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Ventricular Function, Left - Top 30 Publications

Impact of Left Ventricular vs Biventricular Pacing on Reverse Remodelling: Insights From the Evaluation of Resynchronization Therapy for Heart Failure (EARTH) Trial.

Studies comparing biventricular (BiV) cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and left ventricular (LV) pacing alone have yielded conflicting results. We recently reported the results of the Greater Evaluation of Resynchronization Therapy for Heart Failure (GREATER-EARTH) trial demonstrating similar clinical benefits of BiV and LV-CRT on exercise tolerance. We report the prespecified secondary outcomes of the GREATER-EARTH trial, comparing the impact of BiV vs LV-CRT on structural and biochemical cardiac remodelling.

Left Ventricular False Tendons are Associated With Left Ventricular Dilation and Impaired Systolic and Diastolic Function.

Left ventricular false tendons (LVFTs) are chord-like structures that traverse the LV cavity and are generally considered to be benign. However, they have been associated with arrhythmias, LV hypertrophy and LV dilation in some small studies. We hypothesize that LVFTs are associated with LV structural and functional changes assessed by echocardiography.

Hemodynamic Phenotyping of Pulmonary Hypertension in Left Heart Failure.

Increased pulmonary venous pressure secondary to left heart disease is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The diagnosis of PH due to left heart disease relies on a clinical probability assessment followed by the invasive measurements of a mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) ≥25 mm Hg and mean wedged PAP (PAWP) >15 mm Hg. A combination of mean PAP and mean PAWP defines postcapillary PH. Postcapillary PH is generally associated with a diastolic pulmonary pressure gradient (diastolic PAP minus mean PAWP) <7 mm Hg, a transpulmonary pressure gradient (mean PAP minus mean PAWP) <12 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance ≤3 Wood units (WU). This combination of criteria defines isolated postcapillary PH. Postcapillary PH with elevated vascular gradients and pulmonary vascular resistance defines combined post- and precapillary PH (Cpc-PH). Postcapillary PH is associated with a decreased survival in proportion to increased pulmonary vascular gradients, decreased pulmonary arterial compliance, and reduced right ventricular function. The Cpc-PH subcategory occurs in 12% to 13% of patients with PH due to left heart disease. Patients with Cpc-PH have severe PH, with higher diastolic pulmonary pressure gradient, transpulmonary pressure gradient, and pulmonary vascular resistance and more pronounced ventilatory responses to exercise, lower pulmonary arterial compliance, depressed right ventricular ejection fraction, and shorter life expectancy than isolated postcapillary PH. Cpc-PH bears similarities to pulmonary arterial hypertension. Whether Cpc-PH is amenable to therapies targeting the pulmonary circulation remains to be tested by properly designed randomized controlled trials.

Preoperative Pectoralis Muscle Quantity and Attenuation by Computed Tomography Are Novel and Powerful Predictors of Mortality After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

Skeletal muscle mass decreases in end-stage heart failure and is predictive of clinical outcomes in several disease states. Skeletal muscle attenuation and quantity as quantified on preoperative chest computed tomographic scans may be predictive of mortality after continuous flow (CF) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation.

Decoupling Between Diastolic Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure as a Prognostic Factor After Continuous Flow Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

A cohort of heart failure (HF) patients receiving left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has decoupling of their diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. However, the clinical implications of this decoupling remain unclear.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Genetics, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Therapy.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder that is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy unexplained by secondary causes and a nondilated left ventricle with preserved or increased ejection fraction. It is commonly asymmetrical with the most severe hypertrophy involving the basal interventricular septum. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is present at rest in about one third of the patients and can be provoked in another third. The histological features of HCM include myocyte hypertrophy and disarray, as well as interstitial fibrosis. The hypertrophy is also frequently associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. In the majority of patients, HCM has a relatively benign course. However, HCM is also an important cause of sudden cardiac death, particularly in adolescents and young adults. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac death, and severe cardiac hypertrophy are major risk factors for sudden cardiac death. This complication can usually be averted by implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator in appropriate high-risk patients. Atrial fibrillation is also a common complication and is not well tolerated. Mutations in over a dozen genes encoding sarcomere-associated proteins cause HCM. MYH7 and MYBPC3, encoding β-myosin heavy chain and myosin-binding protein C, respectively, are the 2 most common genes involved, together accounting for ≈50% of the HCM families. In ≈40% of HCM patients, the causal genes remain to be identified. Mutations in genes responsible for storage diseases also cause a phenotype resembling HCM (genocopy or phenocopy). The routine applications of genetic testing and preclinical identification of family members represents an important advance. The genetic discoveries have enhanced understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCM and have stimulated efforts designed to identify new therapeutic agents.

