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Stomatognathic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

STYK1 promotes Warburg effect through PI3K/AKT signaling and predicts a poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

STYK1 (Serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, exhibits tumorigenicity in many types of cancers. Our study reveals the important role played by STYK1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. STYK1 is upregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues compared with para-carcinoma. Knockdown of STYK1 inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while ectopic STYK1 expression significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities. In addition, we provided lines of evidence supporting the critical role of STYK1 in the regulation of glycolysis via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Survival analysis reveals that STYK1 level is an independent prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Our results indicate that STYK1 is a promising therapeutic target in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Influence of endoscopic sinus surgery on the quality of life of patients with early nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the analysis of prognosis-related factors.

The aim of this study is investigate the influence of endoscopic sinus surgery on the quality of life and prognosis of patients with early nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients initially diagnosed with early nasopharyngeal carcinoma and received surgical treatment were matched with nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who received chemoradiotherapy at a ratio of 1:1, according to the following seven factors: gender, age, T staging, N staging, clinical staging, radiotherapy options, and chemotherapy options. Patients in the surgery group received endoscopic sinus surgery plus chemoradiotherapy, while subjects in the control group received chemoradiotherapy. The quality of life of patients before and after treatment was evaluated based on the FACT-H&N (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck) and QLQ-H&N35 (Head and Neck Cancer Specific Module) questionnaires. In addition, overall survival and disease-free survival were compared between these two groups. The results showed overall survival was superior in the surgery group compared with the control group ( p = 0.007). However, the difference in disease-free survival between these two groups was not statistically significant ( p = 0.128). Furthermore, subgroup analysis revealed that for N0 patients, the effect of surgery combined with chemoradiotherapy on overall survival was superior to that of chemoradiotherapy ( p = 0.048); while for N1 patients, the difference in overall survival between these two groups was not statistically significant ( p = 0.065). For early nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without lymph node metastasis, overall survival and disease-free survival in T1 patients were superior to those in T2 patients (χ(2) = 4.403, p = 0.036; χ(2) = 4.542, p = 0.033). At the end of treatment, the pain score was found to be significantly lower in the surgery group than in the chemoradiotherapy group ( p = 0.027). At 3 months and 1 year after treatment, dry mouth scores were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the chemoradiotherapy group ( p = 0.002, p = 0.026). These results demonstrated that the curative effect of surgery combined with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was satisfactory and was particularly suitable for N0 patients.

Cardiac metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism: A case report.

Cardiac metastasis is known as a rare complication of head and neck malignancy.

Ocular Behçet.

Our study aimed to determine the clinical, therapeutic and prognostic features of ocular involvement in patients with Behçet's disease treated in our Department of ophthalmology. We conducted a retrospective data collection from medical records of 20 patients treated at the military hospital in Laayoune. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination and fluorescein angiography if necessary. OCT exam was performed in two patients. Ten patients had anterior uveitis, complicated in one case by ocular hypertonia; two patients had intermediate uveitis; eight patients had posterior segment involvement complicated in one case by intravitreal hemorrhage. Behcet's Disease (BD) is an systemic idiopathic inflammatory disease currently classified within primary non-necrotizing vasculitis. Ocular involvement is common and severe in Behçet's disease, with the potential to compromise the visual prognosis. Behcet's disease is common in Morocco. It can compromise patient's visual prognosis making the collaboration between ophthalmologists and internists particularly important.

Ameloblastoma of the maxillary sinus treated with radiation therapy.

Ameloblastoma is a benign aggressive odontogenic tumor which requires early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. It commonly affects the mandible and radical surgery is the gold standard treatment. We report the case of a patient with ameloblastoma in extremely advanced phase affecting the maxillary sinus who was treated with intensity modulated conformal radiation therapy. Patient's evolution was marked by complete remission maintained after 24 months follow-up. Maxillary ameloblastoma is not well documented in the literature. It is usually diagnosed at the later stage when optimal surgery cannot be performed. This case study aimed to demonstrate that radiation therapy is a real therapeutic alternative in the treatment of advanced and inoperable forms of ameloblastoma.

