A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Survival Analysis - Top 30 Publications

The prognostic efficacy and improvements of the 7th edition Union for International Cancer Control tumor-node-metastasis classifications for Chinese patients with gastric cancer: Results based on a retrospective three-decade population study.

This study aimed to evaluate survival trends for patients with gastric cancer in northeast China in the most recent three decades and analyze the applicability of the UICC tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification 7th edition for Chinese patients with gastric cancer. A review of all inpatient and outpatient records of patients with gastric cancer was conducted in the first hospital of China Medical University and the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. All patients who met the inclusion criteria and were seen from January 1980 through December 2009 were included in the study. The primary outcome was 5-year survival, which was analyzed according to decade of diagnosis and TNM classifications. From 1980 through 2009, the 5-year survival rates for patients with gastric cancer (n=2414) increased from 39.1% to 57.3%. Decade of diagnosis was significantly associated with patient survival (p = 0.013), and the 5-year survival rate in the 2000s was remarkably higher than that in the 1980s and 1990s (p = 0.004 and 0.049, respectively). When classified according to the UICC TNM classification of gastric cancer 7th edition, the prognoses of stage IIIA and stage IIIB patients were not significantly different (p = 0.077). However, if stage T4b and stage N0 patients were classified as stage IIIA, the prognoses of stage IIIA and stage IIIB patients were significantly different (p < 0.001). Hence, there was a significant difference in survival during the three time periods in Northeast China. Classifying stage T4b and stage N0 patients as stage IIIA according to the 7th edition of UICC gastric cancer TNM classifications better stratified Chinese patients and predicted prognoses.

Progression-Free Survival as a Surrogate for Overall Survival in Clinical Trials of Targeted Therapy in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Over the past 15 years, targeted therapy has revolutionized the systemic treatment of cancer. In parallel, there has been a growing debate on the choice of end points in clinical trials in oncology. This debate basically hinges on the choice between overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). PFS is advantageous because it is measured earlier than OS, requires a smaller sample size than OS to achieve the desired power, and is not influenced by cross-over. On the other hand, PFS is prone to measurement error and bias, and may not capture the entire treatment effect on the outcomes of most interest to patients with an incurable disease: a prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Therefore, how can we choose between two imperfect end points? The answer to this question would certainly be made easier if PFS could be demonstrated to be a valid surrogate for OS. The validation of a surrogate end point is best made using individual-patient data (IPD) from randomized trials, which allows for standardized assessments of the patient-level and the trial-level correlations between surrogate and final end points. Proper IPD meta-analytical evaluations for targeted agents have still been rare, and to our knowledge only three studies on this topic are currently available in the metastatic setting: one in breast cancer, one in colorectal cancer and one in lung cancer. Although these three studies suffer from limitations inherent to the availability of IPD and the design of the original clinical trials, they have not been able to validate PFS as surrogate for OS, because only modest correlations were found between these two end points, both at the patient and at the trial level. Even if properly conducted surrogate-endpoint evaluations have thus far been unsuccessful, these evaluations are a step in the right direction and can be expected to be applied on a much larger scale in the era of data sharing of clinical trials.

Kaplan-Meier curve.

Identifying survival-associated modules from the dysregulated triplet network in glioblastoma multiforme.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can act as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to compete with mRNAs for binding miroRNAs (miRNAs). The dysregulated triplets, composed by mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs, contributed to the development and progression of diseases, such as cancer. However, the roles played by triplet biomarkers are not fully understand in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient survival.

Double-stenting in distal left main lesions: Let's crush.

Unprotected distal left main (ULM) lesions often require double-stenting. In the MITO Registry, a mini-crush stenting technique was safer than culotte stenting. Performing mini-crush arises as the best approach in patients with distal ULM lesions requiring elective double-stenting.

In head and neck cancer the number of dissected lymph nodes predicts mortality.

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Expression Phenotype of Primary Melanoma and Matched Metastases and Relationship with Overall Survival.

