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Virus Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Executive summary of the 9th meeting of the WHO working group RT-PCR for the detection and subtyping of influenza viruses.

Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV.

We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics.

Brief Report: HIV/HBV Coinfection is a Significant Risk Factor for Liver Fibrosis in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Adults.

In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV is unknown. We characterized liver disease using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 in patients with HIV, HBV, and HIV/HBV coinfection in Tanzania.

How entry inhibitors synergize to fight HIV.

HIV fusion with the cell membrane can be inhibited by blocking coreceptor binding or by preventing fusion-inducing conformational changes in the Env protein. Logically, inhibitors that act by these two mechanisms should act synergistically, but previous studies have reported conflicting results. A new study by Ahn and Root reconciles these discordant reports by demonstrating that synergy emerges when Env engages multiple coreceptors prior to inducing fusion and when high-affinity inhibitory peptides are used, a condition that may not be satisfied in vivo.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries.

While norovirus (NoV) is well known as a leading causal pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in developed countries,structured data on prevalence in developing countries are not available thus far. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of NoV in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries based on recently published reports.

Epidemic hemorrhagic fever complicated with late pregnancy: A case report.

Hantaviruses cause two forms of diseases in humans, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infections can occur in pregnant women, and could influence the maternal and fetal outcomes, although this is a rare finding, even in endemic areas.

Implementation effectiveness of revised (post-2010) World Health Organization guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV using routinely collected data in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review.

To synthesize and evaluate the impact of implementing post-2010 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines on attainment of PMTCT targets.

Late presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with rotavirus infection in a term infant with hyperinsulinism on octreotide therapy: A case report.

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy that can cause permanent brain damage. Consequently, optimal management is extremely important. Current pharmacologic and surgical treatment were available that included diazoxide and octreotides.

Down-regulation of Toll-like Receptor TLR4 Is Associated with HPV DNA Integration in Penile Carcinoma.

Development of penile cancers is attributed to HPV-related carcinogenesis. Our aim was to analyze HPV positivity and TLR4, p16(ink4a) and p53 expression.

Human Papillomavirus and Potentially Relevant Biomarkers in Tonsillar and Base of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tonsillar- and base of tongue cancer is increasing epidemically and has much better outcome than corresponding HPV-negative cancer and most other head and neck cancers with around 80% 3-year disease free survival with conventional radiotherapy and surgery. Consequently, most HPV-positive cancer patients may not require the intensified chemoradiotherapy given to many head and neck cancer patients and would, with tapered treatment, avoid several severe side-effects. Moreover, intensified therapy has not improved survival and treatment alternatives are needed. To identify patients eligible for tapered or targeted therapy, additional biomarkers are required. Several studies have, therefore, focused on finding predictive markers, some of which are also potentially targetable. To conclude, better-tailored therapy, either as tapered or targeted, is important for increasing numbers of patients with HPV-positive tonsillar- and base of tongue cancer. This review deals with some of these issues and presents some promising markers.

Update: Influenza Activity - United States and Worldwide, May 21-September 23, 2017.

During May 21-September 23, 2017,* the United States experienced low-level seasonal influenza virus activity; however, beginning in early September, CDC received reports of a small number of localized influenza outbreaks caused by influenza A(H3N2) viruses. In addition to influenza A(H3N2) viruses, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were detected during May-September worldwide and in the United States. Influenza B viruses predominated in the United States from late May through late June, and influenza A viruses predominated beginning in early July. The majority of the influenza viruses collected and received from the United States and other countries during that time have been characterized genetically or antigenically as being similar to the 2017 Southern Hemisphere and 2017-18 Northern Hemisphere cell-grown vaccine reference viruses; however, a smaller proportion of the circulating A(H3N2) viruses showed similarity to the egg-grown A(H3N2) vaccine reference virus which represents the A(H3N2) viruses used for the majority of vaccine production in the United States. Also, during May 21-September 23, 2017, CDC confirmed a total of 33 influenza variant virus(†) infections; two were influenza A(H1N2) variant (H1N2v) viruses (Ohio) and 31 were influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses (Delaware [1], Maryland [13], North Dakota [1], Pennsylvania [1], and Ohio [15]). An additional 18 specimens from Maryland have tested presumptive positive for H3v and further analysis is being conducted at CDC.

