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Thrombolytic Therapy - Top 30 Publications

Pregnancy, thrombophilia, and the risk of a first venous thrombosis: systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis.

Objective To provide evidence to support updated guidelines for the management of pregnant women with hereditary thrombophilia in order to reduce the risk of a first venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy.Design Systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis.Data sources Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from inception through 14 November 2016.Review methods Observational studies that reported on pregnancies without the use of anticoagulants and the outcome of first VTE for women with thrombophilia were eligible for inclusion. VTE was considered established if it was confirmed by objective means, or when the patient had received a full course of a full dose anticoagulant treatment without objective testing. Results 36 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All thrombophilias increased the risk for pregnancy associated VTE (probabilities ≥91%). Regarding absolute risks of pregnancy associated VTE, high risk thrombophilias were antithrombin deficiency (antepartum: 7.3%, 95% credible interval 1.8% to 15.6%; post partum: 11.1%, 3.7% to 21.0%), protein C deficiency (antepartum: 3.2%, 0.6% to 8.2%; post partum: 5.4%, 0.9% to 13.8%), protein S deficiency (antepartum: 0.9%, 0.0% to 3.7%; post partum: 4.2%; 0.7% to 9.4%), and homozygous factor V Leiden (antepartum: 2.8%, 0.0% to 8.6%; post partum: 2.8%, 0.0% to 8.8%). Absolute combined antepartum and postpartum risks for women with heterozygous factor V Leiden, heterozygous prothrombin G20210A mutations, or compound heterozygous factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were all below 3%. Conclusions Women with antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency or with homozygous factor V Leiden should be considered for antepartum or postpartum thrombosis prophylaxis, or both. Women with heterozygous factor V Leiden, heterozygous prothrombin G20210A mutation, or compound heterozygous factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation should generally not be prescribed thrombosis prophylaxis on the basis of thrombophilia and family history alone. These data should be considered in future guidelines on pregnancy associated VTE risk.

The Future of Catheter-Directed Therapy: Data Gaps, Unmet Needs, and Future Trials.

This article will focus on 3 avenues for future research: (1) addressing the lack of short- and long-term clinical outcome research on catheter-directed therapy; (2) determining the safety and efficacy of novel thrombus removal devices; and (3) translating our knowledge of the pathobiology and pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism into novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Catheter-Directed Therapy for Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Summary of Current Evidence and Protocols.

Treatment of acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) with thrombolytic therapy remains an area of controversy. For patients who fail or who have contraindications to systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapy (CDT) may be offered depending on the patient's condition and the available institutional resources to perform CDT. Although various CDT techniques and protocols exist, the most studied method is low-dose catheter-directed thrombolytic infusion without mechanical thrombectomy. This article reviews current protocols and data on the use of CDT for acute submassive pulmonary embolism.

Techniques and Devices for Catheter-Directed Therapy in Pulmonary Embolism.

The clinical presentation of a patient with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) can be classified into 3 categories: low-risk, submassive (presence of right heart strain), and massive (hemodynamic compromise). Massive PE is associated with high morbidity or mortality and typically treated with systemic intravenous thrombolysis. Over the last 2 decades, however, catheter-directed techniques have become an increasingly popular treatment modality for patients with a contraindication to systemic thrombolysis or without clinical improvement after systemic thrombolysis. Furthermore, endovascular treatment for patients with submassive PE has been of great interest due to the significantly increased mortality associated with right heart strain, and prospective clinical trials have demonstrated catheter-directed thrombolysis to decrease right heart strain earlier than systemic anticoagulation alone. This article describes available devices and endovascular techniques used to treat patients with massive and submassive acute PE.

Advanced Cardiopulmonary Support for Pulmonary Embolism.

