A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Survival Analysis - Top 30 Publications

Advanced Stage at Presentation Remains a Major Factor Contributing to Breast Cancer Survival Disparity between Public and Private Hospitals in a Middle-Income Country.

Background: Survival disparities in cancer are known to occur between public and private hospitals. We compared breast cancer presentation, treatment and survival between a public academic hospital and a private hospital in a middle-income country. Methods: The demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment and overall survival (OS) of 2767 patients with invasive breast carcinoma diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 in the public hospital were compared with 1199 patients from the private hospital. Results: Compared to patients in the private hospital, patients from the public hospital were older at presentation, and had more advanced cancer stages. They were also more likely to receive mastectomy and chemotherapy but less radiotherapy. The five-year OS in public patients was significantly lower than in private patients (71.6% vs. 86.8%). This difference was largely attributed to discrepancies in stage at diagnosis and, although to a much smaller extent, to demographic differences and treatment disparities. Even following adjustment for these factors, patients in the public hospital remained at increased risk of mortality compared to their counterparts in the private hospital (Hazard Ratio: 1.59; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.36-1.85). Conclusion: Late stage at diagnosis appears to be a major contributing factor explaining the breast cancer survival disparity between public and private patients in this middle-income setting.

The prognostic efficacy and improvements of the 7th edition Union for International Cancer Control tumor-node-metastasis classifications for Chinese patients with gastric cancer: Results based on a retrospective three-decade population study.

This study aimed to evaluate survival trends for patients with gastric cancer in northeast China in the most recent three decades and analyze the applicability of the UICC tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification 7th edition for Chinese patients with gastric cancer. A review of all inpatient and outpatient records of patients with gastric cancer was conducted in the first hospital of China Medical University and the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. All patients who met the inclusion criteria and were seen from January 1980 through December 2009 were included in the study. The primary outcome was 5-year survival, which was analyzed according to decade of diagnosis and TNM classifications. From 1980 through 2009, the 5-year survival rates for patients with gastric cancer (n=2414) increased from 39.1% to 57.3%. Decade of diagnosis was significantly associated with patient survival (p = 0.013), and the 5-year survival rate in the 2000s was remarkably higher than that in the 1980s and 1990s (p = 0.004 and 0.049, respectively). When classified according to the UICC TNM classification of gastric cancer 7th edition, the prognoses of stage IIIA and stage IIIB patients were not significantly different (p = 0.077). However, if stage T4b and stage N0 patients were classified as stage IIIA, the prognoses of stage IIIA and stage IIIB patients were significantly different (p < 0.001). Hence, there was a significant difference in survival during the three time periods in Northeast China. Classifying stage T4b and stage N0 patients as stage IIIA according to the 7th edition of UICC gastric cancer TNM classifications better stratified Chinese patients and predicted prognoses.

The predictive value of baseline LDL-TG level on major adverse cardiovascular events in a followed up cohort population.

We aimed at identifying the predictive roles of Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglycerides (LDL-TG) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs).

Progression-Free Survival as a Surrogate for Overall Survival in Clinical Trials of Targeted Therapy in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Over the past 15 years, targeted therapy has revolutionized the systemic treatment of cancer. In parallel, there has been a growing debate on the choice of end points in clinical trials in oncology. This debate basically hinges on the choice between overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). PFS is advantageous because it is measured earlier than OS, requires a smaller sample size than OS to achieve the desired power, and is not influenced by cross-over. On the other hand, PFS is prone to measurement error and bias, and may not capture the entire treatment effect on the outcomes of most interest to patients with an incurable disease: a prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Therefore, how can we choose between two imperfect end points? The answer to this question would certainly be made easier if PFS could be demonstrated to be a valid surrogate for OS. The validation of a surrogate end point is best made using individual-patient data (IPD) from randomized trials, which allows for standardized assessments of the patient-level and the trial-level correlations between surrogate and final end points. Proper IPD meta-analytical evaluations for targeted agents have still been rare, and to our knowledge only three studies on this topic are currently available in the metastatic setting: one in breast cancer, one in colorectal cancer and one in lung cancer. Although these three studies suffer from limitations inherent to the availability of IPD and the design of the original clinical trials, they have not been able to validate PFS as surrogate for OS, because only modest correlations were found between these two end points, both at the patient and at the trial level. Even if properly conducted surrogate-endpoint evaluations have thus far been unsuccessful, these evaluations are a step in the right direction and can be expected to be applied on a much larger scale in the era of data sharing of clinical trials.

