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Ventricular Function, Left - Top 30 Publications

A Novel Pacing Strategy With Low and Stable Output: Pacing the Left Bundle Branch Immediately Beyond the Conduction Block.

This report demonstrates the feasibility of pacing the left bundle branch (LBB) immediately beyond the conduction block to functionally restore the impaired His-Purkinje conduction system in a patient with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB). The pacing required only a low pacing output (0.5 volts/0.5 ms) to correct the LBBB with accompanying right BBB on the electrocardiogram. Over 1-year of follow-up, the patient had a significant improvement in clinical outcome and echocardiographic measurements. The case shows a novel pacing strategy for patients with BBB that affects many patients with heart failure.

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Induced Hypertrophy and Vascular Dysfunction Contribute to the Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Caveolin-1-/- Mice.

Caveolin-1 (Cav1)-/- mice display impaired development of left ventricular pressure and increased left ventricular wall thickness but no dilated ventricle; these are typical findings in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HfpEF). Aiming to clarify if dysfunctional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) influences cardiomyocyte contractility, cardiac conduction system, or afterload/vascular resistance, we studied Cav1-/-/eNOS-/- mice.

Type of Atrial Fibrillation and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in heart failure (HF), but the outcome by type of AF is largely unknown.

Multicenter Evaluation of Octreotide as Secondary Prophylaxis in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common complications after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation. More than one third of patients with incident bleed go on to develop recurrent GI bleeding. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, is proposed to reduce the risk of recurrent GI bleeding in this population.

Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Outcomes in Patients Supported With Left Ventricular Assist Devices: A Single Institutional 9-Year Experience.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. The effect of DM on post-left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation outcomes is unclear. This study sought to investigate whether patients with DM had worse outcomes than patients without DM after LVAD implantation and whether LVAD support resulted in a better control of DM.

Head-to-Head Comparison of Global and Regional Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Strain Versus Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Tagging in a Multicenter Validation Study.

Despite widespread use to characterize and refine prognosis, validation data of two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking (2DST) echocardiography myocardial strain measurement remain scarce.

Design for the sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) compared with enalapril study of pediatric patients with heart failure due to systemic left ventricle systolic dysfunction (PANORAMA-HF study).

Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor approved for the treatment of adult heart failure (HF); however, the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan in pediatric HF patients is unknown.

Myocardial Deformation Measured by 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking in Children and Adolescents With Systemic Arterial Hypertension.

Systemic arterial hypertension predisposes children to cardiovascular risk in childhood and adult life. Despite extensive study of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, detailed 3-dimensional strain analysis of cardiac function in hypertensive children has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV mechanics (strain, twist, and torsion) in young patients with hypertension compared with a healthy control group and assess factors associated with functional measurements. Sixty-three patients (26 hypertension and 37 normotensive) were enrolled (mean age, 14.3 and 11.4 years; 54% men and 41% men, respectively). All children underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiographic examination, including 3-dimensional strain. There was no difference in LV volumes and ejection fraction between the groups. Myocardial deformation was significantly reduced in those with hypertension compared with controls. For hypertensive and normotensive groups, respectively, global longitudinal strain was -15.1±2.3 versus -18.5±1.9 (P<0.0001), global circumferential strain -15.2±3 versus -19.9±3.1 (<0.0001), global radial strain +44.0±11.3 versus 63.4±10.5 (P<0.0001), and global 3-dimensional strain -26.1±3.8 versus -31.5±3.8 (P<0.0001). Basal clockwise rotation, apical counterclockwise rotation, twist, and torsion were not significantly different. After multivariate regression analyses blood pressure, body mass index and LV mass maintained a significant relationship with measures of LV strain. Similar ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were observed in hypertensive and normotensive children, but children with hypertension had significantly lower strain indices. Whether reduced strain might predict future cardiovascular risk merits further longitudinal study.

