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Stomatognathic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of silymarin on oral cancer.

Silymarin, a standardized extract from milk thistle fruits has been found to exhibit anti-cancer effects against various cancers. Here, we explored the anti-cancer activity of silymarin and its molecular target in human oral cancer in vitro and in vivo. Silymarin dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of HSC-4 oral cancer cells and promoted caspase-dependent apoptosis. A human apoptosis protein array kit showed that death receptor 5 may be involved in silymarin-induced apoptosis, which was also shown through western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Silymarin increased cleaved caspase-8 and truncated Bid, leading to accumulation of cytochrome c. In addition, silymarin activated death receptor 5/caspase-8 to induce apoptotic cell death in two other oral cancer cell lines (YD15 and Ca9.22). Silymarin also suppressed tumor growth and volume without any hepatic or renal toxicity in vivo. Taken together, these results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting the anti-cancer effect of silymarin and death receptor 5, and caspase-8 may be essential players in silymarin-mediated apoptosis in oral cancer.

Relationship between foot posture and dental malocclusions in children aged 6 to 9 years: A cross-sectional study.

The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between foot posture and dental malocclusions in the anteroposterior plane, in children.The study population consisted of 189 children (95 boys and 94 girls) aged 6 to 9 years. In every case, previous informed consent was requested and obtained from the parent/guardian and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Málaga (CEUMA 26/2015H).This observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis is based on a study population (STROBE). Qualified personnel conducted a podiatric and dental examination of each child, recording the Clarke angle and the foot posture index (FPI) as an outcomes measure in the feet, and also dental malocclusions, according to Angle classification.A significant correlation was observed for the FPI scores (for right foot) as well as the Clarke angle (for right foot), in relation to dental malocclusions as determined by Angle classification (P < .001). Of all the supinated feet analyzed, 38.46% were Class II according to Angle classification, and none were Class III. Of the pronated feet, 48.57% were Class III, 42.85% were Class I, and 8.57% were Class II.The Clarke angle decreases with the progression from Class I to III, whereas the FPI increases with that from Class I to III. These findings suggest there is a relation between the Clarke angle and FPI, on the one hand, and dental malocclusion on the other.

Comparison of the image quality of turbo spin echo- and echo-planar diffusion-weighted images of the oral cavity.

The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of turbo spin echo (TSE) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and echo-planar imaging (EPI) of the oral cavity region.This retrospective study included 26 patients who had undergone both TSE- and EPI-DWI. Misregistration of DWI with T2-TSE images was assessed in the oral cavity. We also compared geometric distortion, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for the tongue parotid gland, and spinal cord. On a 5-point scale, 2 radiologists scored the TSE- and EPI-DWI of each patient for ghost artifacts, image contrast, and overall image quality.Distortion in the phase-encoded direction was significantly lower on TSE- than EPI-DWI. The SNR of the tongue and parotid gland was significantly higher on TSE than EPI-DWI except spinal cord. No significant difference was found in contrast and ADC values (except for the ADC of tongue). TSE-DWI yielded higher qualitative scores for all parameters except image contrast.For the oral cavity region, TSE-DWI was superior to EPI-DWI with respect to distortion-free images and superior image quality.

Comparing osteogenic effects between concentrated growth factors and the acellular dermal matrix.

Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is an autogenuous product that contains highly concentrated number of platelets and can be derived from venous blood by selective centrifugation. It has been speculated that local growth factors in human platelets (insulinlike growth factor, IGF; transforming growth factor, TGF-b; platelet derived growth factor, PDGF) would enhance healing of grafts and also counteract resorption. The osteogensis effect of CGF and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Twenty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent guided bone regeneration (GBR) using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting combined with CGF (CGF group). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained at 1 week and 6 months following the procedure. Using Mimics 17.0 software, the bone resorption rate and bone density improvement rate were calculated and compared between the two groups. Although not significant between ADM and CGF in bone resorption rate, the bone density improvement in cases with CGF(61.62 ± 4.728%) was much better than in cases with ADM (27.05 ± 5.607%) (p = 0.0002). Thus, CGF could be recommended to patients with alveolar cleft as a better choice.

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, osteoradionecrosis, and osteomyelitis: A comparative histopathological study.

It is largely known that some oral diseases can be diagnosed based upon their clinical manifestation combined with the patient's medical history and generally not depending on examination. This is the case of some bone diseases such as osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ), osteomyelitis of the jaw (OMJ), and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). The present study aimed to analyze the histopathological features of these specific bone diseases in order to evaluate similarities and differences. Forty-four bone specimens resected from each bone disease (22 cases of ORNJ, 6 cases of OMJ, and 16 cases of MRONJ) were analyzed by two experienced oral pathologists without prior knowledge of the diagnosis, considering bone tissue condition, inflammation, vascularization, and the presence of microorganisms. In addition, the examiners formulated a diagnostic hypothesis for each specimen. Many histopathological similarities were found among the diseases, especially considering the presence of necrotic bone, inflammation, and microorganisms. Statistically significant differences were detected in empty bone lacunae, which was decreased in ORN (p = 0.042), and considering neutrophil count, which was low in the MRONJ group (p ≤ 0.001). The Kappa coefficient was calculated and agreement was detected based on the histopathological parameters, but not for diagnostic suggestion (p=0.23). In conclusion, histopathological aspects of ORNJ, OMJ, and MRONJ do not permit a conclusive diagnosis, emphasizing the necessity of a detailed clinical report.

