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Thrombolytic Therapy - Top 30 Publications

Effect of charted mental illness on reperfusion therapy in hospitalized patients with an acute myocardial infarction in Florida.

Patients with mental illness carry risk factors that predispose them to excess cardiovascular mortality from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with AMI and charted mental illness (CMI) received less reperfusion therapy following an AMI, compared to AMI patients without CMI in a recent sample population from Florida.A secondary analysis of data was conducted using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FL-AHCA) hospital discharge registry. Adults hospitalized with an AMI from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2015 were included for the analysis. The dependent variable was administration of reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], and coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]), and the independent variable was the presence of CMI (depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, race, health insurance, and comorbidities.The database included 61,614 adults (31.3% women) hospitalized with AMI in Florida. The CMI population comprised of 1036 patients (1.7%) who were on average 5 years younger than non-CMI (60.2 ±12.8 versus 65.2 ±14.1; P < .001). Compared with patients without CMI, patients with CMI had higher proportions of women, governmental health insurance holders, and those with more comorbidities. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that patients with CMI were 30% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with those without CMI (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.8). Within the AMI population including those with and without CMI, women were 23% less likely to receive therapy than men; blacks were 26% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than whites; and those holding government health insurances were between 20% and 40% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than those with private health insurance.Patients with AMI and CMI were statistically significantly less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with patients without CMI. These findings highlight the need to implement AMI management care aimed to reduce disparities among medically vulnerable patients (those with CMI, women, blacks, and those with governmental health insurance).

Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) Trial.

Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy.

Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. A four years’ experience in a Chilean public hospital.

Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator) is the standard pharmacological treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), reducing disability in patients.

Disparities and Trends in Door-to-Needle Time: The FL-PR CReSD Study (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities).

In the United States, about half of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) receive treatment within 60 minutes of hospital arrival. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients receiving tPA within 60 minutes (door-to-needle time [DTNT] ≤60) and 45 minutes (DTNT ≤45) of hospital arrival by race/ethnicity and sex and to identify temporal trends in DTNT ≤60 and DTNT ≤45.

Paget-Schroetter Syndrome in a Baseball Pitcher.

Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is thrombosis of the deep veins draining the upper extremity due to anatomic abnormalities of the thoracic outlet that cause subclavian compression and subsequent thrombosis, leading to thrombus formation in the subclavian vein. Vigorous arm activity in sports is a known risk factor. Here, we report a case of Paget-Schroetter syndrome in a 31-year-old male non-professional baseball pitcher.

Safety Outcomes After Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Recent Stroke.

It is uncertain whether previous ischemic stroke within 3 months of receiving intravenous thrombolysis (tPA [tissue-type plasminogen activator]) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes.

Benefits of Long Versus Short Thrombolysis Times for Acutely Thrombosed Hemodialysis Native Fistulas.

Local thrombolysis with a time of exposure to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator of 15 to 150 minutes is commonly used to declot acutely thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas. The duration of thrombolysis for the restoration of arteriovenous blood flow remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of long thrombolysis treatment (LTT, 3 hours or more) and short thrombolysis treatment (STT, less than 3 hours) in our institution.

Ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis in elderly patients with pulmonary embolism: A SEATTLE II sub-analysis.

Elderly patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) have higher mortality than non-elderly patients, but receive systemic fibrinolysis less frequently. In this sub-analysis of the SEATTLE II trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis in elderly patients with submassive and massive PE. We compared patients ⩾65 years old with those <65 years old. Eligible patients had proximal PE and a right ventricular-to-left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio ⩾0.9 on chest computed tomography (CT). The primary efficacy outcome was the change in chest CT-measured RV/LV diameter ratio at 48 hours after procedure initiation. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding within 72 hours. Sixty-two patients were ⩾65 years of age and 88 were <65 years of age. The RV/LV diameter ratio decreased in both groups 48 hours post-procedure, with a mean change of -0.47 in those ⩾65 and -0.39 in those <65 years old, with no difference between groups ( p = 0.31). Major bleeding occurred in nine (15%) of those ⩾65 and in six (7%) of those <65 years old ( p = 0.17). Ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis resulted in a similar reduction in RV/LV diameter ratio in elderly patients with massive and submassive PE compared with non-elderly patients.

