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Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Abdominal Ultrasound for Pediatric Blunt Trauma: FAST Is Not Always Better.

Practical Imaging Evaluation of Foreign Bodies in Children: An Update.

Foreign bodies (FBs) may be unintentionally ingested, inhaled, or inserted into a body cavity or tissue, or may be due to traumatic or iatrogenic injury. They are frequently detected in clinical practice and emergency rooms. Early detection and prompt management are mandatory to avoid severe and life-threatening complications. Imaging plays an important role in confirming the presence and characterization of the FB, and its relationship with any affected organs. This article reviews commonly encountered FBs with regard to incidence, risk factors, mechanisms of entry, clinical presentation, associated complications, and typical imaging appearance in children.

Endovascular management of iatrogenic cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a 9-year-old child: Case report and literature review.

Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population and are usually secondary to direct trauma to the vessel. Treatment options include surgery (ligation), anticoagulation therapy and endovascular treatment. Endovascular covered stents have shown good results in adult populations, resulting in occlusion of the aneurysm and preservation of the artery without significant complications. However, there have been only limited reports in the literature reporting endovascular carotid stent placement in the pediatric population. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy patient, who developed a cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm after a parapharyngeal tumor resection. He was successfully treated by primary endovascular covered stent placement. During a follow-up of 6 months the patient has been asymptomatic, without any adverse event. Additionally, a literature review is done.

Recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor in deep second-degree burn wound healing.

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) on deep second-degree burn wound healing.

Evaluation of a combined posterior lateral and anteromedial approach in the treatment of terrible triad of the elbow: A retrospective study.

This retrospective study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of a combined posterior lateral and anteromedial approach in the treatment of terrible triad of the elbow (TTE).

Cannula-associated Ocular Injuries during Cataract Surgery: A Preventable Intraoperative Complication?

Although rare, inadvertently dislodged cannula can occur during cataract surgery. We report two cases of cannula-associated ocular injury during stromal hydration of the main corneal incision despite the use of Luer-lock syringes. Case 1 suffered from an initially occult intraocular injury which led to a delayed presentation of vitreous prolapsing into the anterior chamber, presumed posterior capsular rupture, vitreous hemorrhage, and multiple retinal tears, which required a three-port pars plana vitrectomy and cryotherapy. Case 2 sustained an iris laceration, anterior capsular tear, and postoperative raised intraocular pressure with no late sequelae. The former case highlights the need for close monitoring postoperatively despite the absence of initial apparent evidence of intraocular injury. Herein, we propose a systematic approach in reducing the risk of inadvertent cannula-associated ocular injury.

Time distribution of injury-related in-hospital mortality in a trauma referral center in South of Iran (2010-2015).

In Iran, there are no studies addressing trauma death timing and factors affecting time of death after injuries. This study aimed to examine time distribution of trauma deaths in an urban major trauma referral center with respect to victims' injury characteristics during 2010 to 2015.This was a cross-sectional study of adult trauma-related in-hospital deaths resulting from traffic-related accidents, falls, and violence-related injuries. Information on injury characteristics and time interval between admission and death was extracted from 3 hospital databases. Mortality time distribution was analyzed separately in the context of each baseline variable.A total of 1117 in-hospital deaths (mean age 47.6 ± 22.2 years, 80% male) were studied. Deaths timing followed an extremely positive skewed bimodal distribution with 1 peak during the first 24 hours of admission (41.6% of deaths) and another peak starting from the 7th day of hospitalization to the end of first month (27.7% of total). Subjects older than 65 years were more likely to die after 24 hours compared to younger deceased (P = .031). More than 70% of firearm-related deaths and 48% of assault-related mortalities occurred early, whereas 67% and 66% of deaths from falls and motorcycle accidents occurred late (P < .001). Over 57% of deaths from severe thoracic injuries occurred early, whereas this value was only 37% for central nervous system injuries (P < .001). From 2010 to 2015, percentage of late deaths decreased significantly from 68% to 54% (P < .001).Considering 1 prehospital peak of mortality and 2 in-hospital peaks, mortality time distribution follows the old trimodal pattern in Shiraz. This distribution is affected by victims' age, injury mechanism, and injured body area. Although such distribution reflects a relatively lower quality of care comparing to mature trauma systems, a change toward expected bimodal pattern has started.

