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Virus Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks and Events - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.

The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence. This process occurs during extensive person-to-person transmission in populations with low immunity or after extended replication in the intestines of immune-deficient persons following vaccination (1-6). During 2017 (as of March 8, 2018), 25 VDPV cases were reported in three provinces in DRC: in Tanganyika province, an emergence with one VDPV2 case (pending final classification) in Kabalo health zone and an emergence with one ambiguous VDPV type 1 (aVDPV1) case in Ankoro health zone; in Maniema province, an emergence with two cVDPV2 cases; and in Haut Lomami province, an emergence with 20 cVDPV2 cases that originated in Haut Lomami province and later spread to Tanganyika province (hereafter referred to as the Haut Lomami outbreak area) and an emergence with one aVDPV type 2 (aVDPV2) case in Lwamba health zone (Table 1) (Figure) (6). Outbreak response supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted during June-December 2017 (Table 2) (6). Because of limitations in surveillance and suboptimal SIA quality and geographic scope, cVDPV2 circulation is likely continuing in 2018, requiring additional SIAs. DRC health officials and Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners are increasing human and financial resources to improve all aspects of outbreak response.

Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017.

The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement. Endemic human monkeypox has been reported from more countries in the past decade than during the previous 40 years. Since 2016, confirmed cases of monkeypox have occurred in Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, and Sierra Leone and in captive chimpanzees in Cameroon. Many countries with endemic monkeypox lack recent experience and specific knowledge about the disease to detect cases, treat patients, and prevent further spread of the virus. Specific improvements in surveillance capacity, laboratory diagnostics, and infection control measures are needed to launch an efficient response. Further, gaps in knowledge about the epidemiology and ecology of the virus need to be addressed to design, recommend, and implement needed prevention and control measures.

Recognizing the Global Impact of Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy.

Delivering at the country level: the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision and its impact in 2016 and 2017.

Update: Noncongenital Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 U.S. States and the District of Columbia, 2016.

Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1). However, congenital Zika virus infection can result in fetal loss, microcephaly, and other birth defects (1,2). In 2016, a total of 5,168 noncongenital Zika virus disease cases were reported from U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (4,897, 95%) were in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas. A total of 224 (4%) cases were acquired through presumed local mosquitoborne transmission, and 47 (1%) were acquired by other routes. It is important that providers in the United States continue to test symptomatic patients who live in or recently traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or had unprotected sex with someone who lives in or traveled to those areas. All pregnant women and their partners should take measures to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy. A list of affected areas and specific recommendations on how to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy are available at

Low humoral responses to human cytomegalovirus is associated with immunological treatment failure among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the opportunistic infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients especially before introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little is known regarding the humoral immune response against HCMV in relation to CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals. A total of 90 achieved sera from HIV infected patients attending Bugando Medical centre care and treatment centre (CTC) aged 18 years and above were retrieved and analyzed. Sociodemographic data were collected using structured data collection tool. Detection of specific HCMV antibodies was done using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using STATA version 11. A total of 90 HIV infected patients were enrolled in the study whereby 36(40%) had immunological treatment failure. The mean age of the study participants was 39±12.3 years. The Prevalence of specific HCMV IgG antibodies was 84(93.3%, 95% CI: 88-98.5) while the prevalence of specific HCMV IgM antibodies was 2(2.3% 95% CI: 0.8-5.4). The median CD4 counts at 6 months and 12 months on HAART were significantly high in treatment success group. At 12 months of HAART as CD4 counts increases the HCMV IgG index value was also found to increase significantly, p=0.04. Significant proportion of HIV infected individuals was infected with HCMV. Higher median HCMV IgG titers were observed among patients with immunological treatment success. There is a need to investigate humoral immune responses in HIV infected individuals in relation to CD4 counts against various infectious diseases in developing countries where most of these infections are endemic.

Occult hepatitis B reactivation in a patient with homozygous sickle cell disease: clinical case and literature review.