Management of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of PE, options for rapid clot reduction, critical care interventions, and advanced cardiopulmonary support. PE can lead to rapid respiratory and hemodynamic collapse via a complex sequence of events leading to acute right ventricular failure. Importantly, reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance must be accomplished either by systemic thrombolytics, catheter directed thrombolytics, endovascular clot extraction, or surgical embolectomy. There are important advances in these techniques all of which have a niche role in the cardiopulmonary stabilization of critically ill patient with PE. Critical care support surrounding the above interventions is necessary. Maintenance of systemic perfusion and cardiac output may require careful titration of vasopressors, inotropes, and preload. Extreme caution should be taken with approach to intubation and positive pressure ventilation. A hemodynamically neutral induction with preparations for circulatory collapse should be the goal. Once intubated, the effect of positive pressure on pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular hemodynamics is necessary. Veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation plays an increasingly important role in the stabilization of the hemodynamically collapsed patient who either has a contraindication to systemic lytics, failed systemic lytics, or requires a bridge to surgical or catheter embolectomy. Veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation has also been used alone to stabilize the circulation until hemodynamics normalize on anticoagulation and has also been used in tenuous patient as a safety net for endovascular procedures.

Systemic Thrombolysis for Pulmonary Embolism: Who and How.

Anticoagulation has been shown to improve mortality in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Initiation of anticoagulation should be considered when PE is strongly suspected and the bleeding risk is perceived to be low, even if acute PE has not yet been proven. Low-risk patients with acute PE are simply continued on anticoagulation. Severely ill patients with high-risk (massive) PE require aggressive therapy, and if the bleeding risk is acceptable, systemic thrombolysis should be considered. However, despite clear evidence that parenteral thrombolytic therapy leads to more rapid clot resolution than anticoagulation alone, the risk of major bleeding including intracranial bleeding is significantly higher when systemic thrombolytic therapy is administered. It has been demonstrated that right ventricular dysfunction, as well as abnormal biomarkers (troponin and brain natriuretic peptide) are associated with increased mortality in acute PE. In spite of this, intermediate-risk (submassive) PE comprises a fairly broad clinical spectrum. For several decades, clinicians and clinical trialists have worked toward a more aggressive, yet safe solution for patients with intermediate-risk PE. Standard-dose thrombolysis, low-dose systemic thrombolysis, and catheter-based therapy which includes a number of devices and techniques, with or without low-dose thrombolytic therapy, have offered potential solutions and this area has continued to evolve. On the basis of heterogeneity within the category of intermediate-risk as well as within the high-risk group of patients, we will focus on the use of systemic thrombolysis in carefully selected high- and intermediate-risk patients. In certain circumstances when the need for aggressive therapy is urgent and the bleeding risk is acceptable, this is an appropriate approach, and often the best one.

Pulmonary Embolism in 2017: How We Got Here and Where Are We Going?

In the 1970s, both the Urokinase Pulmonary Embolism and Urokinase-Streptokinase Pulmonary Embolism trials began the quest to develop thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). The goals of these studies were the immediate reduction in clot burden, restoration of hemodynamic stability, and improved survival. Major bleeding became the major barrier for clinicians to employ these therapies. From 1980s to the present time, a number of studies using recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for achieving these same above outcomes were completed but major bleeding continued to remain an adoption barrier. Finally, the concept of bringing the thrombolytic agent into the clot has entered the quest for the Holy Grail in the treatment of PE. This article will review all the major trials using peripheral thrombolysis and provide insight into the need for a team approach to pulmonary care (Pulmonary Embolism Response Team), standardization of pulmonary classification, and the need for trials designed for both short- and long-term outcomes using thrombolysis for selected PE populations.

Ischemic Stroke: Advances in Diagnosis and Management.

Acute ischemic stroke carries the risk of morbidity and mortality. Since the advent of intravenous thrombolysis, there have been improvements in stroke care and functional outcomes. Studies of populations once excluded from thrombolysis have begun to elucidate candidates who might benefit and thus should be engaged in the process of shared decision-making. Imaging is evolving to better target the ischemic penumbra salvageable with prompt reperfusion. Availability and use of computed tomography angiography identifies large-vessel occlusions, and new-generation endovascular therapy devices are improving outcomes in these patients. With this progress in stroke treatment, risk stratification tools and shared decision-making are fundamental.