Human Adenovirus Surveillance - United States, 2003-2016.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Adenoviridae; seven species (A-G) and >60 genotypes are known to cause human infection (1). Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. HAdV infection can be severe, particularly among immunocompromised patients, and can cause respiratory failure, disseminated infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, neurologic disease, and death (1,2). Illness tends to occur sporadically and without demonstrated seasonality. Outbreaks of HAdV have been reported globally in communities (3), and in closed or crowded settings, including dormitories, health care settings, and among military recruits, for whom a vaccine against HAdV type 4 (HAdV-4) and HAdV type 7 (HAdV-7) has been developed (4,5). CDC summarized HAdV detections voluntarily reported through the National Adenovirus Type Reporting System (NATRS) after initiation of surveillance in 2014 to describe trends in reported HAdVs circulating in the United States. Reporting laboratories were also encouraged to report available results for specimens collected before surveillance began. Overall, the number of reporting laboratories and HAdV type identifications reported to NATRS has increased substantially from the start of official reporting in 2014 through 2016; this report describes specimens collected during 2003-2016. The most commonly reported HAdV types were HAdV type 3 (HAdV-3) and HAdV type 2 (HAdV-2), although HAdV types reported fluctuated considerably from year to year. In the United States, information on recently circulating HAdV types is needed to inform diagnostic and surveillance activities by clinicians and public health practitioners. Routine reporting to NATRS by all U.S. laboratories with the capacity to type HAdVs could help strengthen this surveillance system.

Retention in Medical Care Among Insured Children with Diagnosed HIV Infection - United States, 2010-2014.

In 2014, an estimated 2,477 children aged <13 years were living with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States (1). Nationally, little is known about how well children with a diagnosis of HIV infection are retained in medical care. CDC analyzed insurance claims data to evaluate retention in medical care for children in the United States with a diagnosis of HIV infection. Data sources were the 2010-2014 MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid and MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters databases. Children aged <13 years with a diagnosis of HIV infection in 2010 were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic billing codes for HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in Medicaid and commercial claims cohorts of 163 and 129 children, respectively. Data for each child were evaluated during a 36-month study period, counted from the date of the first claim containing an ICD-9-CM code for HIV or AIDS. Each child's consistency of medical care was assessed by evaluating the frequency of medical visits during the first 24 months of the study period to see if the frequency of visits met the definition of retention in care. Frequency of medical visits was then assessed during an additional 12-month follow-up period to evaluate differences in medical care consistency between children who were retained or not retained in care during the initial 24-month period. During months 0-24, 60% of the Medicaid cohort and 69% of the commercial claims cohort were retained in care, among whom 93% (Medicaid) and 85% (commercial claims) were in care during months 25-36. To identify areas for additional public health action, further evaluation of the objectives for national medical care for children with diagnosed HIV infection is indicated.

Brain MRI in Infants after Maternal Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy.

Curing Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Best Practices From the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is the nation's largest care provider for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and is uniquely suited to inform national efforts to eliminate HCV. An extensive array of delivery of services, policy guidance, outreach efforts, and funding has broadened the reach and capacity of the VA to deliver direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapy, supported by an infrastructure to effectively implement change and informed by extensive population health data analysis. The VA has treated more than 92 000 HCV-infected veterans since all-oral DAAs became available in January 2014, with cure rates exceeding 90%; only 51 000 veterans in VA care are known to remain potentially eligible for treatment. Key actions advancing the VA's aggressive treatment of HCV infection that are germane to non-VA settings include expansion of treatment capacity through the use of nonphysician providers, video telehealth, and electronic technologies; expansion of integrated care to address psychiatric and substance use comorbidities; and electronic data tools for patient tracking and outreach. A critical component of effective implementation has been building infrastructure through the creation of regional multidisciplinary HCV Innovation Teams, whose system redesign efforts have produced innovative HCV practice models addressing gaps in care while providing more efficient and effective HCV management for the populations they serve. Financing for HCV treatment and infrastructure resources coupled with reduced drug prices has been paramount to the VA's success in curing HCV infection. The VA is poised to share and extend best practices to other health care organizations and providers delivering HCV care, contributing to a concerted effort to reduce the overall burden of HCV infection.

