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Thrombolytic Therapy - Top 30 Publications

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment.

Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis can be made based on patient history, symptoms, electrocardiography findings, and cardiac biomarkers, which delineate between ST elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Rapid reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the goal with either clinical presentation. Coupled with appropriate medical management, percutaneous coronary intervention can improve short- and long-term outcomes following myocardial infarction. If percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be performed rapidly, patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction can be treated with fibrinolytic therapy. Fibrinolysis is not recommended in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome; therefore, these patients should be treated with medical management if they are at low risk of coronary events or if percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be performed. Post-myocardial infarction care should be closely coordinated with the patient's cardiologist and based on a comprehensive secondary prevention strategy to prevent recurrence, morbidity, and mortality.

Surveys of Stroke Patients and Their Next of Kin on Their Opinions towards Decision-Making and Consent for Stroke Thrombolysis.

Early initiation of stroke thrombolysis is associated with improved outcomes. Procurement of consent is a key factor in prolonging the door-to-needle duration. This study aimed to determine the attitudes and preferences of stroke patients and their next of kin (NOK) towards decision-making for stroke thrombolysis in Singapore.

Endovascular therapy for Angio-seal(TM) -related acute limb ischemia: Perioperative and long-term results.

To investigate the perioperative and long-term outcomes of endovascular therapy for Angio-seal(TM) -related acute limb ischemia.

Endovascular Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion.

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy.

Successful thrombolytic therapy in a patient with congenital corrected transposition of the great arteries.

The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of thrombolytic therapy in selected patients, such as those with congenital heart defects in whom a coronary artery anomaly can be observed.

Management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in predominantly rural central China: A retrospective observational study.

The degree of adherence to current guidelines for clinical management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is known in developed countries and large Chinese cities, but in predominantly rural areas information is lacking. We assessed the application of early reperfusion therapy for STEMI in secondary and tertiary hospitals in Henan province in central China.Data were retrospectively collected from 5 secondary and 4 tertiary hospitals in Henan concerning STEMI patients treated from January 2011 to January 2012, including management strategy, delay time, and inhospital mortality.Among 1311 STEMI patients, 613 and 698 were treated at secondary and tertiary hospitals, respectively. Overall, 460 (35.1%) patients received early reperfusion therapy including thrombolysis in 383 patients and primary percutaneous coronary intervention in 77. Compared with secondary centers, early (37.2% vs 32.6%) and successful reperfusion (34.5% vs 25.1%) was significantly higher, whereas thrombolysis was lower in the tertiary hospitals (26.4% vs 32.5%). Median symptom onset-to-first medical contact, and door-to-needle and door-to-balloon time was 168, 18, and 60 minutes, respectively. Delay times closely approached recommended guidelines, especially in secondary centers. Use of recommended pharmacotherapy was low, particularly in secondary hospitals. Inhospital mortality was 5.8%, and similar between secondary and tertiary hospitals (6.0% vs 5.6%; P = 0.183).Two-thirds of STEMI patients did not receive early reperfusion, and tertiary hospitals mostly failed to take advantage of around-the-clock primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Actions such as referrals are warranted to shorten prehospital delay, and the concerns of patients and doctors regarding reperfusion risk should be addressed.

Recanalization techniques for venous outflow obstruction.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with a high cost burden for health care systems because of secondary cost intensive complications like pulmonary embolism and especially the post thrombotic syndrome (PTS). The current standard therapy of anticoagulation for DVT therapy has not changed through the years leaving patients especially with iliofemoral vein thrombus on a high-risk situation for developing PTS. Current study situation for endovascular treatment of iliofemoral DVT treatment gives a rationale for active thrombus removal using catheter directed therapy (CDT) or pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (PMT) which improves valvular vein function and luminal patency reducing the potential complication of PTS. For patients with chronich obstruction of the iliac vein system dedicated venous stents and recanalization techniques are today available.

Thrombolysis for acute deep vein thrombosis.

