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Surveys and Questionnaires - Top 30 Publications

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality - United States, 2014-2017.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children worldwide (1-3). In the United States, RSV infection results in >57,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits each year among children aged <5 years (3). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of RSV in adults as well as children (4). CDC reported RSV seasonality nationally, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions* and for the state of Florida, using a new statistical method that analyzes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory detections reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) ( Nationally, across three RSV seasons, lasting from the week ending July 5, 2014 through July 1, 2017, the median RSV onset occurred at week 41 (mid-October), and lasted 31 weeks until week 18 (early May). The median national peak occurred at week 5 (early February). Using these new methods, RSV season circulation patterns differed from those reported from previous seasons (5). Health care providers and public health officials use RSV circulation data to guide diagnostic testing and to time the administration of RSV immunoprophylaxis for populations at high risk for severe respiratory illness (6). With several vaccines and other immunoprophlyaxis products in development, estimates of RSV circulation are also important to the design of clinical trials and future vaccine effectiveness studies.

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, as these are primarily nondomestic viruses typically acquired through travel. Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,240 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,150 (96%) WNV disease cases. Of the WNV disease cases, 1,310 (61%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.41 cases per 100,000 population. After WNV, the most frequently reported arboviruses were La Crosse (35 cases), Powassan (22), and Jamestown Canyon (15) viruses. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct prevention activities.

Improvements in osteoporosis testing and care are found following the wide scale implementation of the Ontario Fracture Clinic Screening Program: An interrupted time series analysis.

We evaluated a system-wide impact of a health intervention to improve treatment of osteoporosis after a fragility fracture. The intervention consisted of assigning a screening coordinator to selected fracture clinics to identify, educate, and follow up with fragility fracture patients and inform their physicians of the need to evaluate bone health. Thirty-seven hospitals in the province of Ontario (Canada) were assigned a screening coordinator. Twenty-three similar hospitals were control sites. All hospitals had orthopedic services and handled moderate-to-higher volumes of fracture patients. Administrative health data were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention.Fragility fracture patients (≥50 years; hip, humerus, forearm, spine, or pelvis fracture) were identified from administrative health records. Cases were fractures treated at 1 of the 37 hospitals assigned a coordinator. Controls were the same types of fractures at the control sites. Data were assembled for 20 quarters before and 10 quarters after the implementation (from January 2002 to March 2010). To test for a shift in trends, we employed an interrupted time series analysis-a study design used to evaluate the longitudinal effects of interventions, through regression modelling. The primary outcome measure was bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Osteoporosis medication initiation and persistence rates were secondary outcomes in a subset of patients ≥66 years of age.A total of 147,071 patients were used in the analysis. BMD testing rates increased from 17.0% pre-intervention to 20.9% post-intervention at intervention sites (P < .01) compared with no change at control sites (14.9% and 14.9%, P = .33). Medication initiation improved significantly at intervention sites (21.6-23.97%; P = .02) but not at control sites (17.5-18.5%; P = .27). Persistence with bisphosphonates decreased at all sites, from 59.9% to 56.4% at intervention sites (P = .02) and more so from 62.3% to 54.2% at control sites (P < .01) using 50% proportion of days covered (PDC 50).Significant improvements in BMD testing and treatment initiation were observed after the initiation of a coordinator-based screening program to improve osteoporosis management following fragility fracture.

Dental Students' Perceptions of Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders: Adapting the Job Factors Questionnaire for Dentistry.