Value of superb microvascular imaging ultrasonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: Compared with color Doppler and power Doppler.

The aim of this study was to compare the value of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with that of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS).Fifty patients with symptomatic CTS and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The cross-sectional area (CSA), CDUS score, PDUS score, and SMI score of the median nerve (MN) at the carpal tunnel were recorded. The value of different ultrasonography (US) diagnostic strategies was calculated.The blood flow display ratio in the MN of the healthy volunteers had no statistical difference between CDUS, PDUS, and SMI (20%, 32%, and 48%, respectively, P >.05). The blood flow display ratio for SMI in patients was significantly higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (90%, 52%, and 60%, respectively, P <.005). The accuracy of SMI score ≥2 (79%) was much higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (61% and 63%, respectively, P <.05). Comprehensive consideration of SMI and CSA, CSA≥10.5 mm, and/or SMI score ≥2 has the highest accuracy (83%), significantly higher than that of CSA combination with CDUS or PDUS (68% and 69%, respectively, P <.05).SMI is more sensitive to display the blood flow in the MN with CTS than CDUS and PDUS. It might significantly improve the diagnosis value for CTS.

Wrestling game injuries among children in Dakar: a report on 172 cases.

The objective was to report epidemiological and lesional features among children practicing wrestling as a game in Dakar, Senegal.

Rare medico-surgical emergency: spinal epidural abscess (about 3 cases).

The awareness about infections in the epidural space is increasing thanks to the development of neurosurgery, including MRI. Spinal epidural abscess is a rare pathology but extremely serious from a functional point of view and potentially life threatening. We report three cases of male patients (the first one aged 52 years, the second 57 years and the third 63 years) with diagnosed spinal epidural abscess. Two patients were admitted to the Neurosurgical Emergencies with slow progressive spinal cord compression evolving in the context of infection. The last patient complained of S1 sciatica pain in his right leg resistant to treatment associated with urinary incontinence. Entrance door of the infection wasn't identified during the initial assessment. All patients underwent spinal cord/radicular decompression surgery and evacuation of the epidural abscess via posterior approach. Bacteriological examination showed pyogenic germ justifying adequate prescription of antibiotic therapy in the three cases. The evolution was favorable in two cases. However one patient died three days after surgery due to severe sepsis.

Management and outcome of traumatic brain injury patients at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Traumatic brain Injuries represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. However, access to neurosurgical care is poor in low income countries like Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcome of Traumatic brain injury patients at a tertiary level health facility in Tanzania.

Surgical treatment of calcaneal fractures: about 29 cases.

Calcaneal fractures are infrequent but, more often, serious. We report a series of 29 cases of calcaneal fractures surgically treated in the Orthopaedics and Traumatology in the University Hospital (CHU) Hassan II of Fez. This retrospective study aims to present the principles and to evaluate the results of surgical treatment for articular fractures of the calcaneus, in comparison with conservative treatment. Our study included 21 men and 8 women, the average age was 21-61 years. Etiology was dominated by road traffic accidents as wel as by falls from a high place. The evaluation of the lesions was based on the classification of Duparc. The treatment was based on open reduction associated with Y-plate osteosynthesis or one-third tubular plate osteosynthesis using triangulation. Clinical results were evaluated on the basis of kitaoka score, with an average follow-up period of 24 months. 86% of patients have had good medium-term results.

A rare cause of spinal cord compression: spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (about 3 cases).

Spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a benign condition whose pathophysiology is still uncertain. It is most commonly asymptomatic but it can cause severe neurological sequelae especially when treatment is not received in time. We conducted a retrospective study of three patients treated for SEAC conducted in the Neurosurgery Department, Hassan II University Hospital, Fez. We report the case of two male patients and a woman, with an average age of 35 years (range: 16-56 years), admitted with slow progressive spinal cord compression. All patients underwent spinal cord MRI showing epidural fluid collection, having the same signal as that of cerebrospinal fluid, compressing the opposite marrow. The collection was located in the chest in all cases. All patients underwent surgery via posterior approach for cyst resection and cyst neck ligation in two cases and dural plasty in a single case. Anatomo-pathologic examination showed arachnoid cysts. Postoperative outcome was simple in all cases. This study aims to update the current understanding of this pathology while insisting on the need for early management given its tendency toward gradual worsening in the absence of adapt therapy. It also aims to review the clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic features of this condition.

Simultaneous bilateral rupture in both cruciate knee ligaments (about a case).

Bilateral cruciate ligament rupture is rare while simultaneous rupture in both anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) is exceptional; that's why post-traumatic simultaneous bilateral cruciate ligament rupture has never been described in the literature making this case study based on patient's observation, follow-up and therapeutic discussion very interesting. The procedure was performed in two surgical steps spaced in time and results were very satisfactory for both us and patient.

New predictors of complications in carotid body tumor resection.

This study examined the relationship between two new variables, tumor distance to base of skull (DTBOS) and tumor volume, with complications of carotid body tumor (CBT) resection, including bleeding and cranial nerve injury.

Inhalational Chlorine Injuries at Public Aquatic Venues - California, 2008-2015.

In June 2015, personnel from California's Contra Costa Health Services Environmental Health and Hazardous Materials (hazmat) divisions were alerted to a possible chemical release at a swimming pool in an outdoor municipal water park. Approximately 50 bathers were in the pool when symptoms began; 34 (68%) experienced vomiting, coughing, or eye irritation. Among these persons, 17 (50%) were treated at the scene by Contra Costa's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and released, and 17 (50%) were transported to local emergency departments; five patients also were evaluated later at an emergency department or by a primary medical provider. Environmental staff members determined that a chemical controller malfunction had allowed sodium hypochlorite and muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) solutions to be injected into the main pool recirculation line while the recirculation pump was off; when the main recirculation pump was restarted, toxic chlorine gas (generated by the reaction of concentrated sodium hypochlorite and muriatic acid) was released into the pool. A review of 2008-2015 California pesticide exposure records identified eight additional such instances of toxic chlorine gas releases at public aquatic venues caused by equipment failure or human error that sickened 156 persons. Chemical exposures at public aquatic venues can be prevented by proper handling, storage, and monitoring of pool chemicals; appropriate equipment operation and maintenance; training of pool operators and staff members on pool chemical safety; and reporting of chemical exposures.

An Approach to Assess the Burden of Work-Related Injury, Disease, and Distress.

The true burden (morbidity, mortality, disability, cost, pain, distress) of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries is unknown, and what is reported as burden is significantly underestimated. This underestimation affects the way decision-makers view investments in research and worker protection, which in turn has a substantial impact on national welfare and public health. To better describe the societal and individual burdens of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries, we propose an approach to gauge what is known about burden and where new assessments may be made. This approach consists of 4 elements to consider in burden assessments: (1) utilizing multiple domains, including the individual worker, the worker's family, the community in which the workplace is located, the employer, and society as a whole; (2) taking a broader view of the work-relatedness of disease and injury; (3) assessing the impact of the entire working-life continuum; and (4) applying the comprehensive concept of "well-being" as an indicator in addressing contemporary changes in the nature of work, the workplace, and the workforce. Further research on burden and enhanced surveillance is needed to develop these elements.

Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings.

You're the Flight Surgeon.

Ensley D. You're the flight surgeon: green laser event. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):437-439.

Latent Presentation of Decompression Sickness After Altitude Chamber Training in an Active Duty Flier.