Standard treatment for deep vein thrombosis aims to reduce immediate complications. Use of thrombolysis or clot dissolving drugs could reduce the long-term complications of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) including pain, swelling, skin discolouration, or venous ulceration in the affected leg. This is the third update of a review first published in 2004.

Intravenous thrombolysis in a patient taking warfarin with an international normalised ratio of 1.9.

Intravenous thrombolysis is the mainstay medical treatment for acute ischaemic strokes, but has strict eligibility criteria. Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) is the most adverse complication. A woman aged 76 years presented with signs of an acute stroke and despite not meeting the eligibility criteria, given her background use of warfarin, she received intravenous thrombolysis with an excellent outcome. This is the first fully documented case report of the contraindicated use of intravenous thrombolysis in a patient presenting with an acute ischaemic stroke on a background of concurrent use of warfarin with an international normalised ratio (INR) as high as 1.9. It has been perceived that the risk of thrombolysis with a raised INR outweighs the potential benefits. However, documenting its use outside of the current eligibility criteria is key to future developments.

Patterns in the Management of Acute Limb Ischemia: A VESS Survey.

Treatment strategies for acute limb ischemia (ALI) are abundant with few established guidelines. We sought to determine nationwide ALI treatment patterns in the modern era.

Comparison of Systemic Thrombolysis Versus Indirect Thrombolysis via the Superior Mesenteric Artery in Patients with Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of indirect thrombolysis via the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in patients with acute portal vein thrombosis.

Developmental Hemostasis and Management of Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis in Neonates.

Neonatal hemostasis differs qualitatively, but in particular quantitatively, from hemostasis in older children and adults. Nevertheless, hemostasis in healthy neonates is functionally stable with no tendency to bleeding or thrombotic complications. In sick neonates, however, risk factors may disrupt this equilibrium and lead to thrombosis. The most important risk factor is the central venous catheter. Management of neonatal central venous catheter thrombosis is challenging, as no controlled trials have been performed. Therapeutic options include (1) observation and supportive treatment; (2) anticoagulant agents, including low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin; (3) thrombolytic agents; and (4) thrombectomy. Prevention of thrombosis with anticoagulation is not advised yet. Careful consideration of the necessity of the catheter and optimal hygienic care are important preventative measures.

Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams.

Pulmonary embolism is a common and often life-threatening event. Treatment options include anticoagulation alone, catheter-directed therapies, and surgical thromboembolectomy. While guidelines exist, there is often controversy over which treatment is most appropriate, particularly for intermediate-risk patients. The traditional care model, in which the primary team is responsible for consulting the appropriate specialists, may be inadequate and inefficient for emergent situations, as ensuring coordination and communication between various consulting services can be a time consuming and confusing process. The Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) model was developed to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patient with intermediate- and high-risk pulmonary embolism. Activation of the PERT allows for rapid, multidisciplinary discussion among dedicated specialists, which typically includes members of the cardiology, emergency medicine, hematology, pulmonary/critical care, and surgical services. While the majority of patients are still treated with anticoagulation alone, in the event that a more invasive approach is deemed necessary, the team expedites this process. Over the last several years, the PERT model has been adopted at more than 75 health care institutions and may represent a new standard of care.

Acute stroke endovascular treatment: tips and tricks.

Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, responsible for 1 of every 20 deaths. The efficacy of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) alone for recanalization of large-vessel occlusion (LVO) is low. Several randomized trials have now established endovascular treatment of LVO as a standard of care. Endovascular techniques continue to evolve at a rapid pace. This review seeks to report recent advances in endovascular technology, discuss the correlation between speed of reperfusion and patient outcomes, and present mobile stroke care, shortcoming of the recent technology (such as clot fragmentation), and potential solutions to overcome these drawbacks, as well as anesthetic considerations and cost-effectiveness.

Myocardial blush grade and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Cerebellar vermis: a vulnerable location of remote brain haemorrhages after thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke.