E-Cadherin and N-cadherin are important components of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The majority of studies on EMT in melanoma have been performed with cultured cell lines or pooled melanoma samples. The goal of our study was to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in matched tissue samples from primary and metastatic sites of melanoma and to determine the correlation with survival outcome. We analyzed tissues from 42 melanoma primary lesions and their corresponding metastases, as well as 53 benign nevi, for expression levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin using immunohistochemical methods. There were heterogenous expression patterns of E- and N-cadherin in both primary and metastatic melanomas. Overall, metastatic tumor showed a decrease in E-cadherin expression and an increase in N-cadherin expression compared to the primary tumor, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.24 and 0.28 respectively). A switch of membranous expression from E-cadherin to N-cadherin from primary to metastatic melanoma was seen in eight patients (19%). Aberrant E-cadherin expression (defined as negative to weak membranous E-cadherin or positive nuclear E-cadherin expression) was more frequently observed in metastatic than in primary melanomas (p=0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that absence of N-cadherin expression in primary melanomas and the presence of aberrant E-cadherin expression in primary melanomas and metastatic melanomas was associated with a significantly worse overall survival. Our data support the importance of E-cadherin and N-cadherin proteins in melanoma progression and patient survival.

A retrospective validation study of three models to estimate the probability of malignancy in patients with small pulmonary nodules from a tertiary oncology follow-up centre.

To estimate the probability of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules (PNs) based on clinical and radiological characteristics in a non-screening population that includes patients with a prior history of malignancy using three validated models.

What are the determinants of childhood obesity? : A literature review as part of the project "Nationwide Monitoring of Childhood Obesity Determinants".

Obesity can impair health even in childhood and unfold negative health consequences through an individual's lifespan. In Germany, to date, a systematic and periodically updated synopsis of the multifaceted determinants of childhood obesity is lacking. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic literature review on childhood obesity determinants, which was conducted over the course of the implementation of nationwide monitoring.

Genetic and functional analyses do not explain the association of high PRC1 expression with poor survival of breast carcinoma patients.

Microtubules are vitally important for eukaryotic cell division. Therefore, we evaluated the relevance of mitotic kinesin KIF14, protein-regulating cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), and citron kinase (CIT) for the prognosis of breast carcinoma patients. Transcript levels were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in tissues from two independent groups of breast carcinoma patients and compared with clinical data. Tissue PRC1 protein levels were estimated using immunoblotting, and the PRC1 tagged haplotype was analyzed in genomic DNA. A functional study was performed in MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. KIF14, PRC1, and CIT transcripts were overexpressed in tumors compared with control tissues. Tumors without expression of hormonal receptors or high-grade tumors expressed significantly higher KIF14 and PRC1 levels than hormonally-positive or low-grade tumors. Patients with high intra-tumoral PRC1 levels had significantly worse disease-free survival than patients with low levels. PRC1 rs10520699 and rs11852999 polymorphisms were associated with PRC1 transcript levels, but not with patientś survival. Paclitaxel-induced PRC1 expression, but PRC1 knockdown did not modify the paclitaxel cytotoxicity in vitro. PRC1 overexpression predicts poor disease-free survival of patients with breast carcinomas. Genetic variability of PRC1 and the protein interaction with paclitaxel cytotoxicity do not explain this association.

Baseline Total Metabolic Tumor Volume Measured with Fixed or Different Adaptive Thresholding Methods Equally Predicts Outcome in Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma.

The purpose of this study was to compare in a large series of peripheral T cell lymphoma, as a model of diffuse disease, the prognostic value of baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) measured on (18)F-FDG PET/CT with adaptive thresholding methods with TMTV measured with a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold method.

Effect of Prophylactic Antifungal Protocols on the Prognosis of Liver Transplantation: A Propensity Score Matching and Multistate Model Approach.

Background. Whether routine antifungal prophylaxis decreases posttransplantation fungal infections in patients receiving orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis for patients receiving OLT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of a database at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. We have been administering routine antibiotic and prophylactic antifungal regimens to recipients with high model for end-stage liver disease scores (>20) since 2009. After propensity score matching, 402 patients were enrolled. We conducted a multistate model to analyze the cumulative hazards, probability of fungal infections, and risk factors. Results. The cumulative hazards and transition probability of "transplantation to fungal infection" were lower in the prophylaxis group. The incidence rate of fungal infection after OLT decreased from 18.9% to 11.4% (p = 0.052); overall mortality improved from 40.8% to 23.4% (p < 0.001). In the "transplantation to fungal infection" transition, prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced hazards for fungal infection (hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.96, p = 0.033). Massive ascites, cadaver transplantation, and older age were significantly associated with higher risks for mortality. Conclusion. Prophylactic antifungal regimens in high-risk recipients might decrease the incidence of posttransplant fungal infections.