Ivabradine in Heart Failure: The Representativeness of SHIFT (Systolic Heart Failure Treatment With the IF Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial) in a Broad Population of Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

The sinus node inhibitor ivabradine was approved for patients with heart failure (HF) after the ivabradine and outcomes in chronic HF (SHIFT [Systolic Heart Failure Treatment With the IF Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial]) trial. Our objective was to characterize the proportion of patients with HF eligible for ivabradine and the representativeness of the SHIFT trial enrollees compared with those in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry.

Heart Failure-Related Hyperphosphorylation in the Cardiac Troponin I C Terminus Has Divergent Effects on Cardiac Function In Vivo.

In human heart failure, Ser199 (equivalent to Ser200 in mouse) of cTnI (cardiac troponin I) is significantly hyperphosphorylated, and in vitro studies suggest that it enhances myofilament calcium sensitivity and alters calpain-mediated cTnI proteolysis. However, how its hyperphosphorylation affects cardiac function in vivo remains unknown.

Lowering Interleukin-12 Activity Improves Myocardial and Vascular Function Compared With Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Antagonism or Cyclosporine in Psoriasis.

Interleukin (IL)-12 activity is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and acute coronary syndromes. We investigated the effects of IL-12 inhibition on vascular and left ventricular (LV) function in psoriasis.

Relationship of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity With Left Ventricular Strain in Middle-Age Adults (from the Dallas Heart Study).

Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity are significant risk factors for heart failure (HF). However, given the inverse association between CRF and obesity, the independent contributions of low CRF and adiposity toward HF risk are not well established. We evaluated the association of CRF and measures of adiposity with left ventricular (LV) peak systolic strain-a subclinical measure of LV dysfunction-among the Dallas Heart Study phase II participants without cardiovascular disease who had CRF estimated using a submaximal treadmill test and LV systolic circumferential strain assessment by tissue-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Peak midwall systolic circumferential strain (Ecc) was determined by harmonic phase imaging. Associations of CRF and adiposity measures with Ecc were determined using adjusted linear regression analysis. A total of 1,617 participants were included in the analysis. After adjustment for baseline risk factors, higher waist circumference (WC) and lower CRF were associated with higher Ecc (WC: β = 0.07; p = 0.01; CRF: β = -0.17; p = < 0.0001), whereas % body fat and body mass index were not associated with Ecc. The relationship between WC and Ecc was attenuated completely after additional adjustment for CRF. In contrast, the association between CRF and Ecc did not attenuate after additional adjustment for WC and other measures of LV structure and function (β = -0.18; p = < 0.0001). Taken together, our study findings suggest that lower CRF, but not measures of adiposity, is associated with greater impairment in LV strain independent of LV mass and ejection fraction.

Prognostic Significance of Central Apneas Throughout a 24-Hour Period in Patients With Heart Failure.

Large trials using noninvasive mechanical ventilation to treat central apnea (CA) occurring at night ("sleep apnea") in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) have failed to improve prognosis. The prevalence and prognostic value of CA during daytime and over an entire 24-h period are not well described.

Heart Failure Is Common and Under-Recognized in Patients With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia.

Heart failure (HF) prevalence in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) varies depending on study cohort and is not well characterized. This study sought to determine prevalence and predictors of HF in ARVC/D.

Left Ventricular Noncompaction in Older Patients.

Information on left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) in older people is sparse. This study aimed to investigate the clinical profile of LVNC in an older cohort.