The aims of this study were to adapt the Job Factors Questionnaire to the field of dentistry, evaluate its psychometric properties, evaluate dental students' perceptions of work/study risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders, and determine the influence of gender and academic level on those perceptions. All 580 students enrolled in two Brazilian dental schools in 2015 were invited to participate in the study. A three-factor structure (Repetitiveness, Work Posture, and External Factors) was tested through confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was estimated using the average variance extracted (AVE), discriminant validity was based on the correlational analysis of the factors, and reliability was assessed. A causal model was created using structural equation modeling to evaluate the influence of gender and academic level on students' perceptions. A total of 480 students completed the questionnaire for an 83% response rate. The responding students' average age was 21.6 years (SD=2.98), and 74.8% were women. Higher scores were observed on the Work Posture factor items. The refined model presented proper fit to the studied sample. Convergent validity was compromised only for External Factors (AVE=0.47), and discriminant validity was compromised for Work Posture and External Factors (r2=0.69). Reliability was adequate. Academic level did not have a significant impact on the factors, but the women students exhibited greater perception. Overall, the adaptation resulted in a useful instrument for assessing perceptions of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Gender was found to significantly influence all three factors, with women showing greater perception of the risk factors.

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries in Plastic Surgeons in the United States, Canada, and Norway.

Musculoskeletal injuries are more common among surgeons than among the general population. However, little is known about these types of injuries among plastic surgeons specifically. The authors' goals were to evaluate the prevalence, nature, causes, and potential solutions of these musculoskeletal injuries among plastic surgeons in three different countries: the United States, Canada, and Norway.

A systems-based assessment of the PrePex device adverse events active surveillance system in Zimbabwe.

Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is an effective method for HIV prevention and the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended its expansion in 14 African countries with a high prevalence of HIV and low prevalence of male circumcision. The WHO has recently pre-qualified the PrePex device, a non-surgical male circumcision device, which reduces procedure time, can increase acceptability of VMMC, and can expand the set of potential provider cadres. The PrePex device was introduced in Zimbabwe as a way to scale-up VMMC services in the country. With the rapid scale-up of the PrePex device, as well as other similar devices, a strong surveillance system to detect adverse events (AE) is needed to monitor the safety profile of these devices. We performed a systems-based evaluation of the PrePex device AE active surveillance system in Zimbabwe.

Population study evaluating fracture risk among patients with chronic osteomyelitis.

Studies investigating the fracture risk in patients with chronic osteomyelitis (COM) limited to case reports. This study evaluated the association between COM and subsequent fracture risk using population-based data.

Utility of quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment (qSOFA) to predict outcome in patients with pneumonia.

Despite on-going advances in medical treatment, the burden of disease of pneumonia remains high. We aimed to determine the association of the qSOFA score with in-hospital mortality, length of hospitalisation, and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with pneumonia. Further, in a subgroup analysis, the outcomes were compared for qSOFA in comparison to other risk scores, including the CURB-65 and SIRS scores.

Quantifying the burden of vampire bat rabies in Peruvian livestock.

Knowledge of infectious disease burden is necessary to appropriately allocate resources for prevention and control. In Latin America, rabies is among the most important zoonoses for human health and agriculture, but the burden of disease attributed to its main reservoir, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), remains uncertain.

CDC Grand Rounds: National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry Impact, Challenges, and Future Directions.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a rapidly progressive fatal neurologic disease. Currently, there is no cure for ALS and the available treatments only extend life by an average of a few months. The majority of ALS patients die within 2-5 years of diagnosis, though survival time varies depending on disease progression (1,2). For approximately 10% of patients, ALS is familial, meaning it and has a genetic component; the remaining 90% have sporadic ALS, where etiology is unknown, but might be linked to environmental factors such as chemical exposures (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides) and occupational history (3).

Lessons learned about prevalence and growth rates of abdominal aortic aneurysms from a 25-year ultrasound population screening programme.

This study aimed to assess how the prevalence and growth rates of small and medium abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) (3·0-5·4 cm) have changed over time in men aged 65 years, and to evaluate long-term outcomes in men whose aortic diameter is 2·6-2·9 cm (subaneurysmal), and below the standard threshold for most surveillance programmes.

Comparing the self-perceived quality of life of multimorbid patients and the general population using the EQ-5D-3L.

To assess and compare the self-perceived Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of multimorbid patients and the general population using health utilities (HU) and visual analogue scale (VAS) methods.

Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The STARS Questionnaire.

