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Stroke - Top 30 Publications

Neurosteroids and Ischemic Stroke: Progesterone a Promising Agent in Reducing the Brain Injury in Ischemic Stroke.

Progesterone (P4), a well-known neurosteroid, is produced by ovaries and placenta in females and by adrenal glands in both sexes. Progesterone is also synthesized by central nervous system (CNS) tissues to perform various vital neurological functions in the brain. Apart from performing crucial reproductive functions, it also plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis, regeneration, cognition, mood, inflammation, and myelination in the CNS. A substantial body of experimental evidence from animal models documents the neuroprotective role of P4 in various CNS injury models, including ischemic stroke. Extensive data have revealed that P4 elicits neuroprotection through multiple mechanisms and systems in an integrated manner to prevent neuronal and glial damage, thus reducing mortality and morbidity. Progesterone has been described as safe for use at the clinical level through different routes in several studies. Data regarding the neuroprotective role of P4 in ischemic stroke are of great interest due to their potential clinical implications. In this review, we succinctly discuss the biosynthesis of P4 and distribution of P4 receptors (PRs) in the brain. We summarize our work on the general mechanisms of P4 mediated via the modulation of different PR and neurotransmitters. Finally, we describe the neuroprotective mechanisms of P4 in ischemic stroke models and related clinical prospects.

Trials of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure.

Trials of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure.

Trials of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure.

The performance of stroke survivors in turning-while-walking while carrying out a concurrent cognitive task compared with controls.

Turning-while-walking is one of the commonest causes of falls in stroke survivors. It involves cognitive processing and may be challenging when performed concurrently with a cognitive task. Previous studies of dual-tasking involving turning-while-walking in stroke survivors show that the performance of physical tasks is compromised. However, the design of those studies did not address the response of stroke survivors under dual-tasking condition without specifying the task-preference and its effect on the performance of the cognitive task.

Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

General anaesthesia (GA) during endovascular thrombectomy has been associated with worse patient outcomes in observational studies compared with patients treated without GA. We assessed functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion undergoing endovascular thrombectomy under GA, versus thrombectomy not under GA (with or without sedation) versus standard care (ie, no thrombectomy), stratified by the use of GA versus standard care.

Temporal trends of antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in Korean patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the era of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: A nationwide population-based study.

Following their introduction, the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly prescribed in Asia for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Few contemporary data are available on temporal trends in antithrombotic therapy use in Asian countries, in the era of NOACs.

Frequency and characteristics of strokes involving the perforating arteries in the Department of Neurology at the Befelatanana General Hospital, Antananarivo.

Strokes of the perforating arteries are mainly arteriolopathies. They result in dementia and stroke recurrence. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of these strokes to better prevent these complications.

Change in blood pressure variability in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its effect on early neurologic outcome.

How short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) is affected in the acute stage of ischemic stroke and whether BPV is associated with early neurologic outcomes remains unclear.

Elevated serum lipoprotein(a) as a risk factor for combined intracranial and extracranial artery stenosis in a child with arterial ischemic stroke: A case report.

Stroke is an uncommon disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1 to 6 per 100,000 and stenoocclusive arteriopathy is the main risk factor of recurrent pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Dyslipidemia may influence strongly before puberty and in late adolescence when plasma levels are naturally highest.

Therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines for post stroke recovery: A traditional and network meta-analysis.

Stroke is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, and 75% of stroke survivors lose their ability to work. Stroke is a burden to the family and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese herbal patent medicines in the treatment of patients after the acute phase of a stroke.

Comparison of Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis.

Decision on the most appropriate oral anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is difficult because multiple treatment options are available, and these vary in their clinical effects and relevant nonclinical characteristics.

Joinville stroke biobank: study protocol and first year's results.

Aiming to contribute to studies that use detailed clinical and genomic information of biobanks, we present the initial results of the first Latin American Stroke Biobank.

Differential impact of white matter hyperintensities on long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

The presence of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is related to poor long-term outcomes in stroke patients. However, the long-term outcome is unknown in patients with both large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and WMH.

Potential serum biomarkers and metabonomic profiling of serum in ischemic stroke patients using UPLC/Q-TOF MS/MS.