Echocardiogram changes following parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The aim of the study is to systematically review the evidence on post parathyroidectomy (PTX) changes as measured by echocardiogram (ECHO) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).PHPT may increase risk of cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Conclusions of studies assessing ECHO changes, pre versus post PTX, are inconsistent.A systematic literature search was conducted to locate published and unpublished studies. Randomized control trials, nonrandomized control trials, and observational studies were included. Variables were reported as means and standard deviations. An inverse variance statistical method, with random-effects analysis model, was applied to continuous data. The effect measure was standardized mean difference, confidence interval of 95%. Primary outcome measure was left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Secondary outcome measures were left ventricular mass index (LVMI), peak early over peak late diastolic velocity ratio (E/A ratio), isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT), intraventricular septal thickness (IVST), and posterior wall thickness (PWT).Fourteen studies were included. Follow-up time ranged 3 to 67 months. No significant differences (P > .05) in primary outcome measure LVEF (SMD = -0.03, CI = -0.24, 0.19), or secondary outcome measures E/A Ratio (SMD = -0.05, CI = -0.24, 0.14), IVST (SMD = 0, CI = 0.31, 0.32), PWT (SMD = 0.01, CI = -0.38, 0.39), LVMI (SMD = -0.18, CI = -0.74, 0.38), and IVRT (SMD = -0.84, CI = -1.83, 0.14) were observed.There was no significant difference in LVEF pre to post PTX. Due to heterogeneity of current literature, we were unable to determine if other outcome measures of cardiac function are affected after PTX in patients with PHPT. We recommend a randomized control trial be conducted to make concrete conclusions.

Aldosterone Target NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin) Is Involved in Cardiac Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction Through NFκB Pathway.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have beneficial effects in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after MI. We herein investigated the role of the MR target NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in post-MI cardiac damages. Both higher baseline NGAL and a greater increase in serum NGAL levels during follow-up were significantly associated with lower 6-month LV ejection fraction recovery in a cohort of 119 post-MI patients, as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. NGAL protein levels increased in the LV at 7 days post-MI in wild-type mice with MI. This effect was prevented by treatment with the nonsteroidal MR antagonist finerenone (1 mg/kg per day). NGAL knockout mice with MI had lower LV interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, better LV contractility and compliance, and greater stroke volume and cardiac output than wild-type mice with MI at 3 months post-MI. Aldosterone (10-8 mol/L) increased NGAL expression in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts. Cells treated with aldosterone or NGAL (500 ng/mL) showed increased production of collagen type I. The effects of aldosterone were abolished by finerenone (10-6 mol/L) or NGAL knockdown. This NGAL-mediated activity relied on NFκB (nuclear factor-κB) activation, confirmed by the use of the NFκB-specific inhibitor BAY11-7082, which prevented the effect of both aldosterone and NGAL on collagen type I production. In conclusion, NGAL, a downstream MR activation target, is a key mediator of post-MI cardiac damage. NGAL may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular pathological situations in which MR is involved.

Renal Function Changes Following Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

Limited data assessing the clinical significance of post-left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in renal function are available. We aimed to investigate the impact of changes in renal function after LVAD implantation on subsequent long-term outcomes. We followed 184 patients with HeartMate II LVADs implanted between May 2008 and November 2014. Serial assessment of renal function, was performed at baseline and at day 1, day 7, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after implantation. Effects of 1-month GFR and changes in GFR from baseline to 1 month on long-term mortality and hospital re-admission were evaluated. There were 30 patients with GFR <45 (low), 44 with GFR 45 to 59 (intermediate), and 110 with GFR ≥60 (normal) at baseline. Only patients with baseline GFR <45 experienced significant improvement in GFR after 2 years of follow-up (p = 0.012). At 1 month, a higher GFR category was significantly associated with a 31% reduction in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, CI 0.49 to 0.98, p = 0.036), but not re-admission. Patients with baseline low and intermediate GFR who had no improvement in renal function category at 1 month experienced significantly greater risk of mortality (HR 1.95, CI 1.10 to 3.43, p = 0.022) and re-admission (HR 1.75, CI 1.07 to 2.84, p = 0.025), relative to patients whose GFR was normal at baseline and 1 month. In conclusion, renal function after LVAD implantation improves in patients with GFR <45. Change in renal function from baseline to 1 month after implantation is a powerful marker of long-term outcomes.

Relation of the Mitral Annular Plane Systolic Excursion to Risk for Intervention in Initially Asymptomatic Patients With Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Systolic Function.