Silencing of long non-coding RNA CCAT2 depressed malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a common and lethal malignancy affecting the head and neck region. CCAT2 (colon cancer-associated transcript 2) gene is affiliated with long non-coding RNAs, which are often found to have important regulatory roles in cancers. This study aims to assess the expression and clinical significance of CCAT2 gene, identify its malignant biological behaviors, and explore the possible mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its relationship with clinical factors was assayed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The biological behaviors of CCAT2 and its potential mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma were explored by the combined use of CCAT2 knockdown technology and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway agonist lithium chloride (LiCl). Our results showed that CCAT2 functioning as a potential oncogene was upregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 with high expression level was correlated with poor differentiation, higher T stage, and clinical stage, which made CCAT2 to be a prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. LiCl-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could partly restore the CCAT2-mediated malignant biological behaviors of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by suppressing β-catenin, CCND1, and MYC and activating glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta expression. These findings might assist in the discovery of novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma, thereby improve the effects of clinical treatment in patients.

Prognostic value of primary gross tumor volume and standardized uptake value of (18)F-FDG in PET/CT for distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Distant metastasis has become the predominant model of treatment failures in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Effort should therefore be made to stratify locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients into different groups based on the risk of metastasis to improve prognosis and tailor individualized treatments. This study aims to assess the value of primary gross tumor volume and the maximum standardized uptake value for predicting distant metastasis-free survival of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 294 locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who were identified from prospectively maintained database and underwent fluor-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging before treatment were included. The maximum standardized uptake value was recorded for the primary tumor (SUVmax-P) and neck lymph nodes (SUVmax-N). Computed tomography-derived primary gross tumor volume was measured using the summation-of-area technique. At 5 years, the distant metastasis-free survival rate was 83.7%. The cut-off of the SUVmax-P, SUVmax-N, and primary gross tumor volume for distant metastasis-free survival was 8.95, 5.75, and 31.3 mL, respectively, by receiver operating characteristic curve. In univariate analysis, only SUVmax-N (hazard ratio: 7.01; 95% confidence interval: 1.70-28.87; p < 0.01) and clinical stage (hazard ratio: 3.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.67-5.47; p = 0.007) were confirmed as independent predictors of distant metastasis-free survival. A prognostic model was derived by SUVmax-N and clinical stage: low risk (SUVmax-N < 5.75 regardless of clinical stage), medium risk (stage III and SUVmax-N ≥ 5.75), and high risk (stage IV and SUVmax-N ≥ 5.75). Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax-N and the prognostic model remained independent prognostic factors for distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively), but the clinical stage became insignificant (p = 0.133). Furthermore, the adjusted hazard ratios for the prognostic model were higher than SUVmax-N (hazard ratio = 6.27 vs 5.21, respectively). In summary, compared with SUVmax-P, SUVmax-N may be a better predictor of distant metastasis-free survival for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Combining SUVmax-N with clinical stage gives a more precise picture in predicting distant metastasis.

Effectiveness on Early Childhood Caries of an Oral Health Promotion Program for Medical Providers.

To assess an oral health promotion (OHP) intervention for medical providers' impact on early childhood caries (ECC).

Association between periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases: A 12-year longitudinal health-examinee cohort study in South Korea.

The National Health Insurance Service-Health Examinee Cohort during 2002 to 2013 was used to investigate the associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the following non-communicable diseases (NCDs): hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and obesity.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders during the follow-up period-including age, sex, household income, insurance status, residence area, health status, and comorbidities-were used to estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in order to assess the associations between PD and NCDs.We enrolled 200,026 patients with PD and 154,824 subjects with a healthy oral status. Statistically, significant associations were found between PD and the investigated NCDs except for cerebral and myocardial infarction after adjusting for sociodemographic and comorbidity factors (P < .05). In particular, obesity (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.04-1.63, P = .022), osteoporosis (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.18-1.27, P < .001), and angina pectoris (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.17-1.27, P < .001) were significantly and positively associated with PD.This longitudinal cohort study has provided evidence that patients with PD are at increased risk of NCDs. Further studies are required to confirm the reliability of this association and elucidate the role of the inflammatory pathway in periodontitis pathogenesis as a triggering and mediating mechanism.

