can induce apoptosis of NPC-TW 039 cells. We found that cell morphology was changed after treatment with different concentrations of Tetrandrine. Further, we indicated that the NPC-TW 039 cells viability decreased in a Tetrandrine dose-dependent manner. We also found that tetrandrine induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Tetrandrine induced DNA condensation by DAPI staining as well. In addition, we found that Tetrandrine induced Ca(2+) release in the cytosol. At the same time, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurred. Then we used western blotting to examine the protein expression which is associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways and caspase-dependent pathways. To further examine whether Ca(2+) was released or not with Tetrandrine induced-apoptosis, we used the chelator of Ca(2+) and showed that cell viability increased. At the same time, caspase-3 expression was decreased. Furthermore, confocal microscopy examination revealed that Tetrandrine induced expression of ER stress-related proteins GADD153 and GRP78. Our results indicate that Tetrandrine induces apoptosis through calcium-mediated ER stress and caspase pathway in NPC-TW 039 cells. In conclusion, Tetrandrine may could be used for treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in future.

Search for New Type of Anticancer Drugs with High Tumor Specificity and Less Keratinocyte Toxicity.

Most current anticancer drugs have shown excellent therapeutic effects on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but they also produce potent cytotoxicity in normal oral keratinocytes. This review article summarizes our extensive research of tumor specificity and keratinocyte toxicity of nine groups of compounds synthesized in our laboratory. Among a total of 133 compounds, (E)-3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-6-methoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one [3] (classified as 3-styrylchromones), (E)-3-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]-7-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran [4] (classified as 3-styryl-2H-chromenes) showed the highest tumor specificity with the least keratinocyte toxicity. Compound [3] induced apoptotic cell death in a human OSCC cell line, possibly by down-regulating the glycerophospholipid pathway. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis demonstrated that the tumor specificities of [3] and [4] were well correlated with chemical descriptors related to their molecular size and lipophilicity. Chemical modification of these lead compounds by introduction of appropriate functional groups is a crucial step towards manufacturing new types of anticancer drugs with reduced keratinocyte toxicity.

Association between a history of periodontitis and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan: A nationwide, population-based, case-control study.

To examine the association between a history of periodontitis (PD) and incident systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Protective effect of dexamethasone on 5-FU-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

Oral mucositis (OM) is an important side effect of cancer treatment, characterized by ulcerative lesions in the mucosa of patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy, which has marked effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. Considering that few protocols have demonstrated efficacy in preventing this side effect, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on OM induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters by studying signaling pathways. OM was induced in hamsters by 5-FU followed by mechanical trauma (MT) on day 4. On day 10, the animals were euthanized. The experimental groups included saline, MT, 5-FU, and DEX (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg). Macroscopic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses as well as immunofluorescence experiments were performed on the oral mucosa of the animals. The oral mucosal samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). DEX (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) reduced inflammation and ulceration of the oral mucosa of hamsters. In addition, DEX (1 mg/kg) reduced the cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). DEX (1 mg/kg) also reduced the immunoexpression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, MIF, Smad 2/3, Smad 2/3 phosphorylated and NFκB p65 in the jugal mucosa. Finally, DEX (1 mg/kg) increased interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK-M), glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MKP1) gene expression and reduced NFκB p65 and serine threonine kinase (AKt) gene expression, relative to the 5-FU group. Thus, DEX improved OM induced by 5-FU in hamsters.

Dr. Bob: Worm's Eye View.

Giant Cell Tumor of Mandibular Condyle: A Rarity.

Mouth Cancer Rates in UK Soar.

The Argument From Perfection.

Rare GABRA3 variants are associated with epileptic seizures, encephalopathy and dysmorphic features.

Genetic epilepsies are caused by mutations in a range of different genes, many of them encoding ion channels, receptors or transporters. While the number of detected variants and genes increased dramatically in the recent years, pleiotropic effects have also been recognized, revealing that clinical syndromes with various degrees of severity arise from a single gene, a single mutation, or from different mutations showing similar functional defects. Accordingly, several genes coding for GABAA receptor subunits have been linked to a spectrum of benign to severe epileptic disorders and it was shown that a loss of function presents the major correlated pathomechanism. Here, we identified six variants in GABRA3 encoding the α3-subunit of the GABAA receptor. This gene is located on chromosome Xq28 and has not been previously associated with human disease. Five missense variants and one microduplication were detected in four families and two sporadic cases presenting with a range of epileptic seizure types, a varying degree of intellectual disability and developmental delay, sometimes with dysmorphic features or nystagmus. The variants co-segregated mostly but not completely with the phenotype in the families, indicating in some cases incomplete penetrance, involvement of other genes, or presence of phenocopies. Overall, males were more severely affected and there were three asymptomatic female mutation carriers compared to only one male without a clinical phenotype. X-chromosome inactivation studies could not explain the phenotypic variability in females. Three detected missense variants are localized in the extracellular GABA-binding NH2-terminus, one in the M2-M3 linker and one in the M4 transmembrane segment of the α3-subunit. Functional studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed a variable but significant reduction of GABA-evoked anion currents for all mutants compared to wild-type receptors. The degree of current reduction correlated partially with the phenotype. The microduplication disrupted GABRA3 expression in fibroblasts of the affected patient. In summary, our results reveal that rare loss-of-function variants in GABRA3 increase the risk for a varying combination of epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay and dysmorphic features, presenting in some pedigrees with an X-linked inheritance pattern.

MicroRNAs expression profile in solid and unicystic ameloblastomas.

Odontogenic tumors (OT) represent a specific pathological category that includes some lesions with unpredictable biological behavior. Although most of these lesions are benign, some, such as the ameloblastoma, exhibit local aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. The most common types of ameloblastoma are the solid/multicystic (SA) and the unicystic ameloblastoma (UA); the latter considered a much less aggressive entity as compared to the SA. The microRNA system regulates the expression of many human genes while its deregulation has been associated with neoplastic development. The aim of the current study was to determine the expression profiles of microRNAs present in the two most common types of ameloblastomas.

School Sealant Programs a Cost-Effective Way to Prevent Childhood Caries.

Sugar--What Should Be Done?

The prevalence of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal cancer in a New Zealand population.

The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in New Zealand (NZ) has more than doubled over the last 14 years with 126 cases in 2010. Overseas studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a significant role in the development of these cancers. However, the role of HPV in OPC and the burden on the NZ health system is unclear.