Meaningful endpoints for therapies approved for hematologic malignancies.

Overall survival (OS) is considered the gold standard for determining treatment efficacy in oncology trials, but the relation between treatment and OS can be challenging to assess because of long study durations and the impact of subsequent therapies on outcome. Using OS can be particularly difficult for new therapies in hematologic malignancies (HMs).

A single-center analysis of chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after alternative donor stem cell transplantation in children with hematological malignancies.

We assessed the clinical outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from alternative donors for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies, defining graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) as a composite endpoint. We also defined chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (cGRFS) as survival without severe chronic GVHD, relapse, or death. The probabilities of 2-year disease-free survival from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched unrelated donor (n = 57), related donor with HLA-1 antigen mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction (1Ag-GvH-MMRD, n = 28), and unrelated umbilical cord blood (n = 35) were 52.2, 38.5, and 40.4%, respectively (P = 0.14), and for 2-year GRFS were 26.2, 13.4, and 30.4%, respectively (P = 0.089), and for 2-year cGRFS were 36.2, 16.7, and 40.4%, respectively (P = 0.015). Of the three groups, the 1Ag-GvH-MMRD group showed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of severe cGVHD, and was identified as a significant risk factor for worse cGRFS. These results suggest that intensification of GVHD prophylaxis may be needed for SCT from 1Ag-GvH-MMRD. As with GRFS, cGRFS should be used as an endpoint of the clinical study to predict long-term morbidity and mortality for patients who need longer follow-up such as pediatric SCT recipients.

Kaplan-Meier curve.

Predicting Structure-Function Relations and Survival following Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Treatment of Emphysema.

Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR. We find that (1) LVRS efficacy can be predicted based on pre-surgical network structure; (2) macroscopic functional improvements following bLVR are related to microscopic changes in mechanical force heterogeneity; and (3) both techniques improve aspects of survival and quality of life influenced by lung compliance, albeit while accelerating disease progression. Our model predictions yield unique insights into the microscopic origins underlying emphysema progression before and after lung volume reduction.

MiRKAT-S: a community-level test of association between the microbiota and survival times.

Community-level analysis of the human microbiota has culminated in the discovery of relationships between overall shifts in the microbiota and a wide range of diseases and conditions. However, existing work has primarily focused on analysis of relatively simple dichotomous or quantitative outcomes, for example, disease status or biomarker levels. Recently, there is also considerable interest in the relationship between the microbiota and censored survival outcomes, such as in clinical trials. How to conduct community-level analysis with censored survival outcomes is unclear, since standard dissimilarity-based tests cannot accommodate censored survival times and no alternative methods exist.

Identifying survival-associated modules from the dysregulated triplet network in glioblastoma multiforme.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can act as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to compete with mRNAs for binding miroRNAs (miRNAs). The dysregulated triplets, composed by mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs, contributed to the development and progression of diseases, such as cancer. However, the roles played by triplet biomarkers are not fully understand in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient survival.

Double-stenting in distal left main lesions: Let's crush.

Unprotected distal left main (ULM) lesions often require double-stenting. In the MITO Registry, a mini-crush stenting technique was safer than culotte stenting. Performing mini-crush arises as the best approach in patients with distal ULM lesions requiring elective double-stenting.

The number of primary events per variable affects estimation of the subdistribution hazard competing risks model.

To examine the effect of the number of events per variable (EPV) on the accuracy of estimated regression coefficients, standard errors, empirical coverage rates of estimated confidence intervals, and empirical estimates of statistical power when using the Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard regression model to assess the effect of covariates on the incidence of events that occur over time in the presence of competing risks.

Association between educational level and survival after acute myocardial infarction. Reply.

Association between educational level and survival after acute myocardial infarction.

Survival trees for left-truncated and right-censored data, with application to time-varying covariate data.