To develop and validate a risk score for AMD based on a simple self-administered questionnaire.

Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema Quality-of-Life Item Banks: Development and Initial Evaluation Using Computerized Adaptive Testing.

The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) quality-of-life (QoL) item banks and determine the utility of the final calibrated item banks by simulating a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) application.

Seroprevalence and factors associated with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among children in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Despite proposals for screening infants or preschool children for HIV infection, the proportion of children who grow or die with unknown HIV status is high in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence during a voluntary screening and to identify factors associated with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV in the paediatric population of non-HIV infected or non-HIV exposed infants and children in Lubumbashi, DRC.

HIV screening among TB patients and level of antiretroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy for TB/HIV patients in Hawassa University Referral Hospital: a five year retrospective study.

Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is recommended for tuberculosis (TB)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients to prevent opportunistic infection. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HIV among TB patients and initiation of ART and provision of CPT for TB/HIV co-infected patients in Hawassa university referral hospital.

Association of the urinary sodium to urinary specific gravity ratio with metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013.

This study aimed to evaluate the association between sodium intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean boys.

The EQ-5D-5L is a valid approach to measure health related quality of life in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

Bariatric surgery is considered an effective treatment for individuals with severe and complex obesity. Besides reducing weight and improving obesity related comorbidities such as diabetes, bariatric surgery could improve patients' health-related quality of life. However, the frequently used instrument to measure quality of life, the EQ-5D has not been validated for use in bariatric surgery, which is a major limitation to its use in this clinical context. Our study undertook a psychometric validation of the 5 level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) using clinical trial data to measure health-related quality of life in patients with severe and complex obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Health-related quality of life was assessed at baseline (before randomisation) and six months later in 189 patients in a randomised controlled trial of bariatric surgery. Patients completed two generic health-related quality of life instruments, the EQ-5D-5L and SF-12, which were used together for the validation using data from all patients in the trial as the trial is ongoing. Psychometric analyses included construct and criterion validity and responsiveness to change. Of the 189 validation patients, 141 (75%) were female, the median age was 49 years old (range 23-70 years) and body mass index ranged from 33-70 kg/m2. For construct validity, there were significant improvements in the distribution of responses in all EQ-5D dimensions between baseline and 6 months after randomisation. For criterion validity, the highest degree of correlation was between the EQ-5D pain/discomfort and SF-12 bodily pain domain. For responsiveness the EQ-5D and SF-12 showed statistically significant improvements in health-related quality of life between baseline and 6 months after randomisation. The EQ-5D-5L is a valid generic measure for measuring health-related quality of life in bariatric surgery patients.

Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale-10: A psychometric study in Chinese university students.

Chinese university students often suffer from acute stress, which can affect their mental health. We measured and evaluated perceived stress in this population using the Simplified Chinese version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (SCPSS-10). The SCPSS-10, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) were conducted in 1096 university students. Two weeks later, 129 participants were re-tested using the SCPSS-10. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors with Eigen values of 4.76 and 1.48, accounting for 62.41% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit of this two-factor model. The internal consistency reliability, as measured by Cronbach's α, was 0.85. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.7. The SCPSS-10 exhibited high correlation with the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. The SCPSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties in Chinese university students.


For the majority of men, becoming a father is a time of joy that enhances their personal growth and wellbeing. However, similar to the experience of some women, this time can be overwhelming when adjusting to the necessary demands of parenthood and can undermine men's mental health.

A Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score Predicts Neurodevelopmental Outcome After Perinatal Asphyxia and Therapeutic Hypothermia.

To assess the predictive value of a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score, which includes diffusion-weighted imaging as well as assessment of the deep grey matter, white matter, and cerebellum, for neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years and school age among term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

Newborn Screening in the US May Miss Mild Persistent Hypothyroidism.

To determine if newborn screening (NBS) programs for congenital hypothyroidism in the US use thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cutoffs that are age adjusted to account for the physiologic 4-fold reduction in TSH concentrations over the first few days of life.