Extra-ischaemic (remote) brain heamorrhages after thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke occur in less than 3 % of treated patients, but it worsens prognosis. Little attention has been paid to the location of the haematomas. Among 12 patients with remote brain haemorrhage after thrombolysis, we report three patients with haemorrhage in the cerebellar vermis (25 %), with poor outcome. Previous hypertensive vasculopathy is deemed to be the most plausible cause.

Thrombolysis in dementia patients with acute stroke: is it justified?

The administration of thrombolytic therapy in elderly patients with dementia and acute ischemic stroke may be controversial, because the reported risk of rt-PA associated intracerebral hemorrhage in these patients is higher compared with that of patients without dementia and because these patients are already disabled. Moreover, there are known risk factors for hemorrhagic transformation in patients with dementia: amyloid angiopathy, leukoaraiosis and the presence of microbleeds. In this review, we describe the impact of dementia on functional outcome following thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and discuss some of the issues related to the use of this therapy in this specific patient's population.

Thrombolysis based on magnetically-controlled surface-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticle.

In this study, the control of magnetic fields to manipulate surface-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles by urokinase coating is investigated for thrombolysis in a microfluidic channel. The urokinase-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles are characterized using particle size distribution, zeta potential measurement and spectroscopic data. Thrombolytic ratio tests reveal that the efficiency for thrombus cleaning is significantly improved when using magnetically-controlled urokinase-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles than pure urokinase solution. The average increase in the rate of thrombolysis with the use of urokinase-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles is about 50%. In vitro thrombolysis test in a microfluidic channel using the coated nanoparticles shows nearly complete removal of thrombus, a result that can be attributed to the clot busting effect of the urokinase as it inhibits the possible formation of blood bolus during the magnetically-activated microablation process. The experiment further demonstrates that a thrombus mass of 10.32 mg in the microchannel is fully removed in about 180 s.

Initial Experiences with Endovascular Management of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Is It Safe?

Interventional strategies for massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (smPE) have historically included either systematic intravenous thrombolytic alteplase or surgical embolectomy, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, with the advent of endovascular techniques, recent studies have suggested that an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute smPE may be both safe and effective with excellent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who have undergone catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for smPE at our institution in an effort to determine the safety of the procedure.

Clinical effect of mechanical fragmentation combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator artery thrombolysis on acute cerebral infarction.

This study aims to explore the clinical effect of mechanical fragmentation combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) artery thrombolysis on acute cerebral infarction (ACI). One hundred and thirty-two cases of ACI patients were randomly divided into an experimental group (66 patients) and a control group (66 patients). The experimental group was treated with mechanical fragmentation combined with rt-PA artery thrombolysis method, while the control group was treated with only the rt- PA artery thrombolysis method. All the patients had their basic information recorded. A computational analysis on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, curative effect and bleeding data was carried out. The results showed that in the experimental group the curative effects were better and there were fewer complications. Accordingly, we conclude that mechanical fragmentation combined with rt-PA artery thrombolytic method is a safe and reliable therapy with significant curative effects. It improves the NIHSS scores of the patients markedly and reduces the incidence of subsequent pneumonia.

Truth, thinking and thrombolysis.

Comparative Outcomes of Ultrasound-Assisted Thrombolysis and Standard Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis in the Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis (USAT) and standard catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE).

Thrombectomy and Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis Combined With Antithrombin Concentrate for Treatment of Antithrombin Deficiency Complicated by Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis That Is Refractory to Anticoagulation.

A 22-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with deep vein thrombosis that was complicated by antithrombin deficiency. This deficiency was refractory to anticoagulation therapy. Although catheter-directed thrombolysis could not reperfuse the total occlusion in the left deep vein, a combination of thrombectomy, catheter-directed thrombolysis, and antithrombin concentrate treatment was able to dissolve the clots and ameliorate the blood flow into the left deep vein. Antithrombin concentrate administration would be effective in the treatment of antithrombin deficiency with medical refractory deep vein thrombosis.