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ-15).

The dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is able to impair the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL). However, there isn't any specific validated questionnaire to be used in Brazil. The objective was to adapt and to validate the English version of the Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ-15) for use in Brazil. DHEQ-15 was cross-culturally adapted into the Brazilian-Portuguese language and then validated in a cross-sectional study with 100 participants recruited at a University clinic. Study sample comprised 2 groups: 100 individuals with DH, and 100 individuals without. The instrument was self-administered twice 7 to 10 days apart. The participants answered a global rating of oral health. The psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of DHEQ-15 were verified through internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC), convergent (Spearman correlation) and discriminant (Mann-Whitney test) validity. The significance threshold was set at p<0.05. Sample comprised 69 men and 131 women, of mean age 30.4y. The Brazilian DHEQ-15 demonstrated very good internal consistency (α = 0.945). Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.959, p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between the scores obtained on all DHEQ-15 domains and the global rating of oral health (p<0.001). Participants with DH scored significantly higher than those without DH (p<0.001). This study provides evidence supporting the cross-cultural validity of the Brazilian version of DHEQ-15 for use in Brazil.

Orofacial signs and dental abnormalities in patients with Mulvihill-Smith syndrome: A literature review on this rare progeroid pathology.

Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is a rare sporadic condition that was first recognized in 1975. A total of 11 cases have been described in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the orofacial signs and dental anomalies, their frequency, and the relationship between Mulvihill-Smith syndrome and other progeroid syndromes via a review of the literature.

Radiotherapy alone and with concurrent chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective study.

We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes and toxicities of radiation therapy (RT) alone compared to RT with concurrent chemotherapy (CCT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment.We conducted a retrospective review of consecutive patients with biopsy-proven nonmetastatic NPC who underwent RT at our institution. From May 2001 to April 2015; 62 newly diagnosed NPC patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without CCT. The patients were classified as follows: 8% stage I, 15% stage II, 32% stage III, and 45% stage IVA/IVB. A total of 76% of tumors were World Health Organization types II or III. Acute and late toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were analyzed.The median follow-up period for living patients was 53 months. The median actual delivered dose was 70 Gy with a range of 28 to 70 Gy in fraction sizes of 2 Gy. The estimated 5-year OS, PFS, LRPFS, and DMFS rates were 72.7%, 59.8%, 77.9%, and 84.2%, respectively. The use of CCT was a predictive factor of significantly better OS and PFS, whereas stage IV was a significant predictor of poor OS and PFS. The most severe acute toxicities included Grade 3 mucositis in 56% and Grade 3 dermatitis in 8%. Subset analysis revealed that Grade 2 xerostomia was significantly lower in the IMRT (23%) group than in the 3D-CRT (52%) group (P = .02).RT yielded favorable outcomes. CCT was associated with longer PFS and OS than RT alone.

Human Polyomaviruses Are Not Frequently Present in Cancer of the Salivary Glands.

Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are rare and heterogeneous, with more than 20 subtypes, and classified mainly by histopathology. Their diagnosis is often challenging and their etiology unknown. Here, the possible association between human polyomaviruses (PyVs) and one or more salivary gland tumor subtypes was examined.

Orthodontic treatment of a patient with maxillary lateral incisors with dens invaginatus: 6-year follow-up.

Dens invaginatus is an anomaly of dental development in which calcified tissues, such as enamel and dentin, are invaginated into the pulp cavity. This morphologic alteration is more frequent in maxillary permanent lateral incisors and makes them more susceptible to carious lesions and pulp alterations.

Asymmetric extractions in a patient with a hopeless maxillary central incisor, followed by treatment with mini-implant anchorage.

Premolar extraction is 1 option for treatment of patients with malocclusion and severe crowding or protrusion. When the patient has missing or hopeless teeth other than premolars, it is possible to consider removal of those teeth to use the space to decrease crowding. A 15-year-old girl sought treatment for severe crowding. She had already lost her maxillary right first premolar as a result of caries 1 year previously and had a hopeless maxillary right central incisor. Her mandibular left first molar still caused discomfort even after endodontic treatment. Extractions of the maxillary right central incisor and mandibular right first premolar and left first molar were chosen to resolve the occlusion problems. Orthodontic mini-implants were placed to translocate the maxillary left central incisor across the midpalatal suture to use the space in the maxillary right quadrant to relieve the crowding. Although a different extraction option was used in each quadrant, the final occlusion was acceptable. After debonding, porcelain crowns were placed on the anterior teeth to improve esthetics. The treatment result remained stable after 2 years of retention.