Computer-designed surgical guide template compared with free-hand operation for mesiodens extraction in premaxilla using "trapdoor" method.

The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of mesiodens extraction using a vascularized pedicled bone flap by piezosurgery and to compare the differences between a computer-aided design surgical guide template and free-hand operation.A total of 8 patients with mesiodens, 4 with a surgical guide (group I), and 4 without it (group II) were included in the study. The surgical design was to construct a trapdoor pedicle on the superior mucoperiosteal attachment with application of piezosurgery. The bone lid was repositioned after mesiodens extraction. Group I patients underwent surgeries based on the preoperative planning with surgical guide templates, while group II patients underwent free-hand operation. The outcome variables were success rate, intraoperative time, anterior nasal spine (ANS) position, changes of nasolabial angle (NLA), and major complications. Data from the 2 groups were compared by SPSS 17.0, using Wilcoxon test.The operative time was significantly shorter in group I patients. All the mesiodentes were extracted successfully and no obvious differences of preoperative and postoperative ANS position and NLA value were found in both groups. The patients were all recovered uneventfully.Surgical guide templates can enhance clinical accuracy and reduce operative time by facilitating accurate osteotomies.

Effects of short-term in-vivo studies on orthodontic root resorption paradigms.

Identification of a Sjögren's syndrome susceptibility locus at OAS1 that influences isoform switching, protein expression, and responsiveness to type I interferons.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study. Multiple cis-eQTLs were associated with transcript levels of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) peaking at rs10774671 (PeQTL = 6.05 × 10-14). Association of rs10774671 with SS susceptibility was identified and confirmed through meta-analysis of two independent cohorts (Pmeta = 2.59 × 10-9; odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.86). The risk allele of rs10774671 shifts splicing of OAS1 from production of the p46 isoform to multiple alternative transcripts, including p42, p48, and p44. We found that the isoforms were differentially expressed within each genotype in controls and patients with and without autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results showed that the three alternatively spliced isoforms lacked translational response to type I IFN stimulation. The p48 and p44 isoforms also had impaired protein expression governed by the 3' end of the transcripts. The SS risk allele of rs10774671 has been shown by others to be associated with reduced OAS1 enzymatic activity and ability to clear viral infections, as well as reduced responsiveness to IFN treatment. Our results establish OAS1 as a risk locus for SS and support a potential role for defective viral clearance due to altered IFN response as a genetic pathophysiological basis of this complex autoimmune disease.

Is there an association between IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility?: A meta-analysis.

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontitis. The single nucleotide polymorphism of +874A/T in human IFN-γ gene can influence the secretion of IFN-γ and affect periodontitis susceptibility. However, the findings of published studies are inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether there is an association between IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility.

Targeted sequencing in FGF/FGFR genes and association analysis of variants for mandibular prognathism.

To identify variants of the genes in fibroblast growth factors/fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF/FGFR) signal pathway that predispose to mandibular prognathism (MP) in the general Chinese population systematically.Targeted sequencing of the FGF/FGFR genes was conducted in 176 MP individuals and 155 class I malocclusion controls. The associations of common and rare variants with MP as a categorical phenotype and also continuous malocclusion phenotypes generated by principal component (PC) analysis were analyzed.One common variant, rs372127537, located in the 3'-untranslated region of FGF7 gene, was significantly related to PC1 (P  =  4.22 × 10), which explained 23.23% of the overall phenotypic variation observed and corresponded to vertical discrepancies ranging from short anterior face height to long anterior face height, after Bonferroni correction. Also, 15 other variants were associated with PC1-4, although not significant after multiple corrections (P < .05). We also identified 3 variants: rs13317 in FGFR1, rs149242678 in FGF20, and rs79176051 FGF12 associated with MP (P < .05). With respect to rare variant analysis, variants within the FGF12 gene showed significant association with MP (P  =  .001).Association between FGF/FGFR signaling pathway and MP has been identified. We found a previously unreported SNP in FGF7 significantly related to increased facial height. Also, rare variants within the FGF12 were associated with MP. Our results provide new clues for genetic mechanisms of MP and shed light on strategies for evaluating rare variants that underlie complex traits. Future studies with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage, and also in other population are required to replicate these findings.