Aortic valve intervention (AVI) in patients with a severe aortic stenosis (AS) and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is controversial. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) is an easily acquired metric of left ventricular longitudinal shortening. We sought to investigate if an asymptomatic decrease in MAPSE preceded the need for AVI in asymptomatic patients with AS and a preserved LVEF. In this retrospective cohort study, we identified 205 consecutive patients (56% male, 73 ± 11 years) with at least a moderate AS and a normal LVEF who underwent a serial outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) from 2006 to 2013. Apical TTE images were reviewed and (the average of septal, lateral, anterior, and inferior) MAPSE was measured. We examined the association of change in MAPSE with aortic valve area and LVEF over time and used time-varying Cox models to examine the risk of AVI. MAPSE correlated with aortic valve area (Spearman r = 0.18, p = 0.02) and decreased with subsequent TTE, whereas LVEF was "maintained." For each 1-mm reduction in MAPSE, the age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for AVI was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.31, p = 0.04). A MAPSE decrease of >2 mm/TTE was significantly associated with an increased risk of AVI, with an adjusted HR of 1.95 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.66, p = 0.04), whereas a MAPSE decrease of >1.5 mm/year trended toward an association with an increased risk of AVI (HR 1.61, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.74, p = 0.08). In conclusion, in asymptomatic patients with at least a moderate AS and a preserved LVEF, an asymptomatic decrease in MAPSE was associated with the clinical need for AVI despite ongoing preservation of LVEF.

Predictors of mortality and ICD shock therapy in primary prophylactic ICD patients-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

There is evidence that the benefit of a primary prophylactic ICD therapy is not equal in all patients.

Comparison of Outcome After Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair With the MitraClip in Patients With Versus Without Atrial Fibrillation.

Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip is an established treatment for patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) who are inoperable or at high risk for surgery. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) frequently coincides with MR, but only scarce data of the influence of AF on outcome after MitraClip is available. The aim of the current study was to compare the clinical outcome after MitraClip treatment in patients with versus without atrial fibrillation. Between January 2009 and January 2016, all consecutive patients treated with a MitraClip in 5 Dutch centers were included. Outcome measures were survival, symptoms, MR grade, and stroke incidence. In total, 618 patients were treated with a MitraClip. Patients with AF were older, had higher N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels, more tricuspid regurgitation, less often coronary artery disease and a better left ventricular function. Survival of patients treated with the MitraClip was similar for patients with AF (82%) and without AF (non-AF; 85%) after 1 year (p = 0.30), but significantly different after 5-year follow-up (AF 34%; non-AF 47%; p = 0.006). After 1 month, 64% of the patients with AF were in New York Heart Association class I or II, in contrast to 77% of the patients without AF (p = 0.001). The stroke incidence appeared not to be significantly different (AF 1.8%; non-AF 1.0%; p = 0.40). In conclusion, patients with AF had similar 1-year survival, MR reduction, and stroke incidence compared with non-AF patients. However, MitraClip patients with AF had reduced long-term survival and remained more symptomatic compared with those without AF.

Usefulness of the CRT-SCORE for Shared Decision Making in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients With a Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction of ≤35.

Individualized estimation of prognosis after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains challenging. Our aim was to develop a multiparametric prognostic risk score (CRT-SCORE) that could be used for patient-specific clinical shared decision making about CRT implantation. The CRT-SCORE was derived from an ongoing CRT registry, including 1,053 consecutive patients (age 67 ± 10 years, 76% male). Using preimplantation variables, 100 multiple imputed datasets were generated for model calibration. Based on multivariate Cox regression models, cross-validated linear prognostic scores were calculated, as well as survival fractions at 1 and 5 years. Specifically, the CRT-SCORE was calculated using atrioventricular junction ablation, age, gender, etiology, New York Heart Association class, diabetes, hemoglobin level, renal function, left bundle branch block, QRS duration, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, and mitral regurgitation, and showed a good discriminative ability (areas under the curve 0.773 at 1 year and 0.748 at 5 years). During the long-term follow-up (median 60 months, interquartile range 31 to 85), all-cause mortality was observed in 494 (47%) patients. Based on the distribution of the CRT-SCORE, lower- and higher-risk patient groups were identified. Estimated mean survival rates of 98% at 1 year and 92% at 5 years were observed in the lowest 5% risk group (L5 CRT-SCORE: -4.42 to -1.60), whereas the highest 5% risk group (H5 CRT-SCORE: 1.44 to 2.89) showed poor survival rates: 78% at 1 year and 22% at 5 years. In conclusion, the CRT-SCORE allows accurate prediction of 1- and 5-year survival rates after CRT using readily available and CRT-specific clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic parameters. The model may assist clinicians in counseling patients and in decision making.