Ivabradine in Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Symptomatic Chronic Heart Failure.

Heart rate reduction as a therapeutic target has been investigated in adults with heart failure (HF). Ivabradine has shown promising efficacy, but has not been evaluated in children. Currently, treatment recommendations for chronic pediatric HF are based mainly on chronic HF guidelines for adults.

Outcomes After Transplantation of Donor Hearts With Improving Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction.

Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) accounts for almost 25% of nonacceptance of potential donor hearts. Previous smaller, single-center studies showed that LVSD following brain death may be transient, and such hearts can be successfully resuscitated with resolution of LVSD, then transplanted.

Novel Index of Maladaptive Myocardial Remodeling in Hypertension.

Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (HTN-LVH) is a leading cause of heart failure. Conventional patterns of cardiac geometry do not adequately risk-stratify patients with HTN-LVH. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance, we developed a novel Remodeling Index (RI) that was designed to detect an exaggerated hypertrophic response to hypertension and tested its potential to risk-stratify hypertensive patients.

Functional Cardiac Recovery and Hematologic Response to Chemotherapy in Patients With Light-Chain Amyloidosis (from the Stanford University Amyloidosis Registry).

Cardiac involvement is common in patients with light-chain (AL) amyloidosis and portends a poor prognosis, although little is known about the changes in cardiac mechanics after chemotherapy. We sought to explore the relation between amyloidosis staging and baseline cardiac mechanics and to investigate short-term changes in cardiac mechanics after chemotherapy. We identified 41 consecutive patients from the Stanford Amyloid Center who had echocardiograms and free light-chain values before and after chemotherapy, along with 40 age- and gender-matched controls. Echocardiographic assessment included left ventricular global longitudinal strain, E/e' ratio, and left atrial (LA) stiffness. Hematologic response to chemotherapy was defined as ≥50% reduction in the difference between the involved and the uninvolved free light chain (dFLC). The mean age was 66.9 ± 8.4 years and 66% were men. Before chemotherapy, global longitudinal strain, E/e' ratio, and LA stiffness were impaired in patients with amyloidosis compared with controls, and the severity of impairment worsened with advanced staging. After chemotherapy, hematologic response was observed in 30 (73%) patients. There was a significant association between the change in dFLC and cardiac function (E/e' ratio: r = -0.43, p = 0.01; LA stiffness: r = -0.35, p = 0.05). There was no significant improvement in cardiac mechanics in patients without a hematologic response to chemotherapy. In conclusion, amyloidosis stage correlated with noninvasive measurements of cardiac mechanics, and improvement in dFLC correlated with cardiac improvement on short-term follow-up echocardiography.

Regional Dysfunction After Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

Detailed understanding of regional function after myocardial infarction (MI) is currently incomplete. We aimed at investigating regional myocardial strain and work in post-MI rats with and without heart failure.

Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes decline after transcatheter aortic valve replacement and correlate with functional capacity and left ventricular systolic function.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is the method of choice for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, who are ineligible or at high risk for surgery. Though TAVR leads to a significant reduction in mortality, a notable amount of patients are re-hospitalized early after TAVR. Parameters or biomarkers predicting outcome are therefore needed to identify patients who benefit most. Specific monocyte subsets have been associated with cardiovascular diseases and were shown to possess prognostic value.

Usefulness of Mitral Valve Prosthetic or Bioprosthetic Time Velocity Index Ratio to Detect Prosthetic or Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Dysfunction.