Stroke still has a high incidence with a tremendous public health burden and it is a leading cause of mortality and disability. However, biomarkers for early diagnosis are absent and the metabolic alterations associated with ischemic stroke are not clearly understood. The objectives of this case-control study are to identify serum biomarkers and explore the metabolic alterations of ischemic stroke.

Association of insurance type with receipt of oral anticoagulation in insured patients with atrial fibrillation: A report from the American College of Cardiology NCDR PINNACLE registry.

It is poorly understood whether insurance type may be a major contributor to the underuse of oral anticoagulation (OAC) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly for novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs).

Predictors of perioperative major bleeding in patients who interrupt warfarin for an elective surgery or procedure: Analysis of the BRIDGE trial.

The use of low-molecular weight heparin bridge therapy during warfarin interruption for elective surgery/procedures increases bleeding. Other predictors of bleeding in this setting are not well described.

Edoxaban for the management of elderly Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation ineligible for standard oral anticoagulant therapies: Rationale and design of the ELDERCARE-AF study.

Edoxaban-a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC)- 60-mg and 30-mg once-daily dose regimens are noninferior versus well-managed warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE) with less major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). There are no published data from phase 3 clinical trials specifically evaluating the use of NOACs in elderly NVAF patients, especially those considered ineligible for available oral anticoagulants. The Edoxaban Low-Dose for EldeR CARE AF patients (ELDERCARE-AF) study is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study that will compare the safety and efficacy of once-daily edoxaban 15 mg versus placebo in Japanese patients with NVAF ≥80 years of age who are considered ineligible for standard oral anticoagulant therapy. A total of 800 patients (400 in each treatment group) are planned for randomization (1:1) to either edoxaban or placebo using a stratified randomization method with CHADS2 index score (2 points, ≥3 points) as a factor. The primary efficacy end point is the time to first onset of stroke or SEE. The net clinical outcome is the composite of stroke, SEE, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is the incidence of major bleeding. The treatment period will continue until 65 patients with the primary efficacy events (ie, stroke or SEE) have been observed (2- to 2.5-year expected mean treatment period). The results of ELDERCARE-AF may provide clarity as to the efficacy and safety of edoxaban for the prevention of stroke or SEE in this high-risk population.

International trends in clinical characteristics and oral anticoagulation treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from the GARFIELD-AF, ORBIT-AF I, and ORBIT-AF II registries.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the world. We aimed to provide comprehensive data on international patterns of AF stroke prevention treatment.

Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Frequency of Atrial Fibrillation, Stroke, and All-Cause Mortality.

Benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular health are well recognized, but the impact on incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke, and, particularly, risk of stroke and mortality in patients with AF is less clear. From 1993 to 2010, patients referred for a treadmill exercise test (TMET) at the Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, were retrospectively identified (N = 76,857). From this, 14,094 local residents were selected. Exclusions were age <18 years; history of heart failure, structural or valvular heart disease, AF or flutter, or stroke. Subjects were divided into 4 groups at baseline based on quartiles of functional aerobic capacity (FAC) and followed through January 2016. The final study cohort included 12,043 patients. During median follow-up of 14 (9 to 17) years, 1,222 patients developed incident AF, 1,128 developed stroke, and 1,590 patients died. Each 10% increase in FAC was associated with decreased risk of incident AF, stroke, and mortality by 7% (0.93 [0.91 to 0.96, p < 0.001]), 8% (0.92 [0.89 to 0.94, p < 0.001]), and 16% (0.84 [0.82 to 0.86, p < 0.001]), respectively. In patients who developed incident AF with baseline FAC <75% versus ≥105%, risks of both stroke (1.40 [1.04 to 1.90, p = 0.01]) and mortality (3.20 [2.11 to 4.58, p < 0.001]) were significantly higher. In conclusion, better cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower risk of incident AF, stroke, and mortality. Similarly, risk of stroke and mortality in patients with AF is also inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness.

Hexahydrocurcumin protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, attenuates inflammation, and improves antioxidant defenses in a rat stroke model.