Occult Hepatitis B corresponds to the presence of hepatitis B virus-deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) in serum and/or in liver of a patient despite HBsAg negativity. Clinically, it is usually asymptomatic. Its reactivation is rare and commonly occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. We report the case of a 21-year old patient from Senegal, with homozygous sickle cell disease, presenting with cholestatic jaundice. Laboratory tests showed reactivation of occult Hepatitis B. This study emphasizes the need to systematically investigate the presence of occult Hepatitis B in patients with sickle cell disease suffering from acute liver disease.

Estimation of seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis among blood donors in the hospital of Aïoun, Mauritania.

To estimating the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis among blood donors in the Aïoun hospital.

Tenofovir versus Placebo to Prevent Perinatal Transmission of Hepatitis B.

Pregnant women with an elevated viral load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a risk of transmitting infection to their infants, despite the infants' receiving hepatitis B immune globulin.

The genetic diversity of hepatitis A genotype I in Bulgaria.

The purpose of this study was to analyze sequences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) Ia and Ib genotypes from Bulgarian patients to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HAV genotype I during the years 2012 to 2014. Around 105 serum samples were collected by the Department of Virology of the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria. The sequenced region encompassed the VP1/2A region of HAV genome. The sequences obtained from the samples were 103. For the phylogenetic analyses, 5 datasets were built to investigate the viral gene in/out flow among distinct HAV subpopulations in different geographic areas and to build a Bayesian dated tree, Bayesian phylogenetic and migration pattern analyses were performed. HAV Ib Bulgarian sequences mostly grouped into a single clade. This indicates that the Bulgarian epidemic is partially compartmentalized. It originated from a limited number of viruses and then spread through fecal-oral local transmission. HAV Ia Bulgarian sequences were intermixed with European sequences, suggesting that an Ia epidemic is not restricted to Bulgaria but can affect other European countries. The time-scaled phylogeny reconstruction showed the root of the tree dating in 2008 for genotype Ib and in 1999 for genotype Ia with a second epidemic entrance in 2003. The Bayesian skyline plot for genotype Ib showed a slow but continuous growth, sustained by fecal-oral route transmission. For genotype Ia, there was an exponential growth followed by a plateau, which suggests better infection control. Bidirectional viral flow for Ib genotype, involving different Bulgarian areas, was observed, whereas a unidirectional flow from Sofia to Ihtiman for genotype Ia was highlighted, suggesting the fecal-oral transmission route for Ia.

Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Nigeria, January–December 2017.

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Nigeria, January-December 2017.

Nearly three decades after the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free (1). Nigeria is one of three countries, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In September 2015, after >1 year without any reported WPV cases, Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic WPV transmission (2); however, during August and September 2016, four type 1 WPV (WPV1) cases were reported from Borno State, a state in northeastern Nigeria experiencing a violent insurgency (3). The Nigerian government, in collaboration with partners, launched a large-scale coordinated response to the outbreak (3). This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimated 469,000 eligible children living in inaccessible areas in 2016 have not been vaccinated. Sustained efforts to optimize surveillance and improve immunization coverage, especially among children in inaccessible areas, are needed.

Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women - Vietnam, 2015-2016.

Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015-2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient's fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Clinicopathological Characteristics of High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Involving Condyloma Acuminatum.

Severe nuclear atypia can be associated with condyloma acuminatum. In this study, we investigated nine cases of perianal condyloma acuminatum with severe nuclear atypia and determined whether severe nuclear atypia is sufficient for the diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).

Reliability and validity of the Chinese CECA10 questionnaire for Chinese patients with condyloma acuminata.