Acute Limb Ischemia: An Emergency Medicine Approach.

Acute limb ischemia is a medical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis is required because it is a time-sensitive condition. Timely treatment is necessary to restore blood flow to the extremity and prevent complications. The differential diagnosis of acute limb ischemia is broad. Classification of severity of acute limb ischemia is based on clinical variables. A suspicion of acute ischemia based on history and physical examination warrants heparin administration and vascular surgery consultation. The decision for endovascular thrombolysis or standard surgery depends on etiology, duration, and location of vascular occlusion. This review evaluates the diagnostic approach and management for acute limb ischemia.

Deep Venous Thrombosis.

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a frequently encountered condition that is often diagnosed and treated in the outpatient setting. Risk stratification is helpful and recommended in the evaluation of DVT. An evidence-based diagnostic approach is discussed here. Once diagnosed, the mainstay of DVT treatment is anticoagulation. The specific type and duration of anticoagulation depend upon the suspected etiology of the venous thromboembolism, as well as risks of bleeding and other patient comorbidities. Both specific details and a standardized approach to this vast treatment landscape are presented.

Extracranial Cervical Artery Dissections.

Cervical artery dissections (CeAD) include both internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. They are rare but important causes of stroke, especially in younger patients. CeAD should be considered in patients with strokelike symptoms, a new-onset headache and/or neck pain, and/or other risk factors. Early imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is key to making the diagnosis. Treatment may vary depending on the extent of the dissection, timing of the dissection, and other comorbidities. The overall prognosis is good, but does depend on the initial severity of symptoms.

Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation with Conventional Anticoagulation Can Be a Best Solution for Shock Due to Massive PE.

While most of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) cases can be managed by thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy, massive PE remains a life-threatening disease. Although surgical embolectomy can be a curative therapy for massive PE, peri-operative mortality for hemodynamically collapsed PE is extremely high. We present a case of hemodynamically collapsed massive PE. We avoided either thrombolytic therapy or surgical embolectomy, because the patient had recent cerebral contusion. Therefore, we managed the patient with the combination of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) and conventional anticoagulation, which dramatically improved the patient's hemodynamics. In conclusion, the combination of V-A ECMO and conventional anticoagulation may be the preferred first line therapy for the patients with cardiogenic shock following massive PE.

Impact of Postprocedural TIMI Flow on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical prognostic implications of postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow in acute myocardial infarction patients. A total of 2796 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 1720 non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated in 8 hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea and Chonnam National University Hospital were analyzed. The study populations were divided according to the final TIMI flow. The primary outcome were the major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of cardiac deaths (CD), nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR). Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years (minimum 2 to maximum 5 years), MACE and CD occurred more frequently in STEMI patients with TIMI ≤ 2 group than those with TIMI 3 (MACE: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.962; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.513 to 2.546, P < 0.001, CD: aHR, 3.154, CI 2.308 to 4.309, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two subgroups in NSTEMI (aHR, 0.932; 95% CI 0.586 to 1.484, P = 0.087). In STEMI patients, good postprocedural TIMI flow after PCI was associated with favorable clinical outcomes. And the effect of poor TIMI flow in STEMI was on death, not the components of MACE. Meanwhile, postprocedural TIMI flow had no effect on long-term outcomes in NSTEMI patients.

Impact of Double Loading Regimen of Clopidogrel on Final Angiographic Results, Incidence of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with STEMI Undergoing Primary Coronary Intervention.