Cost-Utility of Elbasvir/Grazoprevir in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Infection.

To evaluate the cost-utility of treatment with elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimens compared with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir ± ribavirin (3D ± RBV), and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype (GT) 1 infection.

HIV status and hearing loss among children between 6 and 12 years of age at a large urban health facility in south western Uganda.

Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL.

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia: Pathogenesis, etiologies, clinical presentations and treatment strategies.

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare condition characterized by an unexplained deficit of circulating CD4 T cells leading to increased risk of serious opportunistic infections. The pathogenesis, etiology, clinical presentation, and best treatment options remain unclear.

Risk factors of serious infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab in the French Registry REGATE.

Observational studies have already reported the risk of serious infections in RA treated with tocilizumab, but in limited samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive risk factors for serious infections in the largest European registry of patients treated with tocilizumab for RA.

Cohort profile: The Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS).

Globally, women are at increased vulnerability to HIV due to biological, social, structural, and political reasons. Women living with HIV also experience unique issues related to their medical and social healthcare, which makes a clinical care model specific to their needs worthy of exploration. Furthermore, there is a dearth of research specific to women living with HIV. Research for this population has often been narrowly focused on pregnancy-related issues without considering their complex structural inequalities, social roles, and healthcare and biological needs. For these reasons, we have come together, as researchers, clinicians and community members in Canada, to develop the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS) to investigate the concept of women-centred HIV care (WCHC) and its impact on the overall, HIV, women's, mental, sexual, and reproductive health outcomes of women living with HIV. Here, we present the CHIWOS cohort profile, which describes the cohort and presents preliminary findings related to perceived WCHC. CHIWOS is a prospective, observational cohort study of women living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Ontario, and Quebec. Two additional Canadian provinces, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, will join the cohort in 2018. Using community-based research principles, CHIWOS engages women living with HIV throughout the entire research process meeting the requirements of the 'Greater Involvement of People living with HIV/AIDS'. Study data are collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire that uses a web-based platform. From August 2013 to May 2015, a total of 1422 women living with HIV in BC, Ontario, and Quebec were enrolled and completed the baseline visit. Follow-up interviews are being conducted at 18-month intervals. Of the 1422 participants at baseline, 356 were from BC (25%), 713 from Ontario (50%), 353 from Quebec (25%). The median age of the participants at baseline was 43 years (range, 16-74). 22% identified as Indigenous, 30% as African, Caribbean or Black, 41% as Caucasian/White, and 7% as other ethnicities. Overall, 83% of women were taking antiretroviral therapy at the time of the baseline interview and of them, 87% reported an undetectable viral load. Of the 1326 women who received HIV medical care in the previous year and responded to corresponding questions, 57% (95% CI: 54%-60%) perceived that the care they received from their primary HIV doctor had been women-centred. There were provincial and age differences among women who indicated that they received WCHC versus not; women from BC or Ontario were more likely to report WCHC compared to participants in Quebec. They were also more likely to be younger. CHIWOS will be an important tool to develop care models specific for women living with HIV. Moreover, CHIWOS is collecting extensive information on socio-demographics, social determinants of health, psychological factors, and sexual and reproductive health and offers an important platform to answer many relevant research questions for and with women living with HIV. Information on the cohort can be found on the study website (

HIV and tuberculosis co-infection among migrants in Europe: A systematic review on the prevalence, incidence and mortality.

International human migration has been rapidly growing. Migrants coming from low and middle income countries continue to be considerably vulnerable and at higher risk for infectious diseases, namely HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and tuberculosis (TB). In Europe, the number of patients with HIV-TB co-infection has been increasing and migration could be one of the potential driving forces.