Condyloma acuminata (CA) is a sexually transmitted disease that affects quality of life (QOL). CECA10 is an English-language questionnaire for assessing QOL in patients with CA, but there is no equivalent in China. This study aimed to develop a validated and reliable Chinese version of CECA10.The Chinese CECA10 was developed from the English version by forward translation, back translation, comparison with the original, cultural adjustments, and a pre-test (5 patients). The Chinese CECA10 and EuroQol Five Dimensions Three Level Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) was administered to patients with CA. Content validity (item/scale content validity indexes, I-CVI/S-CVI), test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient, ICC), internal consistency (Cronbach α), criterion validity (comparison with the Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQL, using Spearman correlation analysis), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis), and discriminant validity (between subgroups based on number of warts, number of recurrences, or number of sites involved) were assessed.The Chinese CECA10 had good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.98, P < .001), internal consistency (Cronbach α values of 0.88, 0.84, and 0.83 for the total questionnaire, psychological dimension, and sexual dimension, respectively), content validity (I-CVI = 1 for all items), and criterion validity (r = -0.50, P < .001). Exploratory factor analysis extracted 2 factors with a cumulative contribution of 61.75%; the factor loading with each item was >0.4. Discriminant validity was not high. The mean CECA10 and EQ-VAS scores of 211 patients with CA (28.19 ± 7.16 years; 139 males) were 34.56 ± 19.01 and 64.64 ± 19.28, respectively.The Chinese CECA10 has good reliability and validity for evaluating the QOL of Chinese patients with CA.

The clinical characteristics and the features of immunophenotype of peripheral lymphocytes of adult onset chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Beijing.

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a rare disease with high mortality. Most of CAEBV patients have been reported from Japan and are pediatric cases.The goal was to describe the clinical characteristics and the immunophenotypic features of peripheral lymphocytes in adult onset CAEBV patients.We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed all adult onset CAEBV cases admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between 2012 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, and the immunophentyping data of peripheral lymphocytes were collected.There were 28 adult onset CAEBV patients. The median age was 45 (range, 20-81). Most of the patients presented with fever; splenomegaly; lymphadenopathy and hepatitis. Unlike pediatric cases reported, the manifestations of cardiovascular diseases in our patients were pulmonary arterial hypertension, decreased cardiac function and aorta vasculitis. Prevalence of interstitial pneumonitis in our patients were comparatively higher and prevalence of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites were comparatively lower than that reported by Japan. In this study, CAEBV patients had decreased B cell, NK cell, CD4 cell and CD8 cell counts. The prevalence of low level of B cells, NK cells, CD4 cells was relatively higher than reported ever.Chinese adult onset CAEBV patients have different clinical characteristics and are featured by an immunosuppression status as demonstrated by decreased B cell, NK cell, CD4 cell and CD8 cell.

The clinical and laboratory features of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients: A retrospective study in 92 patients.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is an important component of central nervous system diseases among HIV-infected patients. However, its characteristics are not very clear. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was performed in 92 NS patients with HIV infection from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. The patients had a median age of 38 years and a median CD4 count of 198 cells/μL. In all, 44.6% (41/92) were diagnosed as asymptomatic NS (ANS), 23.9% (22/92) as syphilitic meningitis, 17.4% (16/92) as cerebrovascular NS, and 14.1% (13/92) as parenchymal syphilis. A quarter of patients (23/92) complicated with ocular syphilis (OS), 60.9% (14/23) of which were ANS. The serum tolulized red unheated serum test (TRUST) titers were ≤1:8 in 15 patients (16.3%), 1:16-1:128 in 51 patients (55.4%), and ≥1:256 in 26 patients (28.3%). Sixty-nine patients (75.0%) had both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle assay reactive. CSF pleocytosis and protein elevation were found in 58.7% and 53.3% of patients, respectively. Syphilitic meningitis was more likely to present with CSF pleocytosis than ANS (P = .001), cerebrovascular NS (P < .001), and parenchymal NS (P < .001). The proportion of patients with CSF elevated protein was lower in ANS group than that in syphilitic meningitis (P = .003), cerebrovascular NS (P = .001), and parenchymal NS groups (P = .025), and was higher in sero-TRUST titers ≤1:8 group than that in 1:16-1:128 (P = .01) and 1:256-1:1024 groups (P = .005).This study revealed that ANS was the most common clinical type of NS in HIV-infected patients, which should be considered in HIV and syphilis co-infection patients without neurologic symptoms, especially in those with OS. Different patterns of NS might have different CSF features which may also vary with sero-TRUST titers.

Risk factors for severe bronchiolitis caused by respiratory virus infections among Mexican children in an emergency department.