Factors affecting treatment duration of labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors.

A labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisor is a relatively rare occurrence. The crown of the tooth is directed upward, and its palatal aspect is facing labially. This typical orientation can be the result of trauma to the deciduous incisor transmitted to the palatal side of the crown of the permanent incisor. Labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors are most commonly combined with labial-lingual root dilacerations. The aim of this study was to examine factors that affect the surgical-orthodontic treatment duration of labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors.

Prediction of the occurrence and severity of mandibular incisor crowding in the early mixed dentition using craniofacial parameters.

With the recent interest in esthetics at an early age, prediction of mandibular incisor crowding is of significant importance. Since dental arch development is related to craniofacial growth, we conducted a cohort study to find a regression model for mandibular incisor crowding based on various craniofacial parameters in children.

Three-dimensional evaluation of dentofacial transverse widths of adults with various vertical facial patterns.

The purpose of this study was to investigate maxillomandibular transverse widths and molar inclinations of adults with hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent facial patterns using cone-beam computed tomography.

Three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of mandibular morphology in patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular retrognathism.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphologic features of skeletal units in the mandibles of patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular retrognathism using cone-beam computed tomography.

Longitudinal eruptive and posteruptive tooth movements, studied on oblique and lateral cephalograms with implants.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the eruptive and posteruptive tooth displacements of untreated growing subjects longitudinally and the potential connections between posteruptive displacement of the maxillary and mandibular first molars and skeletal facial growth.

Gingival recession in orthodontic patients 10 to 15 years posttreatment: A retrospective cohort study.

The aims of this study were to retrospectively investigate the long-term development of gingival recession in a cohort of orthodontic patients and to compare the prevalence of gingival recession in orthodontically treated patients 10 to 15 years posttreatment to that of untreated subjects with malocclusion.

Treatment of Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome with multiple cranial nerve involvement and severe dysphagia: A case report.

Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by facial paralysis, herpetic eruptions on the auricle, and otic pain due to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. A few cases of multiple cranial nerve invasion including the vestibulocochlear nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve have been reported. However, there has been no report about RHS with delayed onset multiple cranial nerve involvement causing severe aspiration, and a clinical course that improved after more than one year of dysphagia rehabilitation and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Here, we report on a 67-year old male with delayed onset swallowing difficulty after 16 days of RHS development.

A feasibility and safety study of concurrent chemotherapy based on genetic testing in patients with high-risk salivary gland tumors: Preliminary results.

This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of customized chemotherapy regimens based on the gene characteristics of salivary gland tumors.

NUDT15 R139C variation increases the risk of azathioprine-induced toxicity in Chinese subjects: Case report and literature review.

Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used as an immunosuppressive agent, and its efficacy has been recommended by many clinical studies. However, leukopenia, the most common toxicity, still restricts its clinical applications. Recent studies found that NUDT15 R139C polymorphism is strongly associated with AZA-induced leukopenia in Koreans. However, the follow-up studies available are all limited to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we report a case of a Chinese patient with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with wild-type TPMT*3C who was diagnosed with AZA-induced severe toxicity due to NUDT15 mutation based on clinical and laboratory characteristics.

Stable knockdown of ZBTB7A promotes cell proliferation and progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Although high expression of ZBTB7A is positively relative to metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, the association between its low expression and metastasis of NPC remains unclear. The present study aimed to definitely identify the association.

Speech-language therapy program for mouth opening in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a pilot study.

Purpose Assess the effectiveness of an orofacial myofunctional therapeutic program in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy through pre- and post-program comparison of maximum mandibular opening. Methods Prospective study involving five adult patients and five elderly patients postoperatively to oral cavity/oropharynx surgery who were awaiting the beginning of radiotherapy or had undergone fewer than five treatment sessions. The study participants had their maximum jaw opening measured using a sliding caliper at the beginning and end of the program. Two mobility exercises and three mandibular traction exercises were selected and weekly monitored presentially for 10 weeks. Descriptive data and pre- and post-therapy comparative measures were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Results Ten patients (two women and eight men) with mean age of 58.4 years, median of 57.0 years, completed the therapeutic program. They presented mean maximum mandibular opening of 31.6 ± 11.7 and 36.4 ± 8.0 mm pre- and post-therapy, respectively (p =0.021). Conclusion The proposed orofacial myofunctional therapeutic program increased the maximum jaw opening of patients referred to adjuvant radiotherapy for oral cavity or oropharynx cancer treatment.

The state of the art research findings on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease: a review.

Along with the development of periodontal medicine, there is a growing number of evidence showing that periodontitis could influence systemic health. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection mediated by dental plaque. Periodontal pathogenic microorganisms and its toxic products can disseminate through the blood stream or may cause the host immune response, which may lead to pathological changes of cerebral vessels and brain tissues to establish connection with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss, language and cognitive dysfunction. This article reviewed the association between chronic periodontitis and AD.

Expression and potential clinical significance of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α in oral squamous cell carcinoma.