Advanced Therapies in Venous Thromboembolism.

Advanced therapies are available for both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism when anticoagulation alone is not sufficient to improve clinical outcomes. In some cases, clinical deterioration ensues despite anticoagulation, and this requires unique techniques that can ameliorate the clinical course. Such advancements are described in this upcoming article.

Regional Pediatric Acute Stroke Protocol: Initial Experience During 3 Years and 13 Recanalization Treatments in Children.

To evaluate hyperacute management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke, setting up dedicated management pathways is the first recommended step to prove the feasibility and safety of such treatments. A regional pediatric stroke alert protocol including 2 centers in the Paris-Ile-de-France area, France, was established.

Reciprocal Interaction of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure on Outcome in Stroke Thrombolysis.

Significance and management of blood pressure (BP) changes in acute stroke care are unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 24-hour BP variability (BPV) on outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis.

Midterm Outcomes of Pharmacomechanical Thrombectomy in the Treatment of Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis With a Rotational Thrombectomy Device.

The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy with midterm outcomes of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (PMT) performed by using a relatively new thrombectomy device in the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Comparison of triple antithrombotic therapy and dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary stenting.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin, aspirin and clopidogrel in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We retrospectively reviewed clinical and follow-up data of 156 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary stenting. Patients were followed up at 2 and 12 months. A total of 156 consecutive patients were identified. There were 70 patients (dual antiplatelet therapy group, DAPT), warfarin was not used and 86 patients (triple antithrombotic therapy group, TT), both dual antiplatelet therapy and warfarin therapy were prescribed. The baseline data and PCI data were similar in the two groups. The outcome events were similar in the two groups except for bleeding events. There was a significant difference in bleeding risk in the two groups. In summary, triple antithrombotic therapy increases the bleeding risk. Dual antiplatelet therapy decreased this bleeding risk but tended to increase the risk of stroke.

Initial Assessment and Triage of the Stroke Patient.

Nearly 800,000 strokes occur in the United States each year, and stroke is the leading cause of preventable permanent disability. Timely recognition and treatment are imperative to reduce stroke-related morbidity and mortality. Given the evidence supporting intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy for ischemic stroke, stroke symptoms must be rapidly identified and mimics quickly excluded prior to therapeutic decisions. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator is recommended for all qualified patients and patients with presentations suggesting large vessel occlusion should be evaluated for mechanical thrombectomy. Time to treatment is the most important prognostic factor for clinical outcome, highlighting the importance of reliable and efficient local and regional systems of care.

Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke: Save a minute-save a week.

To quantify the patient lifetime benefits gained from reduced delays in endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

Sex differences in utilization and outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis in patients with proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis - Insights from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is being increasingly used for the treatment of proximal lower extremity (LE) deep venous thrombosis (DVT). However, sex differences in utilization and safety outcomes of CDT in these patients are unknown. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify all patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of proximal LE or caval DVT who underwent CDT between January 2005 and December 2011 in the United States. We evaluated the comparative safety outcomes of CDT among a propensity-matched group of 1731 men versus 1731 women. Among 108,243 patients with proximal LE or caval DVT, 4826 patients (4.5%) underwent CDT. Overall, women underwent CDT less often compared to men (4.1% vs 4.9%, p<0.01, respectively). The rates of CDT increased between 2005 and 2011 for both women (2.1% to 5.9%, p<0.01) and men (2.5% to 7.5%, p<0.01). There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality (1.2% vs 1.3%, p=0.76). Women were noted to have higher rates of blood transfusions (11.7% vs 8.8%, p<0.01), but lower rates of intracranial hemorrhage (0.5% vs 1.2%, p=0.03) and gastrointestinal bleeding (0.9% vs 2.2%, p<0.01) compared with men. Women were more likely to undergo inferior vena cava filter placement (37.0% vs 32.1%, p<0.01). In this large nationwide cohort, women with proximal DVT were less likely to receive CDT compared to men. Although mortality rates were similar, women were noted to have higher blood transfusion rates while men had more episodes of intracranial and gastrointestinal bleeding.