This study tested the therapeutic impact of double-loading dose (i.e., 600 mg) versus standard-loading dose (i.e., 300 mg) of clopidogrel on ST-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary-coronary-intervention (PCI).Between January 2005 and December 2013, a total of 1461 STEMI patients undergoing PCI were consecutively enrolled into the study and categorized into group 1 (600 mg/clopidogrel; n = 508) and group 2 (300 mg/clopidogrel; n = 953). We assessed angiographic thrombolysis-in-myocardial-infarction (TIMI) flow in the infarct-related-artery, 30-day mortality and upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding (UGIB) within 30 days as primary-endpoints and later incidents of UGIB as secondary-endpoints.The results showed that the incidences of advanced Killip score (defined as ≥ score 3) upon presentation (23.8% versus 24.6%) and advanced heart failure (defined as ≥ NYHAFc-3) (10.2% versus 10.4%) did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.4). Primary-endpoints, which were final TIM-3 flow (91.3% versus 91.7%) in the infarct-related-artery, incidences of 30-day mortality (5.8% vs. 7.1%), and UGIB ≤ 30 day (7.8% versus 8.9%) did not differ between group 1 and group 2 (all P > 0.33). The secondary-endpoints which were incidences of ≥ 30-day < one-year (5.2% versus 4.7) and > one-year (8.9% versus 10.1%) UGIB did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.45). One-year mortality did not differ between two groups (10.74% versus 12.9%) (P > 0.25). Multiple-stepwise-logistic-regression analysis showed that age and advanced-Killip score were independently predictive of 30-day mortality (all P < 0.001).Double-loading dose of clopidogrel did not confer an additional benefit to the final angiograph results, 30-day/one-year clinical outcomes; and age and advanced Killip-score were powerful predictors of 30-day mortality.

Prevention of Left Ventricular Thrombus Formation and Systemic Embolism After Anterior Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Literature Review.

Anterior myocardial infarction (MI) with apical dysfunction is associated with an increased risk of left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation and systemic embolism (SE). However, the role for prophylactic anticoagulation in current practice is a matter of debate.

Effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on platelet function in fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI.

Patients undergoing PCI early after fibrinolytic therapy are at high risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. We sought to assess the pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in the fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI.

Predictors of post-thrombolysis symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Predictors of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator remain unclear.

Outcome of Patients Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy While on Rivaroxaban for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation (from Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation).

The safety of intravenous thrombolysis in patients taking rivaroxaban has not been well established. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of all patients who received thrombolytic therapy in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). A review of medical and adverse event records for patients receiving thrombolytic therapy while enrolled in ROCKET AF was performed to determine their baseline characteristics, indications for thrombolysis, and type of agent used. Safety end points were 30-day post-thrombolytic rates of stroke, bleeding, and mortality. A total of 28 patients in ROCKET AF received thrombolytic therapy, with 19 patients on rivaroxaban and 9 patients on warfarin. Ischemic stroke was the most common indication for thrombolysis (n = 10), and alteplase was the most commonly used fibrinolytic agent (n = 14). Of the 19 patients in the rivaroxaban group, there were 2 nonfatal bleeding events and 2 deaths, mostly occurring when thrombolytic therapy was administered within 48 hours of the last rivaroxaban dose. Of the 9 patients in the warfarin group, there was 1 nonfatal bleeding event and 3 deaths, most occurring when thrombolytic therapy was administered outside of 48 hours from the last warfarin dose. In conclusion, these observations suggest that careful assessment of the time since the last dose may be of clinical significance in patients on novel oral anticoagulants who require emergent thrombolysis.

Comparison of In-Hospital Outcomes and Readmission Rates in Acute Pulmonary Embolism Between Systemic and Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (from the National Readmission Database).

There are sparse comparative data on in-hospital outcomes and readmission rates in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who receive systemic thrombolytics versus catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT). The study cohort was derived from the National Readmission Database 2013 to 2014, subset of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Systemic and CDT were identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The co-primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmissions and secondary outcome was combined in-hospital mortality + gastrointestinal bleed + intracranial hemorrhage. We used propensity score match analysis without replacement using Greedy's algorithm to adjust for possible confounders. We identified a total of 4,426 patients (3,107: systemic thrombolysis and 1,319: CDT) with acute PE who were treated with thrombolysis. In our 2:1 propensity score algorithm, in-hospital mortality was lower in the CDT group (6.12%) versus systemic thrombolytics (14.94%) (odds ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.49, p <0.001). There was also a lower composite secondary outcome (in-hospital mortality + gastrointestinal bleed + intracranial hemorrhage) in patients who received CDT (8.42%) versus those who received systemic thrombolytics (18.13%) (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.53, p <0.001). Thirty-day readmission was lower in patients with CDT group (7.65%) compared with systemic thrombolytics (10.58%, p = 0.009). In conclusion, in-hospital mortality, as well as bleeding during primary admission was significantly lower with CDT compared with systemic thrombolytics for patients with acute PE. There was also significant decrease in rate of readmissions among patients receiving CDT compared with systemic thrombolytics.