This study aimed to investigate the utility of transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) Doppler-derived parameters in detection of mitral prosthetic dysfunction and to define optimal cut-off values for identification of such dysfunction by valve type. In total, 971 TTE studies (647 mechanical prostheses; 324 bioprostheses) were compared with transesophageal echocardiography for evaluation of mitral prosthesis function. Among all prostheses, mitral valve prosthesis (MVP) ratio (ratio of time velocity integral of MVP to that of left ventricular outflow tract; odds ratio [OR] 10.34, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 6.43 to 16.61, p<0.001), E velocity (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.61 to 6.47, p<0.001), and mean gradient (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25, p=0.02) provided good discrimination of clinically normal and clinically abnormal prostheses. Optimal cut-off values by receiver operating characteristic analysis for differentiating clinically normal and abnormal prostheses varied by prosthesis type. Combining MVP ratio and E velocity improved specificity (92%) and positive predictive value (65%) compared with either parameter alone, with minimal decline in negative predictive value (92%). Pressure halftime (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.00, p=0.04) did not differentiate between clinically normal and clinically abnormal prostheses but was useful in discriminating obstructed from normal and regurgitant prostheses. In conclusion, cut-off values for TTE-derived Doppler parameters of MVP function were specific to prosthesis type and carried high sensitivity and specificity for identifying prosthetic valve dysfunction. MVP ratio was the best predictor of prosthetic dysfunction and, combined with E velocity, provided a useful parameter for determining likelihood of dysfunction and need for further assessment.

Functional Mitral Regurgitation Predicts Short-Term Adverse Events in Patients With Acute Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a common finding in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (heart failure and reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]). However, its clinical impact remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between the severity of FMR after clinical stabilization and short-term adverse outcomes after a hospitalization for AHF. We prospectively included 938 consecutive patients with HFrEF discharged after a hospitalization for AHF, after excluding those with organic valve disease, congenital heart disease, or aortic valve disease. FMR was assessed semiquantitatively by color Doppler analysis of the regurgitant jet area, and its severity was categorized as none or mild (grade 0 or 1), moderate (grade 2), or severe (grade 3 or 4). FMR was assessed at 120 ± 24 hours after admission. The primary end point was the composite of all-cause mortality and rehospitalization at 90 days. At discharge, 533 (56.8%), 253 (26.9%), and 152 (16.2%) patients showed none-mild, moderate, and severe FMR. At the 90-day follow-up, 161 patients (17.2%) either died (n = 49) or were readmitted (n = 112). Compared with patients with none or mild FMR, rates of the composite end point were higher for patients with moderate and severe FMRs (p <0.001). After the multivariable adjustment, those with moderate and severe FMRs had a significantly higher risk of reaching the end point (hazard ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.17, p = 0.027; and hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.48, p = 0.023, respectively). In conclusion, FMR is a common finding in patients with HFrEF, and its presence, when moderate or severe, identifies a subgroup at higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes at short term.

Usefulness of Electrocardiographic Strain to Predict Survival After Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis.

Electrocardiographic (ECG) strain has been reported as a specific marker of midwall left ventricular (LV) myocardial fibrosis, predictive of adverse clinical outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS), but its prognostic impact after aortic valve replacement (AVR) is unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ECG strain on long-term mortality after surgical AVR for AS. From January 2005 to January 2014, patients with interpretable preoperative ECG who underwent isolated AVR for AS were included. ECG strain was defined as ≥1-mm concave downslopping ST-segment depression with asymmetrical T-wave inversion in lateral leads. Mortality was assessed over a follow-up period of 4.8 ± 2.7 years. Among the 390 patients included, 110 had ECG strain (28%). They had significantly lower body mass index, higher mean transaortic pressure gradient and Cornell-product ECG LV hypertrophy than in those without ECG strain. There was also a trend for lower LV ejection fraction in patients with ECG strain as compared with those without. Patients with ECG strain had significantly lower 8-year survival than those without. ECG strain remained associated with reduced survival both in patients with and without LV hypertrophy (p <0.0001 for both). After adjustment, ECG strain remained a strong and independent determinant of long-term survival (hazard ratio 4.4, p <0.0001). Similar results were found in patients with LV hypertrophy or without LV hypertrophy. In the multivariate model, the addition of ECG strain provided incremental prognostic value (p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with AS, ECG strain is associated with 4-fold increased risk of long-term mortality after isolated AVR, regardless of preoperative LV hypertrophy.

Geometry as a Confounder When Assessing Ventricular Systolic Function: Comparison Between Ejection Fraction and Strain.

Preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and reduced myocardial strain are reported in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and more.

Correlation of 6-min walk test with left ventricular function and quality of life in heart failure due to Chagas disease.