Tree methods (recursive partitioning) are a popular class of nonparametric methods for analyzing data. One extension of the basic tree methodology is the survival tree, which applies recursive partitioning to censored survival data. There are several existing survival tree methods in the literature, which are mainly designed for right-censored data. We propose two new survival trees for left-truncated and right-censored (LTRC) data, which can be seen as a generalization of the traditional survival tree for right-censored data. Further, we show that such trees can be used to analyze survival data with time-varying covariates, essentially building a time-varying covariates survival tree. Implementation of the methods is easy, and simulations and real data analysis results show that the proposed methods work well for LTRC data and survival data with time-varying covariates, respectively.

A prospective, multicenter cohort study to validate a simple performance status-based survival prediction system for oncologists.

Survival prediction systems such as the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), which includes the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), are used to estimate survival for terminally ill patients. Oncologists are, however, less familiar with the PPS in comparison with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS). This study was designed to validate a simple survival prediction system for oncologists, the Performance Status-Based Palliative Prognostic Index (PS-PPI), which is a modified form of the PPI based on the ECOG PS.

In head and neck cancer the number of dissected lymph nodes predicts mortality.

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Expression Phenotype of Primary Melanoma and Matched Metastases and Relationship with Overall Survival.

E-Cadherin and N-cadherin are important components of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The majority of studies on EMT in melanoma have been performed with cultured cell lines or pooled melanoma samples. The goal of our study was to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in matched tissue samples from primary and metastatic sites of melanoma and to determine the correlation with survival outcome. We analyzed tissues from 42 melanoma primary lesions and their corresponding metastases, as well as 53 benign nevi, for expression levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin using immunohistochemical methods. There were heterogenous expression patterns of E- and N-cadherin in both primary and metastatic melanomas. Overall, metastatic tumor showed a decrease in E-cadherin expression and an increase in N-cadherin expression compared to the primary tumor, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.24 and 0.28 respectively). A switch of membranous expression from E-cadherin to N-cadherin from primary to metastatic melanoma was seen in eight patients (19%). Aberrant E-cadherin expression (defined as negative to weak membranous E-cadherin or positive nuclear E-cadherin expression) was more frequently observed in metastatic than in primary melanomas (p=0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that absence of N-cadherin expression in primary melanomas and the presence of aberrant E-cadherin expression in primary melanomas and metastatic melanomas was associated with a significantly worse overall survival. Our data support the importance of E-cadherin and N-cadherin proteins in melanoma progression and patient survival.

A retrospective validation study of three models to estimate the probability of malignancy in patients with small pulmonary nodules from a tertiary oncology follow-up centre.

To estimate the probability of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules (PNs) based on clinical and radiological characteristics in a non-screening population that includes patients with a prior history of malignancy using three validated models.

DS02R1: Improvements to Atomic Bomb Survivors' Input Data and Implementation of Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) and Resulting Changes in Estimated Doses.

Individual dose estimates calculated by Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) for the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors are based on input data that specify location and shielding at the time of the bombing (ATB). A multi-year effort to improve information on survivors' locations ATB has recently been completed, along with comprehensive improvements in their terrain shielding input data and several improvements to computational algorithms used in combination with DS02 at RERF. Improvements began with a thorough review and prioritization of original questionnaire data on location and shielding that were taken from survivors or their proxies in the period 1949-1963. Related source documents varied in level of detail, from relatively simple lists to carefully-constructed technical drawings of structural and other shielding and surrounding neighborhoods. Systematic errors were reduced in this work by restoring the original precision of map coordinates that had been truncated due to limitations in early data processing equipment and by correcting distortions in the old (WWII-era) maps originally used to specify survivors' positions, among other improvements. Distortion errors were corrected by aligning the old maps and neighborhood drawings to orthophotographic mosaics of the cities that were newly constructed from pre-bombing aerial photographs. Random errors that were reduced included simple transcription errors and mistakes in identifying survivors' locations on the old maps. Terrain shielding input data that had been originally estimated for limited groups of survivors using older methods and data sources were completely re-estimated for all survivors using new digital terrain elevation data. Improvements to algorithms included a fix to an error in the DS02 code for coupling house and terrain shielding, a correction for elevation at the survivor's location in calculating angles to the horizon used for terrain shielding input, an improved method for truncating high dose estimates to 4 Gy to reduce the effect of dose error, and improved methods for calculating averaged shielding transmission factors that are used to calculate doses for survivors without detailed shielding input data. Input data changes are summarized and described here in some detail, along with the resulting changes in dose estimates and a simple description of changes in risk estimates for solid cancer mortality. This and future RERF publications will refer to the new dose estimates described herein as "DS02R1 doses."