A genome-wide association scan of biological processes involved in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation from oral lichen planus (OLP) to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were examined.

Role of JNK signaling in oral cancer: A mini review.

JNKs (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) belong to mitogen-activated protein kinases' family and become activated by several growth factors, stress, radiation, and other extracellular signals. In turn, JNK activation results in phosphorylation of downstream molecules involved in many normal cellular processes. Nevertheless, recent data have linked JNK signaling with several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, and cancer. The role of JNK in cancer remains controversial. Initially, JNK was thought to play a rather oncosuppressive role by mediating apoptosis in response to stress stimuli, inflammatory, or oncogenic signals. However, a number of studies have implicated JNK in malignant transformation and tumor growth. The contradictory functions of JNK in cancer may be due to the diversity of JNK upstream and downstream signaling and are under intensive investigation. This review summarizes current literature focusing on the significance of JNK pathway in cancer development and progression, particularly addressing its role in oral cancer. Understanding the complexity of JNK signaling has the potential to elucidate important molecular aspects of oral cancer, possibly leading to development of novel and individualized therapeutic strategies.

The long noncoding RNA FOXCUT promotes proliferation and migration by targeting FOXC1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Long noncoding RNAs play an important role in various biological processes, including tumorigenesis. FOXC1 (Forkhead box C1) is a member of the Forkhead box family of transcription factors and plays a crucial role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this study, a novel long noncoding RNA (FOXCUT) located upstream of FOXC1 was investigated in 42 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Our analysis revealed that the expression levels of FOXCUT and FOXC1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues were significantly higher than those observed in chronic nasopharyngitis tissues and that FOXCUT expression was positively correlated with FOXC1 expression. Additionally, knockdown of FOXCUT significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and resulted in downregulated expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 7 and matrix metalloproteinase 9, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor A and β-catenin. Our findings suggested that FOXCUT expression contributed to the development and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting FOXC1 and that FOXCUT might be useful as a potential nasopharyngeal carcinoma biomarker and therapeutic target.

MiR-183 overexpression inhibits tumorigenesis and enhances DDP-induced cytotoxicity by targeting MTA1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

MicroRNA 183 (miR-183) was identified to be downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma spheroids and served as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-183 and its role in cisplatin (DDP) resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells are still unclear. The expression of miR-183 and metastasis-associated protein 1 at messenger RNA and protein levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cells was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. CNE1 and CNE2 cells were transfected with miR-183 mimic, miR-183 inhibitor, pcDNA-metastasis-associated protein 1, or respective controls. The effects of miR-183 and metastasis-associated protein 1 overexpression on cell proliferation, invasion, and DDP-induced apoptosis were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Transwell invasion assay, and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to explore whether miR-183 directly targeted metastasis-associated protein 1. Xenograft tumor experiment was applied to confirm the biological function of miR-183 in vivo. MiR-183 was downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cells and negatively correlated with metastasis-associated protein 1 expression. Ectopic expression of miR-183 markedly suppressed cell proliferation and invasion and strikingly enhanced DDP-induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, whereas metastasis-associated protein 1 overexpression partially reversed these effects. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that metastasis-associated protein 1 was a direct target of miR-183. MiR-183 negatively regulated the expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 at both the messenger RNA and protein levels. Xenograft tumor experiment indicated that miR-183 overexpression repressed tumor growth and improved DDP-induced cytotoxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vivo. MiR-183 overexpression inhibited tumorigenesis and enhanced DDP-induced cytotoxicity by targeting metastasis-associated protein 1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, contributing to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of clinical nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Cancer stem cell markers in patterning differentiation and in prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.01). Furthermore, co-expression analysis showed that 45% each of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma patients were CD44(high)/CD147(high) as compared to only 10% of patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A three-way analysis indicated that differentiation correlated with recurrence and survival (p < 0.05) in only the patients with CD44(high)/CD147(high) cohort. Subsequently, relevance of these cancer stem cell markers in patterning the differentiation characteristics was evaluated in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines originating from different grades of oral cancer. Flowcytometry-based analysis indicated an increase in CD44(+)/CD147(+) cells in cell lines of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (94.35 ± 1.14%, p < 0.001) and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma origin (93.49 ± 0.47%, p < 0.001) as compared to cell line of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma origin (23.12% ± 0.49%). Expression profiling indicated higher expression of cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in SCC029B (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma originated; p ≤ 0.001), which was further translated into increased spheroid formation, migration, and invasion (p < 0.001) as compared to cell line of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma origin. This study suggests that CD44 and CD147 together improve the prognostic efficacy of tumor differentiation; in vitro results further point out that these markers might be determinant of differentiation characteristics, imparting properties of increased self-renewal, migration, and invasion.