Severe Spontaneous Echo Contrast/Auricolar Thrombosis in "Nonvalvular" AF: Value of Thromboembolic Risk Scores.

Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have an increased thromboembolic risk that can be estimated with risk scores and sometimes require oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). Despite correct anticoagulation, some patients still develop left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) or thrombosis. The value of traditional risk scores (R2 CHADS2 , CHADS2 , and CHA2 DS2 -VASc) in predicting such events remains controversial.

Retrospective Parameter Estimation and Forecast of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the United States.

Recent studies have shown that systems combining mathematical modeling and Bayesian inference methods can be used to generate real-time forecasts of future infectious disease incidence. Here we develop such a system to study and forecast respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection and bronchiolitis. Advanced warning of the epidemic timing and volume of RSV patient surges has the potential to reduce well-documented delays of treatment in emergency departments. We use a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model in conjunction with an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) and ten years of regional U.S. specimen data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The data and EAKF are used to optimize the SIR model and i) estimate critical epidemiological parameters over the course of each outbreak and ii) generate retrospective forecasts. The basic reproductive number, R0, is estimated at 3.0 (standard deviation 0.6) across all seasons and locations. The peak magnitude of RSV outbreaks is forecast with nearly 70% accuracy (i.e. nearly 70% of forecasts within 25% of the actual peak), four weeks before the predicted peak. This work represents a first step in the development of a real-time RSV prediction system.

Prognostic Role of Lactate Dehydrogenase Expression in Urologic Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The prognostic role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in urinary system cancer is still controversial. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic significance of LDH for patients with urinary system cancer.

Supervised discretization can discover risk groups in cancer survival analysis.

Discretization of continuous variables is a common practice in medical research to identify risk patient groups. This work compares the performance of gold-standard categorization procedures (TNM+A protocol) with that of three supervised discretization methods from Machine Learning (CAIM, ChiM and DTree) in the stratification of patients with breast cancer. The performance for the discretization algorithms was evaluated based on the results obtained after applying standard survival analysis procedures such as Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and predictive modelling. The results show that the application of alternative discretization algorithms could lead the clinicians to get valuable information for the diagnosis and outcome of the disease. Patient data were collected from the Medical Oncology Service of the Hospital Clínico Universitario (Málaga, Spain) considering a follow up period from 1982 to 2008.

Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients Treated with Multimodal Therapy for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

To identify predictors of survival after multimodal treatment including surgery plus postoperative radio(chemo)therapy) for anaplastic thyroid cancer.

Influence of perineural invasion in predicting overall survival and disease-free survival in patients With locally advanced gastric cancer.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of perineural invasion (PNI) in locally advanced gastric cancer patients who underwent D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.

A Long-Term Prediction Model of Beijing Haze Episodes Using Time Series Analysis.

The rapid industrial development has led to the intermittent outbreak of pm2.5 or haze in developing countries, which has brought about great environmental issues, especially in big cities such as Beijing and New Delhi. We investigated the factors and mechanisms of haze change and present a long-term prediction model of Beijing haze episodes using time series analysis. We construct a dynamic structural measurement model of daily haze increment and reduce the model to a vector autoregressive model. Typical case studies on 886 continuous days indicate that our model performs very well on next day's Air Quality Index (AQI) prediction, and in severely polluted cases (AQI ≥ 300) the accuracy rate of AQI prediction even reaches up to 87.8%. The experiment of one-week prediction shows that our model has excellent sensitivity when a sudden haze burst or dissipation happens, which results in good long-term stability on the accuracy of the next 3-7 days' AQI prediction.

Predicting Coronary Heart Disease Using Risk Factor Categories for a Japanese Urban Population, and Comparison with the Framingham Risk Score: The Suita Study.

Association between Time since Cancer Diagnosis and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Population-Level Analysis.

To examine the association between time since cancer diagnosis and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among cancer survivors in remission.

Subjecting Radiologic Imaging to the Linear No-Threshold Hypothesis: A Non Sequitur of Non-Trivial Proportion.