Cardiac MR With Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Acute Myocarditis With Preserved Systolic Function: ITAMY Study.

The prognostic role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has not been clarified in acute myocarditis (AM) with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF).

Risk Stratification of Severe Aortic Stenosis With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Using Peak Aortic Jet Velocity: An Outcome Study.

Current guidelines consider aortic valve replacement reasonable in asymptomatic patients with very severe aortic stenosis (AS); however, the definition of very severe AS based on peak aortic jet velocity (Vmax) remains unclear with a 5-m/s cutoff in US guidelines and 5.5 m/s in European guidelines. Because ≈20% of patients with severe AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction have Vmax in this range, we aimed to assess the relationship between Vmax and mortality and determine the best threshold to define very severe AS.

Preload Stress Echocardiography Predicts Outcomes in Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction and Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis.

The projected aortic valve area (AVAproj) at a normal transvalvular flow rate using dobutamine is helpful to determine the actual severity of aortic stenosis (AS) and to predict risk of adverse events in low-gradient AS cases with unclear surgical indication. Our study aimed to identify the independent and incremental value of preload stress echocardiography-derived AVAproj to predict outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction and low-gradient AS.

Impact of severe left ventricular dysfunction on in-hospital and mid-term outcomes of Chinese patients undergoing first isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

Few studies focused on evaluating the impacts of preoperative severe left ventricular dysfunction on clinical outcomes of patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (OPCAB). This single center retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impacts of severe left ventricular dysfunction on in-hospital and mid-term clinical outcomes of Chinese patients undergoing first, scheduled, and isolated OPCAB surgery.

Volume and Patterns of Physical Activity Across the Health and Heart Failure Continuum.

The benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are well documented in patients with heart failure (HF), however the amount and intensity of objectively measured PA and sedentary behaviour in HF with preserved (HFPEF) or reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) is not well known.

Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Children With Middle Aortic Syndrome and Renal Artery Stenosis.

Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a narrowing of the abdominal aorta, often in conjunction with renal artery stenosis (RAS). Structure and function of the cardiovascular system are not well understood. In a prospective cross-sectional study, 35 children with MAS or RAS or both (MAS/RAS) were compared with 140 age-, sex-, and body surface area-matched healthy children. Vascular assessment included carotid intima-media thickness and carotid distensibility using B-mode ultrasound and central and peripheral pulse wave velocities using applanation tonometry. Left ventricular structure and function were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Children with MAS or RAS were 12.5±3.0 years old at enrollment, and 50% were men. Carotid intima-media thickness (0.54±0.10 versus 0.44±0.05 mm; P<0.001) and central pulse wave velocities (5.58±1.83 versus 5.00±0.90 m/s; P=0.01) were significantly higher in children with disease compared with healthy children; however, after adjustment for systolic blood pressure z score, only carotid intima-media thickness remained significantly higher in the MAS/RAS group compared with the controls (β=0.07 [0.03, 0.10]). Peripheral pulse wave velocities and carotid distensibility were normal. Children with disease had significantly increased left ventricular mass and changes in diastolic function (lower E/a ratio and lower e' velocities). Systolic parameters, including ejection fraction, global longitudinal and circumferential strain, were similar to controls. Our findings demonstrate that children with MAS or RAS have evidence of carotid and left ventricular remodeling, without peripheral arterial involvement, which suggests a localized disease process. Left ventricular systolic function is preserved; however, subtle changes in diastolic function are observed. Carotid vessel changes are consistent with a 5- to 10-year aging, which underscores the importance of blood pressure control.

Delayed Repolarization Underlies Ventricular Arrhythmias in Rats With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents approximately half of heart failure, and its incidence continues to increase. The leading cause of mortality in HFpEF is sudden death, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms.