Management of viral oral ulcers in children using Chinese herbal medicine: A report of two cases.

Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS).

Rapamycin enhances the anti-angiogenesis and anti-proliferation ability of YM155 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

YM155, a small molecule inhibitor of survivin, has been studied in many tumors. It has been shown that YM155 inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma through promoting apoptosis and autophagy and inhibiting proliferation. It was found that YM155 also inhibited the oral squamous cell carcinoma-mediated angiogenesis through the inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, played an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In our study, cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, tube formation assay, and western blot assay were used to investigate the synergistic effect of rapamycin on YM155 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Either in vitro or in vivo, rapamycin and YM155 exerted a synergistic effect on the inhibition of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor through mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Overall, our results revealed that low-dose rapamycin strongly promoted the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to YM155.

Clinical management and patient persistence with antibiotic course in suspected group A streptococcal pharyngitis for primary prevention of rheumatic fever: the perspective from a New Zealand emergency department.

Rates of acute rheumatic fever in the Northland region are historically among the highest in New Zealand, impacting disproportionately on Māori children and youth. The primary aim of this study was to determine patient persistence to antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in patients presenting with sore throat to the Whangarei Hospital Emergency Department. Secondarily, this study sought to determine prescriber adherence to the national antibiotic guideline for sore throat management.

Low expression of nm23-H1 associates with poor survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: A prisma-compliant meta-analysis.

Developing a new reliable prognostic marker to predict the prognosis and supply better and more suitable therapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is urgent. Therefore, we performed this systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to clarify and explore the associate expression of nm23-H1 with prognosis of NPC patients.

p63 exerts spatio-temporal control of palatal epithelial cell fate to prevent cleft palate.

Cleft palate is a common congenital disorder that affects up to 1 in 2500 live births and results in considerable morbidity to affected individuals and their families. The aetiology of cleft palate is complex with both genetic and environmental factors implicated. Mutations in the transcription factor p63 are one of the major individual causes of cleft palate; however, the gene regulatory networks in which p63 functions remain only partially characterized. Our findings demonstrate that p63 functions as an essential regulatory molecule in the spatio-temporal control of palatal epithelial cell fate to ensure appropriate fusion of the palatal shelves. Initially, p63 induces periderm formation and controls its subsequent maintenance to prevent premature adhesion between adhesion-competent, intra-oral epithelia. Subsequently, TGFβ3-induced down-regulation of p63 in the medial edge epithelia of the palatal shelves is a pre-requisite for palatal fusion by facilitating periderm migration from, and reducing the proliferative potential of, the midline epithelial seam thereby preventing cleft palate.

Treatment of drooling with sublingual atropine sulfate in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

To report the effect of sublingual atropine sulfate to treat drooling in children with cerebral palsy by comparing the results of the Drooling Impact Scale in a non-controlled open clinical trial.

Oral Candida spp carriage and periodontal diseases in HIV-infected patients in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.

3D analysis of effects of primary surgeries in cleft lip/palate children during the first two years of life.