Radiologic imaging is claimed to carry an iatrogenic risk of cancer, based on an uninformed commitment to the 70-y-old linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH). Credible evidence of imaging-related low-dose (<100 mGy) carcinogenic risk is nonexistent; it is a hypothetical risk derived from the demonstrably false LNTH. On the contrary, low-dose radiation does not cause, but more likely helps prevent, cancer. The LNTH and its offspring, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), are fatally flawed, focusing only on molecular damage while ignoring protective, organismal biologic responses. Although some grant the absence of low-dose harm, they nevertheless advocate the "prudence" of dose optimization (i.e., using ALARA doses); but this is a radiophobia-centered, not scientific, approach. Medical imaging studies achieve a diagnostic purpose and should be governed by the highest science-based principles and policies. The LNTH is an invalidated hypothesis, and its use, in the form of ALARA dosing, is responsible for misguided concerns promoting radiophobia, leading to actual risks far greater than the hypothetical carcinogenic risk purportedly avoided. Further, the myriad benefits of imaging are ignored. The present work calls for ending the radiophobia caused by those asserting the need for dose optimization in imaging: the low-dose radiation of medical imaging has no documented pathway to harm, whereas the LNTH and ALARA most assuredly do.

Survival probability in patients with liver trauma.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the survival probability among patients with liver trauma injury using the anatomical and psychological scores of conditions, characteristics and treatment modes. Design/methodology/approach - A logistic model is used to estimate 173 patients' survival probability. Data are taken from patient records. Only emergency room patients admitted to University Hospital of Trauma (former Military Hospital) in Tirana are included. Data are recorded anonymously, preserving the patients' privacy. Findings - When correctly predicted, the logistic models show that survival probability varies from 70.5 percent up to 95.4 percent. The degree of trauma injury, trauma with liver and other organs, total days the patient was hospitalized, and treatment method (conservative vs intervention) are statistically important in explaining survival probability. Practical implications - The study gives patients, their relatives and physicians ample and sound information they can use to predict survival chances, the best treatment and resource management. Originality/value - This study, which has not been done previously, explores survival probability, success probability for conservative and non-conservative treatment, and success probability for single vs multiple injuries from liver trauma.

Early post-operative acute phase response in patients with early graft dysfunction is predictive of 6-month and 12-month mortality in liver transplant recipients.

Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation is mostly a reversible event caused by factors related to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. EAD represents a hepatic injury associated with pre- and early post-transplant inflammatory cytokine responses. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic and diagnostic value of CRP in liver transplant recipients with EAD.

Expression of major histocompatibility complex class Ⅰ chain-related protein A and B in operable lung adenocarcinoma and its clinical significance.

To explore the expression of major histocompatibility complex classⅠchain-related protein A and B (MICA/B) in operable lung adenocarcinoma and its clinical significance.

Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer With and Without Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis.

To assess the correlation between advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with or without pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and its effect on survival outcomes.

Body Mass Index makes headlines - When is mortality rate lowest?.

"People with obesity live longer" - headlines like these are common. Recently published epidemiological studies however provide new food for thought: how is a body mass index (BMI) in the overweight range associated with total mortality? There are many studies showing that a BMI outside the normal range is associated with a higher total mortality. In contrast, there are indications that a BMI in the overweight range is associated with a lower mortality rate. These observations should be interpreted with caution, because of the limitations of the BMI as a measure of overweight and obesity and because the results are based on cohort data. There is currently no reason to deviate from the recommendations regarding the indications for weight loss of the German Obesity Association.

Assessment of risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy with or without concomitant outflow tract obstruction. Identification of patients with HCM who are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is crucial as those patients are likely to benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Based on the HCM Risk-SCD study published in 2013, that included 3675 HCM patients with 24 313 years of follow up, a new clinical risk prediction model for sudden cardiac death was developed. This model was included in the recently released 2014 ESC guidelines. This review summarizes the changes in the prediction model and the resulting recommendations and discusses potential risks and limitations of the new score.

Overexpression of the oncostatin-M receptor in cervical squamous cell carcinoma is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and poor overall survival.

Copy-number gain of the oncostatin-M receptor (OSMR) occurs frequently in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and is associated with adverse clinical outcome. We previously showed that OSMR overexpression renders cervical SCC cells more sensitive to the major ligand oncostatin-M (OSM), which increases migration and invasion in vitro. We hypothesised that a major contribution to this phenotype would come from epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).