Review article: Why is there still a debate regarding the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in the management of presumed acute ischaemic stroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The objective of the present study is to independently and systematically assess the harms and benefits of intravenous thrombolysis for patients with presumed acute schaemic stroke.

Increased Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Contribute to Intracerebral Hemorrhage during Thrombolysis after Concomitant Stroke and Influenza Infection.

Thrombolysis is the only approved therapy for acute stroke. However, life-threatening complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can develop after intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Both infection and thrombolysis during cerebral ischemia disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). tPA can induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is known to be involved in BBB disruption. However, it has still not been investigated whether preexisting influenza virus infection during thrombolysis after acute stroke affects systemic levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1 and whether increased systemic MMP-9 levels affect ICH. This study aimed to investigate the influence of influenza virus infection on plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after thrombolysis in acute stroke, and to determine whether the infection correlates with intracerebral bleeding.

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis via Small Saphenous Veins for Treating Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis.

BACKGROUND There is little data comparing catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) via small saphenous veins vs. systematic thrombolysis on complications and efficacy in acute deep venous thrombosis patients. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of CDT via the small saphenous veins with systematic thrombolysis for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-six patients with acute DVT admitted from June 2012 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups: 27 patients received systemic thrombolysis (ST group) and 39 patients received CDT via the small saphenous veins (CDT group). The thrombolysis efficiency, limb circumference differences, and complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in the 2 groups were recorded. RESULTS The angiograms demonstrated that all or part of the fresh thrombus was dissolved. There was a significant difference regarding thrombolysis efficiency between the CDT group and ST group (71.26% vs. 48.26%, P=0.001). In both groups the postoperative limb circumference changes were higher compared to the preoperative values. The differences between postoperative limb circumferences on postoperative days 7 and 14 were significantly higher in the CDT group than in the ST group (all P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative PTS in the CDT group (17.9%) was significantly lower in comparison to the ST group (51.85%) during the follow-up (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS Catheter-directed thrombolysis via the small saphenous veins is an effective, safe, and feasible approach for treating acute deep venous thrombosis.

Incidence and Outcomes of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Thrombus during Catheter-directed Thrombolysis for Proximal Deep Venous Thrombosis.

The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence and outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter thrombus during catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for acute proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

PECULIARITIES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of invasive strategies for the treatment of 306 patients with recurrent myocardial infarction (IM) admitted to our clinic in 2003-2007. We compared the results of three approaches: various forms of transdermal coronary interventions (TDI) including delayed (24-72 hr) ones (n = 30), surgical myocardial revascularization within 8-12 weeks after the onset of recurrent myocardial infarction (n = 25), and conservative therapy (n = 251). Overall cardiovascular lethality was estimated during 5 years in 101 patients. It was shown that recurrent myocardial infarction is a predictor of high risk of death associated, in the absence of reperfusion therapy, with high intra-hospital and long-term lethality. TD1 soon after recurrent IM does not exclude possibility of its application in a later period. Various interventions including delayed ones markedly decrease the frequency of complications and lethal outcome that remains high in their absence. At the same time, severe lesions of the coronary bed in many patients with recurrent MI limit the possibility of using TDI and should be regarded as indications for planned surgical myocardial revascularization. Coronary bypass surgery after myocardial scarring prevents progress of left ventricle dysfunction, improves its contractility and increases life expectancy. Enhanced availability of reperfusion strategies in the form of TDI and/or delayed surgical myocardial revascularization opens up new possibilities for effective treatment of recurrent Ml.

Impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on time to thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke.

Preclinical fibrinolysis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a rural region.

In the current guidelines for the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommends preclinical fibrinolysis as a reperfusion therapy if, due to long transportation times, no cardiac catheterisation is available within 90-120 min. However, there is little remaining in-depth expertise in this method because fibrinolysis is presently only rarely indicated.