Severe bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization among children younger than 2 years. This study analyzed the prevalence of community-acquired respiratory virus infection and the risk factors for hospitalization of Mexican children with severe bronchiolitis treated in an Emergency department.This retrospective study included 134 children 2 years or younger with severe viral bronchiolitis, and 134 healthy age-matched controls. The study period was September 2012 to January 2015. We determined the viral etiology and coinfections with multiple viruses and compared the risk factors detected in children with severe viral bronchiolitis with those in the control group.A total of 153 respiratory viruses in these 134 patients, single or mixed infections, were identified: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type A or B was the most frequently detected (23.6% and 17.6%, respectively), followed by rhinovirus (RV; 16.3%) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 3 (12.4%). Coinfections of 2 respiratory viruses were found in 14.2% of cases; all cases had either RSV type A or B with another virus, the most common being parainfluenza virus or rhinovirus. Exposure to cigarette smoking was independently associated with hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.99-6.18; P = .0001), and having completed the vaccination schedule for their age was a protective factor against adverse outcome (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.87; P = .010).RSV is a common infection among young children with severe bronchiolitis; thus, developing a vaccine against RSV is essential. Campaigns to reinforce the importance of avoiding childhood exposure to cigarette smoke are also needed.

Motor development delay in offspring is associated with prenatal telbivudine exposure.

Telbivudine is an orally nucleoside analog with potent and specific antihepatitis B virus (HBV) activity, and it has been reported to block mother-to-infant transmission. However, few studies have focused on the safety of prenatal exposure for offspring development.This is a prospective noninterventional study. Participants were enrolled during delivery through the Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between January 2012 and September 2013. Neonate's umbilical cord arterial blood (UCAB) was collected after delivery. Hepatitis B virus DNA copy, HBV serology, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine (CRE), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. The development of the offspring was evaluated by the Chinese Revision of Bayley Scales of Child Development (BSCD-CR) at 12 to 24 months old.Around 30 and 31 chronic hepatitis B mothers were recruited in untreated group (non-LdT group) and telbivudine-treatment group (LdT group), respectively, and 2 children (one in non-LdT group and 1 in LdT group) were lost in follow-up. Sixty-one normal women and their children were recruited as a normal control (control group). Compared with non-LdT group, telbivudine treatment effectively blocks HBV transmission from mother to infant. However, CK in UCAB was significantly increased in the LdT group. Moreover, children with prenatal telbivudine exposure showed lower level of serum creatinine than non-LdT group, reduction of psychomotor developmental index and increased risk of motor development delay.Prenatal telbivudine exposure is correlated with motor development delay in offspring.

Sequential occurrence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and carcinoma in the nasopharynx: A case report.

The sequential occurrence of the 2 malignancies development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lymphoma is extremely rare and their coexistence raises the question of a common etiologic factor.

Predicting poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy among treatment-naïve veterans infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Previous studies suggested that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients at risk of poor adherence were not distinguishable only based on the baseline characteristics. This study is to identify patient characteristics that would be consistently associated with poor adherence across regimens and to understand the associations between initial and long-term adherence. HIV treatment-naïve patients initiated on protease inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or integrase strand transfer inhibitors were identified from the Veteran Health Administration system. Initial adherence measured as initial coverage ratio (ICR) and long-term adherence measured as thereafter 1-year proportion days covered (PDC) of base agent and complete regimen were estimated for each patient. The patients most likely to exhibit poor adherence were African-American, with lower socioeconomic status, and healthier. The initial coverage ratio of base agent and complete regimen were highly correlated, but the correlations between ICR and thereafter 1-year PDC were low. However, including initial adherence as a predictor in predictive model would substantially increase predictive accuracy of future adherence.