The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether hexahydrocurcumin (HHC) attenuates brain damage and improves functional outcome via the activation of antioxidative activities, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In this study, rats with cerebral I/R injury were induced by a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. The male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including the sham-operated, vehicle-treated, 10 mg/kg HHC-treated, 20 mg/kg HHC-treated, and 40 mg/kg HHC-treated I/R groups. The animals were immediately injected with HHC by an intraperitoneal administration at the onset of cerebral reperfusion. After 24 h of reperfusion, the rats were tested for neurological deficits, and the pathology of the brain was studied by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. In addition, the brain tissues were prepared for protein extraction for Western blot analysis, a malondialdehyde (MDA) assay, a nitric oxide (NO) assay, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay, a glutathione (GSH) assay, and a glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) assay. The data revealed that the neurological deficit scores and the infarct volume were significantly reduced in the HHC-treated rats at all doses compared to the vehicle group. Treatment with HHC significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, with a decreased level of MDA and NO and a decreased expression of NF-κB (p65) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the I/R rats. HHC also evidently increased Nrf2 (nucleus) protein expression, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, the antioxidative enzymes, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, the HHC treatment also significantly decreased apoptosis, with a decrease in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and an increase in Bcl-XL, which was in accordance with a decrease in the apoptotic neuronal cells. Therefore, the HHC treatment protects the brain from cerebral I/R injury by diminishing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of HHC may play an important role in improving functional outcomes and may offer significant neuroprotection against I/R damage.

Does cognitive impairment impact adherence? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

While medication adherence is essential for the secondary prevention of stroke, it is often sub-optimal, and can be compromised by cognitive impairment. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

Stroke subtype classification by geometrical descriptors of lesion shape.

Inference of etiology from lesion pattern in acute magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for management and prognosis of acute stroke patients. This study aims to assess the value of three-dimensional geometrical lesion-shape descriptors for stroke-subtype classification, specifically regarding stroke of cardioembolic origin.

Timing and Risk Factors of Postpartum Stroke.

To characterize risk and timing of postpartum stroke readmission after delivery hospitalization discharge.

Acute Bilateral Ophthalmoplegia Due to Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia: A Report of Two Cases.

BACKGROUND Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a complex progressive arterial disease characterized by dilation, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebral and basilar arteries, and may be congenital or acquired. VBD may lead to progressive compression of the brainstem, cranial nerve abnormalities, and intracranial hemorrhage, but may also be associated with arterial thrombosis, with ischemic stroke as the most common clinical outcome. CASE REPORT Two cases of VBD are presented, both with acute bilateral ophthalmoplegia and cranial nerve palsies, and vertebrobasilar arterial thrombosis that resulted in ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS VBD is a complex arterial disease with a variety of clinical manifestation, with bilateral ophthalmoplegia being a rare presentation. Clinical management of VBD is a challenge as there are no current management guidelines. Therefore, clinical management of cases of VBD should be individualized to balance the risks and benefits of treatment options for each patient.

Comparison of construct validity of two short forms of Stroke-Specific Quality of Life scale.

No studies have compared the 2-factor structures of Wong's and Post's versions of the short-form Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (i.e., 12-item SSQOL) scale. This study compared the construct validity of 2 short-forms of the 12-item-SSQOL (not the 12-domain-SSQOL).

Assessing Mobile Health Capacity and Task Shifting Strategies to Improve Hypertension Among Ghanaian Stroke Survivors.

There has been a tremendous surge in stroke prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. Hypertension (HTN), the most potent, modifiable risk factor for stroke, is a particular challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. Culturally sensitive, efficacious HTN control programs that are timely and sustainable are needed, especially among stroke survivors. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and task-shifting offer promising approaches to address this need.

Implementation of stroke teams and simulation training shortened process times in a regional stroke network-A network-wide prospective trial.

To meet the requirements imposed by the time-dependency of acute stroke therapies, it is necessary 1) to initiate structural and cultural changes in the breadth of stroke-ready hospitals and 2) to find new ways to train the personnel treating patients with acute stroke. We aimed to implement and validate a composite intervention of a stroke team algorithm and simulation-based stroke team training as an effective quality initiative in our regional interdisciplinary neurovascular network consisting of 7 stroke units.

Evidence-Based Emphasis: Improving systems of care in time-sensitive emergencies.

Stroke Detector: Ultrasound and telemedicine could allow paramedics to confirm stroke.