Impact of Severe Obesity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth.

To compare cardiovascular risk factor clustering (CVRFC) in severely obese youth with those with lower degrees of obesity.

MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and the severity of coronary lesions in acute coronary syndrome.

The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, circulating levels of homocysteine (Hcy), and the severity of coronary lesion in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unknown.Consecutive ACS patients were included. MTHFR C677T polymorphisms were determined via amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Gensini scores were used to evaluate the severity of coronary lesions.Three hundred ten ACS patients were included, and grouped according to the MTHFR C677T polymorphism variant: CC (n = 78, 25.2%), CT (n = 137, 44.2%), and TT (n = 95, 30.6%) groups. No significant differences were detected with respect to baseline characteristics. Patients in TT group had significantly higher Hcy, and significantly lower folic acid (FA) levels as compared with those in the other 2 groups (P < .05 for both). More importantly, patients with TT had more severe coronary lesions as compared with those from the other 2 groups, as evidenced by higher Gensini scores (P < .05 for both); however, no significant differences were observed with respect to the numbers of affected coronary arteries, or the number, length, and diameter of stents implanted in each group (P > .05 for all). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of a T allele in MTHFR C677T was found to be independently associated with higher circulating Hcy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.12, P = .024), and higher Gensini scores (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02, P = .046).MTHFR C677T TT polymorphism was associated with higher Hcy levels and more severe coronary lesions in patients with ACS.

Analysis of blood glucose distribution characteristics in a health examination population in Chengdu (2007-2015).

With socioeconomic growth and cultural changes in China, the level of blood glucose may have changed in recent years. This study aims to detect the blood glucose distribution characteristics with a large size of health examination population.A total of 641,311 cases (360,259 males and 281,052 females) more than 18 years old during 2007 to 2015 were recruited from the Health Examination Center at West China hospital, Sichuan University.The percentage of cases with abnormal glucose level and the mean level of glucose were significantly increased since 2007 to 2015 overall. The percentage of cases with abnormal glucose level in males was significantly higher than that in females every year, and the percentage of cases with abnormal glucose level in aged population was higher than the young population. In addition, the mean level of glucose was higher in aged population with normal level of glucose than the young population with normal level of glucose, and the mean level of glucose was higher in males with normal level of glucose than the females with normal level of glucose.The population showed an increased level of blood glucose. Some preventive action may be adopted early and more attention can be paid to them.

Predicting Risk in Patients Hospitalized for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Heart Failure Community Surveillance.

Risk-prediction models specifically for hospitalized heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are lacking.

An Exploratory Study on Using Principal-Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Identify Bolt-On Dimensions: The EQ-5D Case Study.

Generic preference-based measures such as the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) are used in economic evaluation, but may not be appropriate for all conditions. When this happens, a possible solution is adding bolt-ons to expand their descriptive systems. Using review-based methods, studies published to date claimed the relevance of bolt-ons in the presence of poor psychometric results. This approach does not identify the specific dimensions missing from the Generic preference-based measure core descriptive system, and is inappropriate for identifying dimensions that might improve the measure generically. This study explores the use of principal-component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for bolt-on identification in the EQ-5D.

Development and Validation of the AFImpact: An Atrial Fibrillation-Specific Measure of Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life.

Improvement in health-related quality of life is a key therapeutic goal of disease management in atrial fibrillation (AF).

Incremental Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Intensive Treatment in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Detected by Screening in the ADDITION-UK Trial: An Update with Empirical Trial-Based Cost Data.

There is uncertainty about the cost effectiveness of early intensive treatment versus routine care in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening.

The cost of comorbidities in treatment for HIV/AIDS in California.

Antiretroviral therapy has increased longevity for people living with HIV (PLWH). As a result, PLWH increasingly experience the common diseases of aging and the resources needed to manage these comorbidities are increasing. This paper characterizes the number and types of comorbidities diagnosed among PLWH covered by Medicare and examines how non-HIV comorbidities relate to outpatient, inpatient, and pharmaceutical expenditures.