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Thrombolytic Therapy - Top 30 Publications

Risk Stratification for Patients in Cardiogenic Shock After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Mortality in cardiogenic shock (CS) remains high. Early risk stratification is crucial to make adequate treatment decisions.

Application of emerging technologies to improve access to ischemic stroke care.

During the past 20 years, the traditional supportive treatment for stroke has been radically transformed by advances in catheter technologies and a cohort of prominent randomized controlled trials that unequivocally demonstrated significant improvement in stroke outcomes with timely endovascular intervention. However, substantial limitations to treatment remain, among the most important being timely access to care. Nonetheless, stroke care has continued its evolution by incorporating technological advances from various fields that can further reduce patients' morbidity and mortality. In this paper the authors discuss the importance of emerging technologies-mobile stroke treatment units, telemedicine, and robotically assisted angiography-as future tools for expanding access to the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Transradial approach for mechanical thrombectomy in anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion.

OBJECTIVE The goals of this study were to describe the authors' recent institutional experience with the transradial approach to anterior circulation large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) in acute ischemic stroke patients and to report its technical feasibility. METHODS The authors reviewed their institutional database to identify patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy via a transradial approach over the 2 previous years, encompassing their experience using modern techniques including stent retrievers. RESULTS Eleven patients were identified. In 8 (72%) of these patients the right radial artery was chosen as the primary access site. In the remaining patients, transfemoral access was initially attempted. Revascularization (modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia [mTICI] score ≥ 2b) was achieved in 10 (91%) of 11 cases. The average time to first pass with the stent retriever was 64 minutes. No access-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS Transradial access for mechanical thrombectomy in anterior circulation LVOs is safe and feasible. Further comparative studies are needed to determine criteria for selecting the transradial approach in this setting.

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment.

Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis can be made based on patient history, symptoms, electrocardiography findings, and cardiac biomarkers, which delineate between ST elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Rapid reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the goal with either clinical presentation. Coupled with appropriate medical management, percutaneous coronary intervention can improve short- and long-term outcomes following myocardial infarction. If percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be performed rapidly, patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction can be treated with fibrinolytic therapy. Fibrinolysis is not recommended in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome; therefore, these patients should be treated with medical management if they are at low risk of coronary events or if percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be performed. Post-myocardial infarction care should be closely coordinated with the patient's cardiologist and based on a comprehensive secondary prevention strategy to prevent recurrence, morbidity, and mortality.

Reduction in time to treatment in prehospital telemedicine evaluation and thrombolysis.

To compare the times to evaluation and thrombolytic treatment of patients treated with a telemedicine-enabled mobile stroke treatment unit (MSTU) vs those among patients brought to the emergency department (ED) via a traditional ambulance.

Surveys of Stroke Patients and Their Next of Kin on Their Opinions towards Decision-Making and Consent for Stroke Thrombolysis.

Early initiation of stroke thrombolysis is associated with improved outcomes. Procurement of consent is a key factor in prolonging the door-to-needle duration. This study aimed to determine the attitudes and preferences of stroke patients and their next of kin (NOK) towards decision-making for stroke thrombolysis in Singapore.

Endovascular therapy for Angio-seal(TM) -related acute limb ischemia: Perioperative and long-term results.

To investigate the perioperative and long-term outcomes of endovascular therapy for Angio-seal(TM) -related acute limb ischemia.

The effects of pharmaceutical thrombolysis and multi-modal therapy on patients with acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke: Results of a one center retrospective study.

The treatment method for acute ischemic stroke is rapidly developing, and the effects of endovascular modalities, when used alone or in combination, needs to be studied. We aimed to identify the difference between pharmaceutical thrombolysis and multi-modal therapy (MMT) used in acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke (APCIS) patients and also to detect the predictors for successful recanalization and favorable outcomes.

Remote Evaluation of the Patient With Acute Stroke.

This article describes advances related to the successful remote evaluation of the patient with acute stroke. Telestroke is a connected care approach that brings expert stroke care to remote, neurologically underserved urban or rural locations. Recent findings reveal strong evidence showing that telestroke is equivalent to in-person care. Time is critical in treating patients with acute stroke, and telestroke networks must assure that technology improves-not delays-delivery of care. The stroke center and the spoke site must work collaboratively to develop and institute protocols and policies to ensure that eligible patients are identified, assessed, and treated swiftly. Adverse outcomes, such as intracranial hemorrhage and mortality, must be monitored to assess safety metrics. An additional goal of telestroke networks is to screen patients who might be candidates for potential endovascular or neurosurgical therapy and transfer these patients for these procedures.

Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

This article provides an update on the state of the art of the emergency treatment of acute ischemic stroke with particular emphasis on the alternatives for reperfusion therapy.

Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy Overview.

The treatment of acute ischemic stroke has undergone dramatic changes recently subsequent to the demonstrated efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) device-based therapy in multiple trials. The selection of patients for both intravenous and IA therapy is based on timely imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and if IA therapy is considered noninvasive, angiography with one of these modalities is necessary to document a large-vessel occlusion amenable for intervention. More advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are available that can be used to identify a small ischemic core and ischemic penumbra, and this information will contribute increasingly in treatment decisions as the therapeutic time window is lengthened. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator remains the mainstay of acute stroke therapy within the initial 4.5 hours after stroke onset, despite the lack of Food and Drug Administration approval in the 3- to 4.5-hour time window. In patients with proximal, large-vessel occlusions, IA device-based treatment should be initiated in patients with small/moderate-sized ischemic cores who can be treated within 6 hours of stroke onset. The organization and implementation of regional stroke care systems will be needed to treat as many eligible patients as expeditiously as possible. Novel treatment paradigms can be envisioned combining neuroprotection with IA device treatment to potentially increase the number of patients who can be treated despite long transport times and to ameliorate the consequences of reperfusion injury. Acute stroke treatment has entered a golden age, and many additional advances can be anticipated.

Sex Differences and Functional Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis.

Women have a worse outcome after stroke compared with men, although in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)-treated patients, women seem to benefit more. Besides sex differences, age has also a possible effect on functional outcome. The interaction of sex on the functional outcome in IVT-treated patients in relation to age remains complex. The purpose of this study was to compare outcome after IVT between women and men with regard to age in a large multicenter European cohort reflecting daily clinical practice of acute stroke care.

Drip 'n Ship Versus Mothership for Endovascular Treatment: Modeling the Best Transportation Options for Optimal Outcomes.

There is uncertainty regarding the best way for patients outside of endovascular-capable or Comprehensive Stroke Centers (CSC) to access endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The role of the nonendovascular-capable Primary Stroke Centers (PSC) that can offer thrombolysis with alteplase but not endovascular treatment is unclear. A key question is whether average benefit is greater with early thrombolysis at the closest PSC before transportation to the CSC (Drip 'n Ship) or with PSC bypass and direct transport to the CSC (Mothership). Ideal transportation options were mapped based on the location of their endovascular-capable CSCs and nonendovascular-capable PSCs.

Clinical Selection Strategies to Identify Ischemic Stroke Patients With Large Anterior Vessel Occlusion: Results From SITS-ISTR (Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry).

The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) correlates with presence of large anterior vessel occlusion (LAVO). However, the application of the full NIHSS in the prehospital setting to select patients eligible for treatment with thrombectomy is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of simple clinical selection strategies.

Endovascular Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion.

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy.

Progressive rural-urban disparity in acute stroke care.

To explore rural-urban differences and trends in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) utilization among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and examine the association between primary stroke center (PSC) growth and geographic disparity in tPA use.

Is Unexplained Early Neurological Deterioration After Intravenous Thrombolysis Associated With Thrombus Extension?

Early neurological deterioration (END) after anterior circulation stroke is strongly associated with poor outcome. Apart from straightforward causes, such as intracerebral hemorrhage and malignant edema, the mechanism of END occurring after intravenous thrombolysis remains unclear in most instances. We tested the hypothesis that unexplained END is associated with thrombus extension.

Sex and Stroke in Thrombolyzed Patients and Controls.

We hypothesized that any sex-related difference in outcome poststroke is explained by other prognostic factors and that the response to intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) is equal in males and females after adjustment for such factors.

Management Strategy for Patients With Chronic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis.

We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics.

Arterial Obstruction on Computed Tomographic or Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Response to Intravenous Thrombolytics in Ischemic Stroke.

Computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used increasingly to assess arterial patency in patients with ischemic stroke. We determined which baseline angiography features predict response to intravenous thrombolytics in ischemic stroke using randomized controlled trial data.

Successful thrombolytic therapy in a patient with congenital corrected transposition of the great arteries.

The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of thrombolytic therapy in selected patients, such as those with congenital heart defects in whom a coronary artery anomaly can be observed.

Thrombolytic treatment to stroke mimic patients via telestroke.

The safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) to stroke patients via telestroke (TS) is similar to those presenting to stroke centers. Little is known on the accuracy of TS diagnosis among those receiving IVT. We sought to compare the rate of patients receiving IVT with diagnosis of ischemic stroke as opposed to stroke mimic (SM) in our TS network to those who presented to our comprehensive stroke center (CSC).

NOR-SASS (Norwegian Sonothrombolysis in Acute Stroke Study): Randomized Controlled Contrast-Enhanced Sonothrombolysis in an Unselected Acute Ischemic Stroke Population.

The NOR-SASS (Norwegian Sonothrombolysis in Acute Stroke Study) aimed to assess effect and safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound treatment in an unselected acute ischemic stroke population.

Indications for fibrinolysis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: From guidelines to practice.

European guidelines on managing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the first 12hours recommend fibrinolysis when the time elapsing between the first medical contact and balloon time (FMCBT) is more than 120minutes.

Good news for Kerala.

Management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in predominantly rural central China: A retrospective observational study.

The degree of adherence to current guidelines for clinical management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is known in developed countries and large Chinese cities, but in predominantly rural areas information is lacking. We assessed the application of early reperfusion therapy for STEMI in secondary and tertiary hospitals in Henan province in central China.Data were retrospectively collected from 5 secondary and 4 tertiary hospitals in Henan concerning STEMI patients treated from January 2011 to January 2012, including management strategy, delay time, and inhospital mortality.Among 1311 STEMI patients, 613 and 698 were treated at secondary and tertiary hospitals, respectively. Overall, 460 (35.1%) patients received early reperfusion therapy including thrombolysis in 383 patients and primary percutaneous coronary intervention in 77. Compared with secondary centers, early (37.2% vs 32.6%) and successful reperfusion (34.5% vs 25.1%) was significantly higher, whereas thrombolysis was lower in the tertiary hospitals (26.4% vs 32.5%). Median symptom onset-to-first medical contact, and door-to-needle and door-to-balloon time was 168, 18, and 60 minutes, respectively. Delay times closely approached recommended guidelines, especially in secondary centers. Use of recommended pharmacotherapy was low, particularly in secondary hospitals. Inhospital mortality was 5.8%, and similar between secondary and tertiary hospitals (6.0% vs 5.6%; P = 0.183).Two-thirds of STEMI patients did not receive early reperfusion, and tertiary hospitals mostly failed to take advantage of around-the-clock primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Actions such as referrals are warranted to shorten prehospital delay, and the concerns of patients and doctors regarding reperfusion risk should be addressed.

Saddle pulmonary embolism as the initial presentation of prothrombin gene mutation G20210A.

Recanalization techniques for venous outflow obstruction.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with a high cost burden for health care systems because of secondary cost intensive complications like pulmonary embolism and especially the post thrombotic syndrome (PTS). The current standard therapy of anticoagulation for DVT therapy has not changed through the years leaving patients especially with iliofemoral vein thrombus on a high-risk situation for developing PTS. Current study situation for endovascular treatment of iliofemoral DVT treatment gives a rationale for active thrombus removal using catheter directed therapy (CDT) or pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (PMT) which improves valvular vein function and luminal patency reducing the potential complication of PTS. For patients with chronich obstruction of the iliac vein system dedicated venous stents and recanalization techniques are today available.

Usefulness of Thromboelastography in the Detection and Management of Tissue Plasminogen Activator-Associated Hyperfibrinolysis.

Rotation thromboelastometry is a viscoelastometric method that provides a rapid assessment of a patient's hemostatic processes in emergency settings, allowing prompt identification of specific coagulation abnormalities. Its results thus might guide targeted replacement therapy in hemorrhagic conditions, in case of platelet or coagulation factor deficiency, or hyperfibrinolysis, which is difficult to identify otherwise. Although currently used in emergency and traumatic surgery, there are limited data about thromboelastometry in ischemic stroke, particularly in monitoring the coagulative response to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Here we report a case of ischemic stroke complicated by a remote asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after IVT and additional endovascular therapy that has been successfully treated with intravenous infusion of tranexamic acid after the detection of the status of hyperfibrinolysis provided by thromboelastometry. Further studies are needed to provide the potential usefulness of thromboelastometry and tranexamic acid in ischemic stroke complicated by intracranial bleeding.

Increased admission and fasting glucose are associated with unfavorable short-term outcome after intra-arterial treatment of ischemic stroke in the MR CLEAN pretrial cohort.

Limited data are available on the impact of fasting glucose on outcome after intra-arterial treatment (IAT). We studied whether hyperglycemia on admission and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are associated with unfavorable outcome after IAT in acute ischemic stroke.