This study aimed at monitoring the maxillary growth of children with cleft lip/palate in the first two years of life, and to evaluate the effects of primary surgeries on dental arch dimensions. The sample consisted of the three-dimensional digital models of 25 subjects with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 29 subjects with isolated cleft palate (CP). Maxillary arch dimensions were measured at 3 months (before lip repair), 1 year (before palate repair), and at 2 years of age. Student's ttest was used for comparison between the groups. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used to compare different treatment phases in the UCLP group. Paired ttest was used to compare different treatment phases in the CP group. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Decreased intercanine distance and anterior arch length were observed after lip repair in UCLP. After palate repair, maxillary dimensions increased significantly, except for the intercanine distance in UCLP and the intertuberosity distance in both groups. At the time of palate repair and at two years of age, the maxillary dimensions were very similar in both groups. It can be concluded that the maxillary arches of children with UCLP and CP changed as a result of primary surgery.

A randomized clinical trial on the sealing of occlusal carious lesions: 3-4-year results.

This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess the efficacy of sealing occlusal carious lesions in permanent teeth. The sample consisted of 54 occlusal carious lesions in permanent molars and premolars of 49 patients aged 8-43 years (median: 19 years). The inclusion criteria comprised the presence of a cavity with no access allowing biofilm control. The maximum depth of the lesion was the middle third of the dentin thickness, as assessed by bitewing radiography. The teeth were randomly assigned to sealant treatment (n = 28) or restorative treatment (n = 26). Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed after 1 year and after 3-4 years. The outcomes depended on the clinical performance of the sealant/restoration and the control of caries progression observed radiographically. Survival analysis was performed to assess success rates. Over the 3-4 years of monitoring, 2 sealants were totally lost, 1 needed repair, and 1 showed caries progression, totaling 4 failures in the sealant group. In the restoration group, 1 failure was observed (in need of repair). The success rates were 76% and 94% in the sealant and the restoration groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The sealing of occlusal carious lesions in permanent teeth succeeded in controlling caries over a 3-4-year period. However, sealed carious lesions require patient compliance in attending regular follow-ups to control the occurrence of clinical failures of the sealants.

Association between crack cocaine use and reduced salivary flow.

Crack cocaine use appears to have an impact on oral conditions. However, changes in the salivary flow among crack users have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare stimulated salivary flow and the occurrence of hyposalivation between crack users and non-users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 crack users and 40 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Interviews were conducted to acquire data on the perception of dry mouth (xerostomia) and drug use. Stimulated salivary flow was determined using the spitting method. A significant reduction in stimulated salivary flow was found among crack users in comparison to non-users (1.02 vs. 1.59 ml/min). A total of 42.5% and 15% of crack users had very low and low stimulated salivary flow, respectively. Moreover, 65% of users reported xerostomia in comparison to 37.5% non-users (p < 0.012). No significant association was found between xerostomia and hyposalivation (p = 0.384). A multivariate analysis revealed that individuals older than 26 years of age, those with a low household income, and crack users (prevalence ratio: 2.59) had a significant association with the occurrence of hyposalivation. A significant association was found between the use of crack and reduced salivary flow. The use of crack was associated with the occurrence of hyposalivation in the multivariate analysis.

Salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries: a systematic review.

Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by means of a systematic review of the current literature. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Virtual Health Library. The following search terms were used: "dental caries susceptibility," "dental caries," "polymorphism, genetics," "saliva," "proteins," and "peptides." Related MeSH headings and free terms were included. The inclusion criteria comprised clinical investigations of subjects with and without caries. After application of these eligibility criteria, the selected articles were qualified by assessing their methodological quality. Initially, 338 articles were identified from the electronic databases after exclusion of duplicates. Exclusion criteria eliminated 322 articles, and 16 remained for evaluation. Eleven articles found a consistent association between salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries, for proteins related to antimicrobial activity (beta defensin 1 and lysozyme-like protein), pH control (carbonic anhydrase VI), and bacterial colonization/adhesion (lactotransferrin, mucin, and proline-rich protein Db). This systematic review demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and risk of dental caries for most of the salivary proteins.