Relationships Between Periventricular Epicardial Adipose Tissue Accumulation, Coronary Microcirculation, and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

Obesity is related to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, although its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an ectopic fat with paracrine effects on coronary circulation and myocardium. We hypothesized that left ventricle-specific (periventricular) EAT may deteriorate diastolic function by impairing coronary microcirculation.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients with Ebstein's Anomaly.

Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by apical displacement of the septal and posterior tricuspid valve leaflets. It is often complicated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction as well as right-sided abnormalities. On the other hand, in the presence of LV dysfunction, right ventricular pacing is likely to aggravate the diseased LV function, which is termed pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy. Thus, deteriorating effects of RV pacing on cardiac function might be enhanced and result in pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy in patients with Ebstein's anomaly, even if they have preserved LVEF. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective for the treatment of pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy, and we present the first case of effect of CRT on pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy associated with Ebstein's anomaly.

DPP4 Inhibition Ameliorates Cardiac Function by Blocking the Cleavage of HMGB1 in Diabetic Mice After Myocardial Infarction.

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein, promotes angiogenesis and tissue repair, resulting in restored cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Although dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) degrades certain peptides, it remains unclear as to whether HMGB1 is a substrate of DPP4 and whether DPP4 inhibition prevents the cleavage of HMGB1.In transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of HMGB1 (TG) and wild-type mice (WT), a diabetic state was induced by streptozotocin, and MI was created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. To inhibit DPP4 activity, a DPP4 inhibitor anagliptin was used. The plasma levels of HMGB1, infarct size, echocardiographic data, angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the peri-infarct area were compared among non-diabetic MI WT/TG, diabetic MI WT/TG, and anagliptin-treated diabetic MI WT/TG mice.DPP4 activity was increased in the diabetic state and blocked by anagliptin administration. The HMGB1 plasma levels were reduced in the diabetic TG compared with the non-diabetic TG mice, but DPP4 inhibition with anagliptin increased HMGB1 plasma levels in the diabetic TG mice. The infarct area was significantly larger in the diabetic TG than in the non-diabetic TG mice, and it was reduced by DPP4 inhibition. Cardiac function, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression were impaired in the diabetic TG mice, but they were ameliorated by the DPP4 inhibition to levels similar to those found in the non-diabetic TG mice.The DPP4 inhibitor ameliorated cardiac function by inhibiting the inactivation of HMGB1 in diabetic mice after MI.

Risk Stratification of Future Left Ventricular Dysfunction for Patients with Indications for Right Ventricular Pacing due to Bradycardia.

Although right ventricular (RV) pacing is the only effective treatment for patients with symptomatic bradycardia, it creates left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony, which can induce LV dysfunction and heart failure. The current criterion for consideration of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%, but indication for CRT in patients required for RV pacing with LVEF > 35% remains unclear.We studied 40 patients, all LVEF ≥ 35%, who had undergone implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation with RV pacing < 5%. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and during RV pacing. LV dyssynchrony was defined as anteroseptal-to-posterior wall delay from the mid-LV short-axis view using two-dimensional speckle-tracking radial strain (significant: ≥ 130 ms). Patients were divided into two groups based on baseline LVEF: normal LVEF ( ≥ 50%; n = 20) and mildly reduced LVEF (35-50%; n = 20).LVEF and LV dyssynchrony in patients with mildly reduced LVEF deteriorated significantly during RV pacing compared to those in patients with normal LVEF. Moreover, changes in LV dyssynchrony during RV pacing significantly correlated with changes in LVEF (r = -0.44, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that baseline LVEF was the only independent predictor and baseline LVEF < 48% predictive of significant LV dyssynchrony during RV pacing.The extent of RV pacing-induced LV dysfunction may be associated with baseline LV function. These adverse effects on patients with mildly reduced LVEF of 35-50% and indications for RV pacing due to bradycardia can thus be prevented by CRT.

The effects of adenotonsillar hypertrophy corrective surgery on left ventricular functions and pulmonary artery pressure in children.

Comparison of left ventricular functions in preoperative and postoperative periods of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) who have findings of upper airway obstruction (UAO), using echocardiographic parameters.