Efficacy and Safety of Ticagrelor Over Time in Patients With Prior MI in PEGASUS-TIMI 54.

Ticagrelor reduces ischemic risk in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). It remains unclear whether ischemic risk and the benefits of prolonged P2Y12 inhibition in this population remain consistent over time.

Prognostic Impact of in-Hospital-Bleeding in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Several studies established a link between bleeding and mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI); however, it is unclear whether bleeding has a direct role in worsening the prognosis or if it is simply a marker of patient frailty. We investigated whether bleeding is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with STEMI treated with pPCI. The relationship between the presence of heart failure on presentation (Killip classification), bleeding occurrence, and outcome was also assessed. Bleeding was defined as the combination of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major and minor bleeding. Short- and long-term mortalities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Multivariable analysis was performed by the Cox regression model. As an alternative method to address the potential confounding factors, we performed a propensity-matched analysis adjusted for all variables included in the CRUSADE score. In the 1,911 consecutive patients with STEMI considered, bleeding (observed in 11.4% of patients) was an independent predictor of 30-day (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 5.25, p = 0.007) and 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 3.47, p = 0.017) but not in a landmark analysis starting from 30 days to 1 year. Bleeding was significantly associated with higher 30-day and 1-year mortality in patients with Killip class ≥II, but not in patients with Killip class I. In conclusion, in-hospital bleeding is independently associated with increased mortality in the early period after STEMI, also after adjusting for variables associated with the risk of bleeding. Bleeding was associated with increased mortality in patients with signs of heart failure at admission, whereas it had no effects in patients with Killip class I.

Efficacy and Safety of a Pharmaco-Invasive Strategy With Half-Dose Alteplase Versus Primary Angioplasty in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: EARLY-MYO Trial (Early Routine Catheterization After Alteplase Fibrinolysis Versus Primary PCI in Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction).

Timely primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) cannot be offered to all patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Pharmaco-invasive (PhI) strategy has been proposed as a valuable alternative for eligible patients with STEMI. We conducted a randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of a PhI strategy with half-dose fibrinolytic regimen versus PPCI in patients with STEMI.

Effect of informed consent on patient characteristics in a stroke thrombolysis trial.

To determine whether the manner of consent, i.e., informed consent by patients themselves or informed consent by proxy, affects clinical characteristics of samples of acute stroke patients enrolled in clinical trials.

Effect of charted mental illness on reperfusion therapy in hospitalized patients with an acute myocardial infarction in Florida.

Patients with mental illness carry risk factors that predispose them to excess cardiovascular mortality from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with AMI and charted mental illness (CMI) received less reperfusion therapy following an AMI, compared to AMI patients without CMI in a recent sample population from Florida.A secondary analysis of data was conducted using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FL-AHCA) hospital discharge registry. Adults hospitalized with an AMI from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2015 were included for the analysis. The dependent variable was administration of reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], and coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]), and the independent variable was the presence of CMI (depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, race, health insurance, and comorbidities.The database included 61,614 adults (31.3% women) hospitalized with AMI in Florida. The CMI population comprised of 1036 patients (1.7%) who were on average 5 years younger than non-CMI (60.2 ±12.8 versus 65.2 ±14.1; P < .001). Compared with patients without CMI, patients with CMI had higher proportions of women, governmental health insurance holders, and those with more comorbidities. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that patients with CMI were 30% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with those without CMI (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.8). Within the AMI population including those with and without CMI, women were 23% less likely to receive therapy than men; blacks were 26% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than whites; and those holding government health insurances were between 20% and 40% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than those with private health insurance.Patients with AMI and CMI were statistically significantly less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with patients without CMI. These findings highlight the need to implement AMI management care aimed to reduce disparities among medically vulnerable patients (those with CMI, women, blacks, and those with governmental health insurance).