What does the ALSFRS-R really measure? A longitudinal and survival analysis of functional dimension subscores in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

ALS functional rating scale (revised) (ALSFRS-R) is the most widely used functional rating system in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, heterogeneity in ALSFRS-R progression renders analysis challenging. We have explored the characteristics of total ALSFRS-R, and ALSFRS-R subscores in longitudinal and survival models, to determine whether subscore analysis enhances the precision of the instrument.

Association of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation With Overall and Neurologically Favorable Survival After Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States: A Report From the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival Surveillance Registry.

There are few data on the prevalence or outcome of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) in children 18 years and younger.

Prognostic Significance of High VEGF-C Expression for Patients with Breast Cancer: An Update Meta Analysis.

The prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) expression in breast cancer (BC) patients remains controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to determine the prognostic significance of VEGF-C expression in BC patients.

No association of CpG island methylator phenotype and colorectal cancer survival: population-based study.

Previous studies have shown adverse effects of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) on colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. However, sample sizes were often limited and only few studies were able to adjust for relevant molecular features associated with CIMP. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CIMP on CRC survival in a large population-based study with comprehensive adjustment.

(18)F-FDG PET/CT Can Predict Survival of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) consists of a heterogeneous group of patients with a wide range of survival times, requiring further prognostic stratification to facilitate treatment allocation. We evaluated the prognostic value of (18)F-FDG uptake on PET/CT at the time of presentation in patients with BCLC stage C HCC. Methods: A total of 291 patients with BCLC stage C HCC who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT between 2009 and 2010 for staging were retrospectively enrolled from 7 university hospitals. The patients were further divided into 2 groups according to the extent of disease, as intrahepatic or extrahepatic. Tumor-to-liver SUV ratio (TLR) of the primary tumor was measured on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Prognostic values of TLR and other clinical variables were analyzed to predict overall survival (OS) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Differences in the OS stratified by TLR were examined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Higher TLR was associated with extrahepatic disease (P = 0.018). On multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh classification and TLR were independent prognostic factors in the intrahepatic disease group (all P < 0.05), whereas TLR was the only independent prognostic factor in the extrahepatic disease group (P < 0.05). Patients with high TLR showed a significantly worse OS than those with low TLR (P < 0.05) in both groups. Conclusion: In patients with BCLC stage C HCC, (18)F-FDG uptake in the primary tumor was significantly higher in patients with extrahepatic disease than in those with intrahepatic disease. In addition, (18)F-FDG uptake on pretreatment PET/CT had an incremental prognostic value for OS in both intrahepatic and extrahepatic disease groups.

Simple risk stratification score for prognosis of syncope.

The aim of this study is to describe a new simple score to predict the occurrence of severe adverse events in patients admitted for syncope to a tertiary cardiology referral center.

Robustness of Hospital Benchmarking with the Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR): An Analysis of Secondary Data from 37 German Hospitals.

Introduction: Internationally, the hospital standardized mortality ratio is increasingly used as a risk-adjusted simple measure for quality control. Goodness of fit of different risk models in Germany and robustness of hospital comparisons were evaluated with a secondary data analysis. Methods: Anonymized routine data from the year 2012 of 37 hospitals of the association Quality Indicators for Ecclesiastical Hospitals were used. 2 independent risk models and the observed mortality were compared, the risk models considered both the original and the adapted forms. Results: The risk models showed an area under curve between 0.906 [95% CI 0.904-0.908] and 0.920 [0.918-0.922]. There was a significant correlation between the risk models and the observed mortality with a correlation coefficient between 0.388 (p<0.05) and 0.936 (p<0.01). 26 hospitals had an identical assessment in all risk models comparing their HSMR with the group. 2 hospitals achieved a positive and a negative assessment taking into account the observed mortality. Conclusion: The quality of the risk models is high and the hospital comparison with the HSMR remained stable. However, it is unclear whether the differences are caused by quality-related issues or by different structures and case-mix. Therefore, the HSMR is primarily intended for quality management purposes within German hospitals.

Short-term breast cancer survival in relation to ethnicity, stage, grade and receptor status: national cohort study in England.

In the re-organisation of cancer registration in England in 2012, a high priority was given to the recording of cancer stage and other prognostic clinical data items.