Time trends in management of HIV-positive pregnant women in Northern Tanzania: A registry-based study.

To examine time trends in antenatal factors and delivery characteristics in Northern Tanzania, and relate these to national guidelines for HIV in pregnancy.

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season.

Pregnant women and their infants are at increased risk for severe influenza-associated illness (1), and since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of the trimester of the pregnancy (2). To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during March 28-April 7, 2017. Among 1,893 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2016-January 2017, 53.6% reported having received influenza vaccination before (16.2%) or during (37.4%) pregnancy, similar to coverage during the preceding four influenza seasons. Also similar to the preceding influenza season, 67.3% of women reported receiving a provider offer for influenza vaccination, 11.9% reported receiving a recommendation but no offer, and 20.7% reported receiving no recommendation; among these women, reported influenza vaccination coverage was 70.5%, 43.7%, and 14.8%, respectively. Among women who received a provider offer for vaccination, vaccination coverage differed by race/ethnicity, education, insurance type, and other sociodemographic factors. Use of evidence-based practices such as provider reminders and standing orders could reduce missed opportunities for vaccination and increase vaccination coverage among pregnant women.

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health Care Personnel - United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all health care personnel (HCP) receive an annual influenza vaccination to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among HCP and their patients and to reduce absenteeism among HCP (1-4). To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among HCP in the United States during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 2,438 HCP. Overall, 78.6% of survey respondents reported receiving vaccination during the 2016-17 season, similar to reported coverage in the previous three influenza seasons (5). Vaccination coverage continued to be higher among HCP working in hospitals (92.3%) and lower among HCP working in ambulatory (76.1%) and long-term care (LTC) (68.0%) settings. As in previous seasons, coverage was highest among HCP who were required by their employer to be vaccinated (96.7%) and lowest among HCP working in settings where vaccination was not required, promoted, or offered on-site (45.8%). Implementing workplace strategies found to improve vaccination coverage among HCP, including vaccination requirements or active promotion of on-site vaccinations at no cost, can help ensure that HCP and patients are protected against influenza (6).

Evaluation of the Impact of Mandating Health Care Providers to Offer Hepatitis C Virus Screening to All Persons Born During 1945-1965 - New York, 2014.

Approximately 75% of all hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the United States and 73% of HCV-associated mortality occur in persons born during 1945-1965, placing this birth cohort at increased risk for liver cancer and other HCV-related liver disease (1). In the United States, an estimated 2.7 million persons are living with HCV infection, and it is estimated that up to 75% of these persons do not know their status. Since 2012, CDC has recommended that persons born during 1945-1965 receive one-time HCV testing. To increase the number of persons tested for HCV and to ensure timely diagnosis and linkage to care, in 2014, New York enacted a hepatitis C testing law that requires health care providers to offer HCV antibody screening to all persons born during 1945-1965 who are receiving services in primary care settings or as hospital inpatients, and to refer persons with positive HCV antibody tests for follow-up health care, including an HCV diagnostic test (i.e., HCV RNA).* The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) used survey data from clinical laboratories and Medicaid claims and encounter data, and state and New York City (NYC) HCV surveillance data to assess the number of persons tested for HCV and number of persons with newly diagnosed HCV infections who were linked to care. During the first year of the HCV law implementation, there was a 51% increase in specimens submitted for HCV testing to surveyed clinical laboratories; testing rates among active Medicaid clients increased 52%, and linkage to care among persons with newly diagnosed HCV infection increased approximately 40% in New York and 11% in NYC. These findings highlight the potential for state laws to promote HCV testing and the utility of HCV surveillance and Medicaid claims data to monitor the quality of HCV testing and linkage to care for HCV-infected persons.

Case for diagnosis. Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1: differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis.

Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is the main cutaneous marker of HTLV-1 infection. This disease occurs primarily in children and should be differentiated from other eczemas, especially from atopic dermatitis. The largest series of IDH are from Jamaica and Brazil. There are an estimated 15 to 20 million infected people in the world, and Brazil is one of the endemic regions. Studies suggest that IDH in children may be a marker for the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM / TSP) in adulthood.