Influence of Aging on Level and Layer-Specific Left Ventricular Longitudinal Strain in Subjects Without Structural Heart Disease.

Values for level- (apical, mid, and basal) and layer-based (endocardial, mid-myocardial, and epicardial) left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain across age are scarce. The present study evaluates the effect of aging on level- and layer-specific LV longitudinal strain in subjects without structural heart disease. A total of 408 subjects (mean age 58 years [range 16 to 91]; 49% men) were evaluated retrospectively. Subjects were divided into equal groups based on age and gender. Subjects with evidence of structural heart disease or arrhythmias were excluded. Mean LV ejection fraction was 62 ± 6.2%. A gradual increase in magnitude of level LV longitudinal strain was observed from basal to mid and apical levels (-16.7 ± 2.1%, -18.8 ± 2.0%, -22.6 ± 3.8%; p <0.001, respectively). Across age groups, there was a borderline significant decrease in magnitude of basal longitudinal strain in older subjects, whereas the magnitude in the apical level significantly increased. On layer-based analysis, the magnitude of longitudinal strain increased from epicardium to endocardium across all age groups. On multivariable analysis, only diabetes mellitus was associated with more impaired longitudinal strain in the endocardium, and male gender was associated with more impaired longitudinal strain at the epicardium layer. In conclusion, with increasing age, the magnitude of LV longitudinal strain at the basal level declines while the apical LV longitudinal strain increases. In contrast, layer-specific LV longitudinal strain remains unchanged with aging. The presence of diabetes mellitus modulated the effect of age on the LV endocardial layer, and male gender was associated with more impaired longitudinal strain at the epicardial layer.

Predictors of Prognosis in Light-Chain Amyloidosis and Chronological Changes in Cardiac Morphology and Function.

Immune light-chain (AL) amyloidosis with cardiac involvement is associated with a high mortality despite improved therapeutic regimens, but there are few reports on prognostic predictors and chronological changes in cardiac morphology and function. Prognosis and its predictors were evaluated in 36 consecutive patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis. Chronological changes in cardiac morphology and function were also evaluated. The median follow-up period was 0.95 years. The median survival time and the 3-year death-free rate after diagnosis in all-cause and cardiac deaths were 0.85 and 1.06 years and 26% and 36%, respectively. Differences in the median survival time due to left ventricular (LV) wall thickness at diagnosis were not evident. Being female and diastolic wall strain (DWS), as a measure of diastolic stiffness, were independent predictors of all-cause death in the multivariable analysis. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a DWS cut-off value of 0.189 had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 72% for predicting all-cause death within 1 year after diagnosis (area under the curve = 0.726). The LV size and the stroke volume decreased and DWS worsened during the short-term follow-up period in patients who died within 1 year compared with patients who were alive after 1 year. The prognosis for patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis was poor, and DWS may be a significant predictor of prognosis. Narrowing of the LV cavity and progressive diastolic dysfunction were evident in patients with a poor prognosis.

Iron Laboratory Studies in Pediatric Patients With Heart Failure from Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Iron deficiency (FeD), with or without anemia, in adults with heart failure (HF) is associated with poor outcomes, which can be improved with replacement therapy. A similar therapeutic opportunity may exist for children; however, iron laboratory measurements and FeD have not been described in pediatric patients with HF. A single-center, retrospective study was conducted on 28 patients <21 years old with a diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy and HF who had iron laboratories (serum iron, iron saturation, and ferritin) performed. The mean (standard deviation) age at time of laboratory collection was 10.3 (5.5) years. Twenty-seven patients (96.4%) met the criteria for FeD. Serum iron and iron saturation were significantly associated with inpatient hospitalization, being on inotropic medications, or having stage D HF. Low-serum iron was associated with a higher left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic dimension z-score by echocardiography ((β -2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.76, -0.40, p = 0.02) and (β -2.43, 95% CI -4.70, -0.17, p = 0.04)), respectively. Low ferritin was associated with higher mortality (relative risk 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.70, p = 0.006). In conclusion, FeD was common in this pediatric cohort with more advanced HF. Iron profile abnormalities were associated with worse HF severity and outcomes including mortality.