Adherence and virologic outcomes among treatment-naïve veteran patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Many studies have estimated the association between the adherence to antiretroviral therapies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients' virologic/immunologic outcomes. However, evidence is lacking on the causal effect of adherence on the outcomes. The goal of this study is to understand whether near perfect adherence is necessary to achieve optimal virologic outcome and also to investigate the effect of initial adherence to antiretroviral therapies on initial viral suppression by different regimens. A cohort study was conducted on HIV veterans initiating antiretroviral therapies in 1999 to 2015. The primary outcome was the first viral suppression occurred within 30 to 60 days since the index date. Multiple imputation was used to impute the missing value of virologic outcomes. The inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) method was applied to estimate the viral suppression rate at each specific adherence category for each regimen category. Marginal structural models with IPTW were used to estimate the risk of viral suppression in lower-adherence categories in comparison to near-perfect adherence level ≥95%. Data showed that lower adherence caused lower viral suppression rate, with the association differentiated by the regimen. Patients on integrase strand transfer had the highest viral suppression rate, with patients on protease inhibitors having the lowest rate. Regardless of regimens, the viral suppression rate among patients at initial adherence of 75 to <95% was not statistically different from patients at adherence of ≥95%; however, the differences might be clinically significant.

HIV Diagnoses Among Persons Aged 13-29 Years - United States, 2010-2014.

In 2014, persons aged 13-29 years represented 23% of the U.S. population, yet accounted for 40% of diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during the same year (1). During 2010-2014, the rates of diagnosis of HIV infection decreased among persons aged 15-19 years, were stable among persons aged 20-24 years, and increased among persons aged 25-29 years (1). However, these 5-year age groups encompass multiple developmental stages and potentially mask trends associated with the rapid psychosocial changes during adolescence through young adulthood. To better understand HIV infection among adolescents aged 13-17 years and young adults aged 18-29 years in the United States and identify ideal ages to target primary HIV prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS)* using narrow age groups. During 2010-2014, rates of diagnosis of HIV infection per 100,000 population varied substantially among persons aged 13-15 years (0.7), 16-17 years (4.5), 18-19 years (16.5), and 20-21 years (28.6), and were higher, but less variable, among persons aged 22-23 years (34.0), 24-25 years (33.8), 26-27 years (31.3), and 28-29 years (28.7). In light of the remarkable increase in rates between ages 16-17, 18-19, and 20-21 years, and a recent study revealing that infection precedes diagnosis for young persons by an average of 2.7 years (2), these findings demonstrate the importance of targeting primary prevention efforts to persons aged <18 years and continuing through the period of elevated risk in their mid-twenties.

Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth.

A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine.

Influenza Season and ARDS after Cardiac Surgery.

Case 6-2018: A 35-Year-Old Woman with Headache, Subjective Fever, and Anemia.

Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in individuals on virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy in Western India.

Aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance in virologically suppressed individuals presenting with incident neurologic symptoms.In this retrospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2017, HIV-1 infected adults exposed to atleast 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and having plasma viral load (VL) <1000 copies/mL (virologically suppressed) were included. Among these, individuals presenting with neurologic symptoms during follow-up were assessed for CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance by measuring HIV-1 RNA in collected plasma and CSF samples. CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance was defined as either detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA (VL > 20 copies/mL) with an undetectable plasma RNA (complete viral suppression, VL ≤20 copies/mL) or CSF HIV-1 RNA ≥ 0.5 log10 higher than plasma RNA when plasma VL was between 20 and 1000 copies/mL (low-level viremia, LLV).Out of 1584 virologically suppressed patients, 71 (4.4%) presented with incident neurologic symptoms. Twenty out of 71 (28.2%) patients were diagnosed with CSF/Plasma HIV-1 discordance. Median plasma and CSF VL in patients with discordance was 120 [interquartile range (IQR): <20 to 332.5] and 4250 (IQR: 2550.0- 9615.0) copies/mL, respectively. All 9 individuals in which CSF HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing was done showed mutations that would compromise efficacy of prescribed ART regimen. Prevalence of CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance was higher among neurologically symptomatic patients with plasma LLV as compared with those with complete viral suppression (70% vs 11.8%, P < .001). The risk of discordance was also greater in patients who received protease inhibitor (PI) containing ART (P < .001) and those on ART regimens with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) value <6 (P = .006).CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance indicates replication of HIV-1 that has adapted to the CNS or has developed antiretroviral drug resistance. Larger studies should be performed to study incidence of discordance in India. This will help in managing patients presenting with neurologic symptoms on suppressive ART with appropriate neuroeffective therapy.