To evaluate the correlation of the total distance walked during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) with left ventricular function and quality of life in patients with Chagas Disease (ChD) complicated by heart failure.

Value of Strain Imaging and Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Longitudinal strain (LS) has been shown to be predictive of outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Percent predicted peak oxygen uptake (ppVO2), among other cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) metrics, is a strong predictor of prognosis in HC. However, there has been limited investigation into the combination of LS and CPX metrics. This study sought to determine how LS and parameters of exercise performance contribute to prognosis in HC. One hundred and thirty-one consecutive patients with HC who underwent CPX and stress echocardiography were included. Global, septal, and lateral LS were assessed at rest and stress. Eighty matched individuals were used as controls. Patients were followed for the composite end point of death and worsening heart failure. All absolute LS components were lower in patients with HC than in controls (global 14.3 ± 4.0% vs 18.8 ± 2.2%, p <0.001; septal 11.9 ± 4.9% vs 17.9 ± 2.7%, p <0.001; lateral 16.0 ± 4.7% vs 19.4 ± 3.1%, p = 0.001). Global strain reserve was also reduced in patients with HC (13 ± 5% vs 19 ± 8%, p = 0.002). Over a median follow-up of 56 months (interquartile range 14 to 69), the composite end point occurred in 53 patients. Global LS was predictive of outcome on univariate analysis (0.55 [0.41 to 0.74], p <0.001). When combined with CPX metrics, lateral LS was the only strain variable predictive of outcome along with indexed left atrial volume (LAVI) and ppVO2. The worst outcomes were observed for patients with lateral LS <16.1%, LAVI >52 ml/m(2), and ppVO2 <80%. The combination of lateral LS, LAVI, and ppVO2 presents a simple model for outcome prediction.

Benefits and Harms of Sacubitril in Adults With Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

The quality of evidence regarding patient-centered outcomes in adults with heart failure (HF) after sacubitril combined with valsartan has not been systematically appraised. We searched 4 databases in February 2017 and graded the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group approach. We reviewed 1 meta-analysis and multiple publications of 2 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 unpublished RCT. In adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction, low-quality evidence from 1 RCT of 8,432 patients suggests that sacubitril combined with valsartan reduces all-cause (number needed to treat [NNT] to prevent 1 event [NNTp] = 35) and cardiovascular mortality (NNTp = 32), hospitalization (NNTp = 11), emergency visits (NNTp = 69), and serious adverse effects, leading to treatment discontinuation (NNTp = 63) and improves quality of life when compared with enalapril. In adults with HF and preserved ejection fraction, very low-quality evidence from 1 RCT of 301 patients suggests that there are no differences in mortality, morbidity, or adverse effects between sacubitril combined with valsartan and valsartan alone. In conclusion, in adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction, to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations and improve quality of life, clinicians may recommend sacubitril combined with valsartan over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

CMR Native T1 Mapping Allows Differentiation of Reversible Versus Irreversible Myocardial Damage in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An OxAMI Study (Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction).

CMR T1 mapping is a quantitative imaging technique allowing the assessment of myocardial injury early after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We sought to investigate the ability of acute native T1 mapping to differentiate reversible and irreversible myocardial injury and its predictive value for left ventricular remodeling.

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry Predicts Regional Functional Outcome After Experimental Myocardial Infarction.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium-based contrast agents has established as gold standard for tissue characterization after myocardial infarction (MI). Beyond accurate diagnosis, the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict the outcome after MI has yet to be substantiated.

Association of Concentric Left Ventricular Hypertrophy With Subsequent Change in Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Volume: The Dallas Heart Study.

In the conventional paradigm of the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy, a thick-walled left ventricle (LV) ultimately transitions to a dilated cardiomyopathy. There are scant data in humans demonstrating whether this transition occurs commonly without an interval myocardial infarction.

Fibrogenic Potential of PW1/Peg3 Expressing Cardiac Stem Cells.

Pw1 gene expression is a marker of adult stem cells in a wide range of tissues. PW1-expressing cells are detected in the heart but are not well characterized.