Thrombolysis in acute stroke without angiographically documented occlusion.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) using urokinase (UK) in acute stroke patients without angiographically-documented occlusion, and to define predictors of clinical outcome.

Thrombolysis of deep vein thrombosis and inhibiting chemotaxis of macrophage by MCP-1 blockage.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one common vascular complication after trauma or surgery. Macrophage plays an important role in recanalization of thrombosis and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) has a potent chemotactic role for macrophage. This study investigated the role of MCP-1 and macrophage in DVT thrombolysis.

Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Safety.

Recent randomized trials demonstrated the superiority of the mechanical thrombectomy over the best medical treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to an occlusion of arteries of proximal anterior circulation. In this updated meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize the total clinical effects of the treatment, including the last trials.

Effect of Atrial Fibrillation on Mortality, Stroke Risk, and Quality-of-Life Scores in Patients With Heart Failure (from the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation ORBIT-AF).

The degree to which clinical outcomes are worsened in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with heart failure (HF) compared with those without HF is not well described. This study aimed to determine the impact of HF on clinical outcomes in patients with AF. We analyzed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, a national registry of 10,135 patients with AF to determine associations between HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes, including stroke, mortality, and hospitalization using Cox multivariable modeling. Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (AFEQT) scores between groups were also compared. Overall, 33% (n = 3,203) of patients had HF; of these 33% (n = 985) had LVEF ≤40%. Oral anticoagulation was prescribed more commonly in patients with HF (81% vs 74%). Compared with patients without HF, those with HF had similar rate of stroke (1.28 vs 0.88 per 100-patient years, hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, confidence interval [CI] 0.83 to 1.48, p = 0.47) but higher mortality (HR 1.69, CI 1.49 to 1.92, p <0.001) and hospitalization (HR 1.31, CI 1.23 to 1.39, p <0.0001). Patients with LVEF ≤40% had similar stroke risk (HR 1.06, CI 0.67 to 1.67) but higher mortality (HR 2.06, CI 1.74 to 2.44) and hospitalization (HR 1.38, CI 1.25 to 1.51). AFEQT overall score was significantly lower (76.9 vs 83.3, p <0.0001) in patients with HF. In conclusion, HF was associated with increased risk of death and hospitalization and worse quality of life, but similar rates of thromboembolism regardless of LVEF among patients with AF. These findings highlight the need to develop therapeutic strategies targeting functional status and survival for patients with HF and AF.

Risk Stratification for Patients in Cardiogenic Shock After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Mortality in cardiogenic shock (CS) remains high. Early risk stratification is crucial to make adequate treatment decisions.

First case of ischemic stroke which happened during continuous intravenous infusion of rt-PA.

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is one of the methods in the treatment of patients with acute lower limb ischemia. It is based on intrathrombus infusion of one of the thrombolytic agents. The most common complication of CDT is bleeding. We present a patient with left lower limb ischemia, treated by CDT, in which symptoms of stroke, proved to have ischemic etiology, started during continuous intra-arterial infusion of rt-PA. As the patient presented with the history of atrial fibrillation, the most probable mechanism of stroke was related to detachment of possible intra-atrial thrombus. Ischemic stroke which happened during intra-arterial thrombolysis with rt-PA has never been mentioned in literature yet and the case stands for the statement that very effective causative treatment of ischemic stroke with rt-PA is not sufficient to "prevent" ischemic stroke if used in very small doses.

Relation of Baseline Hemoglobin Levels and Adverse Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY and Harmonizing Outcomes with RevasculariZatiON and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trials).

The association between anemia at admission and adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been incompletely studied. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin <12 g/dl in women or <13 g/dl in men in 2 large trials of patients with ACS. We plotted hazard functions for major bleeding at 30 days and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 1 year according to baseline hemoglobin. Among 16,318 patients, 3070 (18.8%) had anemia at baseline. All-cause death at 1 year (2.9% vs 1.5%), major bleeding (7.6% vs 3.6%, p <0.001), and transfusions (6.7% vs 1.5%, p <0.001) were more common in patients with baseline anemia. Spline transformations of the hazard for adverse events as a function of hemoglobin level on admission showed that adverse outcomes increased in a nonlinear fashion with lower levels of baseline hemoglobin; the lowest rates were observed at a level of ∼14 g/dl. Baseline hemoglobin and anemia were independent predictors of major bleeding and death. In conclusion, in patients with ACS, baseline hemoglobin carries important independent prognostic information and demonstrates a nonlinear association with major bleeding and mortality.