Impact of vitamin D receptor and binding protein gene polymorphisms in clinical and laboratory data of HCV patients: Cross sectional study.

Potential relationship of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been suggested in the pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this observational study is to determine vitamin D levels, and VDR and DBP genetic polymorphism according demographic and laboratory data in chronic HCV patients (CHC).A total of 148 CHC patients gave serum samples for testing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) level by immunochemiluminometric assay (<20 ng/mL defined as deficient) and donated blood samples to allelic discrimination analysis using TaqMan assays. Analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were: VDR-rs7975232 (ApaI) C>A, rs731236 A>G (TaqI), rs1544410 C>T (BsmI), rs10735810 T>C (FokI) and carrier globulin/binding protein (GC)-rs4588 and rs7041 and the haplotype bAt [CCA]. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using Fib-4 and Forns index.Eighty-two (54.40%) patients demonstrated deficiency of vitamin D and this was associated to AST (P = .019 [CI: 1.003-1.034]), total cholesterol (P = .038 [CI: 1.004-1.164]), fibrosis grade (P < .001 [CI: 0.000-0.844]), and FokI (P = .028) allele T presence. Association was found between VDR polymorphism and fibrosis (BsmI andTaqI), triglycerides (TaqI), and HDL (FokI). DBP polymorphism was associated to HCV genotype (GC rs7041), previous HCV treatment, and GGT (GC rs4588).In conclusion, low frequency of vitamin D deficiency was found, but VDR polymorphisms were frequently associated to fibrosis grade suggesting that they could be used as disease evaluation markers to understand the mechanisms underlying the virus-host interaction.

Cross-sectional study of CD4: CD8 ratio recovery in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved survival into adulthood for young people with perinatally acquired HIV-1 (yp-PaHIV), but long-term prognosis remains unclear. We hypothesized that on-going immune activation, reflected in the failure of CD4:CD8 ratio normalization would be observed in yp-PaHIV, despite ART.A cross-sectional study of routinely collected clinical data from a cohort of yp-PaHIV (≥16 years).Data were collected from records of individuals attending a specialist clinic for yp-PaHIV transitioning to adult care. CD4:CD8 ratio and proportion with CD4:CD8 ratio ≥1, demographic data and viral parameters, including HIV-1 viral load (VL) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG, were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics v22.A total of 115 yp-PaHIV, median (IQR) age 22.0 (20.0-24.0) years, were studied, of whom 59 were females, and the majority were Black African 75/115 (65.2%). Where measured, CMV antibodies were frequently detected (71/74, 95.9%) and CMV IgG titre was inversely associated with CD4:CD8 ratio, (Rho -0.383, P = .012). Of those taking ART, 69 out of 90 (76.7%) yp-PaHIV had suppressed HIV viremia (<50 RNA copies/mL) and recovery of CD4:CD8 ratio to ≥1 was seen in 26 out of 69 (37.7%) with suppressed HIV viremia. Persistence of low CD4:CD8 ratio was observed even in those with a CD4 count ≥500 cells/μL, where 28/52 (53.8%) had a CD4:CD8 ratio <1. Of those with suppressed viremia, the median (IQR) age for starting ART was 8.0 (5.0-12.8) years and CD4:CD8 ratio was inversely associated with age at ART start, Rho -0.348, (P = .028).In this cohort of yp-PaHIV, despite lifelong HIV infection and widespread CMV coinfection, CD4:CD8 ratio recovery rate was comparable to adults treated in acute infection. Where persistence of CD4:CD8 ratio abnormality was observed, on-going immune activation may have significance for non-AIDS outcomes. Taken together our findings indicate immune resilience to be a feature of these adult survivors of perinatally acquired HIV infection, which can be supported with early antiretroviral therapy.

Implementation of a rapid influenza A/B and RSV direct molecular assay improves emergency department oseltamivir use in paediatric patients.

Influenza A virus (FluA), influenza B virus (FluB) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illnesses increase hospitalizations during seasonal epidemics.