Sex and Gender Differences in Thromboprophylactic Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After the Introduction of Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants.

To examine sex differences in thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation before and after the introduction of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants, we performed a cross-sectional registry study based on anonymized individual-level patient data of all individuals with a diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code I48) in the region of Stockholm, Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants), in 2011 and 2015, respectively. Thromboprophylaxis improved considerably during the period. During 2007 to 2011, 23,198 men and 18,504 women had an atrial fibrillation diagnosis. In 2011, more men than women (53% men vs 48% women) received oral anticoagulants (almost exclusively warfarin) and more women received aspirin only (35% women vs 30% men), whereas there was no sex difference for no thromboprophylaxis (17%). During 2011 to 2015, 27,237 men and 20,461 women had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Compared with the earlier time period, a higher proportion used oral anticoagulants (71% women vs 70% men), but fewer women ≥80 years received anticoagulants (67% women vs 72% men), more women received aspirin (15% women vs 13% men), and fewer women had no thromboprophylaxis (15% women vs 17% men). Patients with co-morbidities potentially complicating oral anticoagulant use used more oral anticoagulant in 2015 compared with 2011. The sex differences observed in 2011 with fewer women using oral anticoagulants had disappeared in 2015 except in women 80 years and older and in patients with complicated co-morbidity.

Initiation of a Multidisciplinary, Rapid Response Team to Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.

Pulmonary embolism (PE) can result in rapid clinical decompensation in many patients. With increasing patient complexity and advanced treatment options for PE, multidisciplinary, rapid response teams can optimize risk stratification and expedite management strategies. The Massive And Submassive Clot On-call Team (MASCOT) was created at our institution, which comprised specialists from cardiology, pulmonology, hematology, interventional radiology, and cardiac surgery. MASCOT offers rapid consultation 24 hours a day with a web-based conference call to review patient data and discuss management of patients with high-risk PE. We reviewed patient data collected from MASCOT's registry to analyze patient clinical characteristics and outcomes and describe the composition and operation of the team. Between August 2015 and September 2016, MASCOT evaluated 72 patients. Seventy of the 72 patients were admitted to our institution, accounting for 32% of all patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of PE. Average age was 62 ± 17 years with a female predominance (63%). Active malignancy (31%), recent surgery or trauma (21%), and recent hospitalization (24%) were common. PE clinical severity was massive in 16% and submassive in 83%. Patients were managed with anticoagulation alone in 65% (n = 46), systemic fibrinolysis in 11% (n = 8), catheter-directed therapy in 18% (n = 13), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 3% (n = 2), and an inferior vena cava filter was placed in 15% (n = 11). Thirteen percent (n = 9) experienced a major bleed with no intracranial hemorrhage. Survival to discharge was 89% (64% with massive PE and 93% with submassive PE). In conclusion, multidisciplinary, rapid response PE teams offer a unique coordinated approach to patient care.

Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) Trial.

Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy.

Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. A four years’ experience in a Chilean public hospital.

Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator) is the standard pharmacological treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), reducing disability in patients.

Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes With and Without Intravenous Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

Whether prior intravenous thrombolysis provides any additional benefits to the patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel, acute ischemic stroke remains unclear.

Disparities and Trends in Door-to-Needle Time: The FL-PR CReSD Study (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities).

In the United States, about half of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) receive treatment within 60 minutes of hospital arrival. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients receiving tPA within 60 minutes (door-to-needle time [DTNT] ≤60) and 45 minutes (DTNT ≤45) of hospital arrival by race/ethnicity and sex and to identify temporal trends in DTNT ≤60 and DTNT ≤45.