The regulatory role of IL-6R in hepatitis B-associated fibrosis and cirrhosis.

This study investigated the expression and regulation of IL-6R in hepatitis B-associated moderate hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver tissues, peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) and serum were collected from 26 hepatitis B patients with liver fibrosis and 35 hepatitis B patients with liver cirrhosis. The levels of Il-6r mRNA expression in these samples were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and IL-6R protein levels were analyzed by western blot and ELISA. MiRNAs that regulate IL-6R expression were predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay. Compared with the hepatic fibrosis group, IL-6R was significantly upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in liver tissues, PBMs and serum samples from the hepatic cirrhosis group (P<0.05). The 3'UTR of Il-6r mRNA was predicted to contain a miR-30b binding site and IL-6R was identified as a possible target of miR-30b. MiR-30b expression was significantly downregulated in samples from hepatic cirrhosis patients compared with hepatic fibrosis patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, IL-6R was upregulated while miR-30b was decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. The miR-30 can directly regulate the expression of IL-6R.

Immune status alters the probability of apparent illness due to dengue virus infection: Evidence from a pooled analysis across multiple cohort and cluster studies.

Dengue is an important vector-borne pathogen found across much of the world. Many factors complicate our understanding of the relationship between infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes, and the observed incidence of disease. One of the factors is a large proportion of infections appear to result in no or few symptoms, while others result in severe infections. Estimates of the proportion of infections that result in no symptoms (inapparent) vary widely from 8% to 100%, depending on study and setting. To investigate the sources of variation of these estimates, we used a flexible framework to combine data from multiple cohort studies and cluster studies (follow-up around index cases). Building on previous observations that the immune status of individuals affects their probability of apparent disease, we estimated the probability of apparent disease among individuals with different exposure histories. In cohort studies mostly assessing infection in children, we estimated the proportion of infections that are apparent as 0.18 (95% Credible Interval, CI: 0.16, 0.20) for primary infections, 0.13 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.17) for individuals infected in the year following a first infection (cross-immune period), and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.45) for those experiencing secondary infections after this first year. Estimates of the proportion of infections that are apparent from cluster studies were slightly higher than those from cohort studies for both primary and secondary infections, 0.22 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.29) and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.68) respectively. We attempted to estimate the apparent proportion by serotype, but current published data were too limited to distinguish the presence or absence of serotype-specific differences. These estimates are critical for understanding dengue epidemiology. Most dengue data come from passive surveillance systems which not only miss most infections because they are asymptomatic and often underreported, but will also vary in sensitivity over time due to the interaction between previous incidence and the symptomatic proportion, as shown here. Nonetheless the underlying incidence of infection is critical to understanding susceptibility of the population and estimating the true burden of disease, key factors for effectively targeting interventions. The estimates shown here help clarify the link between past infection, observed disease, and current transmission intensity.

Impact of environmental factors on neglected emerging arboviral diseases.

Brazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1) to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2) to describe the macroclimatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3) to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections.

Long-term outcome of percutaneous balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia patients elder than 80 years: A STROBE-compliant article.

This article evaluates the long-term outcome of percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients elder than 80 years. A total of 138 elderly patients aged above 80 years with primary TN, who were admitted to Neurosurgery Department, Hangzhou First People's Hospital from January 2007 to December 2011 for PBC treatment, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The postoperative cure rate of immediate pain was 98.6% (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] classes I, II); according to the follow-up, the pain cure rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after surgery were 93.5%, 90.4%, 84.7%, 80.4%, and 72.9%, respectively. In our group, postoperative diplopia was reported in 1 case, masticatory muscle weakness in 3 cases, and herpes labialis in 19 cases. A total of 100% of pain-cured patients exhibited facial numbness and facial hypoesthesia. No serious complications occurred in this group of patients. PBC is an effective and safe procedure for TN treatment and can be employed as the preferred regimen for elderly TN patients aged above 80 years in poorer physical condition.