Intervention radiology for venous thrombosis: early thrombus removal using invasive methods.

The post thrombotic syndrome is one of the most dreaded complications of proximal deep vein thrombosis. This syndrome leads to pain and suffering with leg swelling, recalcitrant ulceration and venous claudication which greatly impairs mobility and quality of life. The prevalence can be high in patients with iliofemoral venous involvement particularly in the setting of a proximal venous stenosis, such as occurs in May Thurner syndrome. Anticoagulation alone does not reduce the likelihood of this outcome. Compression therapy may be effective but garment discomfort limits its implementation. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, which combines catheter-directed thrombolysis with mechanical thrombus dissolution, provides an attractive treatment strategy for such patients. The rationale and delivery of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, including patient selection and adjunctive antithrombotic therapy, will be reviewed in addition to tips and tricks for managing difficult patient scenarios.

Application of emerging technologies to improve access to ischemic stroke care.

During the past 20 years, the traditional supportive treatment for stroke has been radically transformed by advances in catheter technologies and a cohort of prominent randomized controlled trials that unequivocally demonstrated significant improvement in stroke outcomes with timely endovascular intervention. However, substantial limitations to treatment remain, among the most important being timely access to care. Nonetheless, stroke care has continued its evolution by incorporating technological advances from various fields that can further reduce patients' morbidity and mortality. In this paper the authors discuss the importance of emerging technologies-mobile stroke treatment units, telemedicine, and robotically assisted angiography-as future tools for expanding access to the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Transradial approach for mechanical thrombectomy in anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion.

OBJECTIVE The goals of this study were to describe the authors' recent institutional experience with the transradial approach to anterior circulation large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) in acute ischemic stroke patients and to report its technical feasibility. METHODS The authors reviewed their institutional database to identify patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy via a transradial approach over the 2 previous years, encompassing their experience using modern techniques including stent retrievers. RESULTS Eleven patients were identified. In 8 (72%) of these patients the right radial artery was chosen as the primary access site. In the remaining patients, transfemoral access was initially attempted. Revascularization (modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia [mTICI] score ≥ 2b) was achieved in 10 (91%) of 11 cases. The average time to first pass with the stent retriever was 64 minutes. No access-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS Transradial access for mechanical thrombectomy in anterior circulation LVOs is safe and feasible. Further comparative studies are needed to determine criteria for selecting the transradial approach in this setting.

Thrombolysis and thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke.

The likelihood of disability-free recovery after acute ischemic stroke is significantly improved by reperfusion either by intravenous thrombolytic drug treatment or with endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in selected cases. The use of intravenous thrombolysis is limited by the short treatment window and you need to assess individual balance of benefit and risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Benefit is greater for shorter onset-to-reperfusion time intervals, requiring optimisation of pre-hospital and in-hospital pathways. Symptomatic haemorrhage is more likely with more severe strokes, but a greater proportion of patients are left free of disability than suffer a treatment-related haemorrhage at all levels of severity. Extracranial haemorrhage and orolingual angioedema are less common complications. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy can be used in selected patients with imaging-proven large artery occlusion. Successful therapy depends on well-organised services that can deliver treatment within a short time window at centres with adequate expertise to perform the procedure.

Long-Term Prognosis in Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy.

It remains unclear if intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator has an impact on the survival and maintenance of a favorable effect on functional recovery over a long follow-up period. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not IVT treatment has a favorable effect on functional recovery and survival less than 1 year after a stroke.

Impact of Thrombolytic Therapy on the Long-Term Outcome of Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

The long-term effect of thrombolytic treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) is unknown.

Nuts and bolts of running a pulmonary embolism response team: results from an organizational survey of the National PERT™ Consortium members.

Pulmonary embolism response teams (PERT) are developing rapidly to operationalize multi-disciplinary care for acute pulmonary embolism patients. Our objective is to describe the core components of PERT necessary for newly developing programs.