Decompression sickness (DCS) is a potential danger and risk for both divers and aircrew alike. DCS is also a potential side effect of altitude (hypobaric) chamber training as well and can present long after training occurs. Literature review shows that altitude chamber induced DCS has approximately a 0.25% incidence.

Middle Ear Barotrauma in Student Pilots.

The present study reports the clinical features of middle ear barotrauma in student pilots in the Republic of Korea Air Force.

Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine.

Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB.

Venous Gas Emboli and Ambulation at 4.3 psia.

Ambulation during extravehicular activity on Mars may increase the risk of decompression sickness through enhanced bubble formation in the lower body.

Infected tibia defect fractures treated with the Masquelet technique.

The treatment after open and infected fractures with extensive soft tissue damage and bone deficit remains a challenging clinical problem. The technique described by Masquelet, using a temporary cement spacer to induce a membrane combined with reconstructive soft tissue coverage, is a possible solution. This study describes the work-up, operative procedure, complications, and the outcome of a homogenous group of patients with an open and infected tibia fracture and segmental bone loss treated with the Masquelet technique (MT).This retrospective study evaluates patients having sustained an open tibia fracture treated with the MT between 2008 and 2013 with a follow up of at least 1 year. The defect was either primary, caused by a high-grade open fracture or secondary due to a non-union after an open fracture. Prerequisite conditions prior to the procedure of the Masquelet were a defect zone with eradicated infection, an intact soft tissue cover and stability provided by an external fixation.Volume of the defect, time until the implantation of the spacer, time of the spacer in situ and the time to clinical and radiological union were evaluated. Patient records were screened for reoperations and complications. The functional clinical outcome was measured.Eight patients were treated with a follow up over 1 year. The spacer was implanted after a median of 11 (2-70) weeks after the accident. The predefined conditions for the Masquelet phase were reached after a median of 12 (7-34) operations.Seven patients required reconstructive soft tissue coverage. The volume of the defect had a median of 111 (53.9-621.6) cm, the spacer was in situ for a median of 12 (7-26) weeks. Radiological healing was achieved in 7 cases after a median time of 52 (26-93) weeks.Full weight bearing was achieved after a median time of 16 (11-24) weeks. Four patients needed a reoperation. The lower limb functional index was a median of 60% (32-92%).Seven out of 8 patients treated in this group of severe open and infected tibia fractures did both clinically and radiologically heal. Due to the massive destruction of the soft tissue, patients needed several reoperations with soft tissue debridements and reconstruction before the spacer and the bone graft could be implanted.

A randomized controlled trial of botulinum toxin A for treating neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury.

To assess the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTA) for treating neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Case 242: Radiation-induced Angiosarcoma.

History In 2004, this woman received a diagnosis of invasive mammillary carcinoma, tubular variant, strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Her lesion was found at screening mammography performed at an outside institution when she was 59 years old. She underwent partial mastectomy, with partial axillary node dissection and sentinel node mapping. A 0.6 × 0.5 cm Nottingham grade 1 infiltrating ductal carcinoma was removed from the right upper outer quadrant, margins were free of tumor, and there was no angiolymphatic invasion. The six dissected lymph nodes were negative for malignancy. Her surgical history was otherwise unremarkable. Her medical history was positive for hypercholesterolemia and depression. Pertinent family history included breast cancer in both her mother and her sister. Given the patient's age, tumor size, lack of nodal involvement, and clear surgical margins, she met recommended MammoSite criteria, and she underwent accelerated partial breast radiation. She subsequently received 340 cGy of radiation twice a day for a total dose of 3400 cGy in 10 administrations in February 2005. Accelerated partial breast radiation treatment was completed in February 2005, and she received subsequent routine care. Prior to 2014, the only postoperative complication was a chronic radiation bed seroma, which required periodic percutaneous drainage. She did not develop postsurgical lymphedema. In December 2013, 9 years after accelerated partial breast radiation treatment, she experienced progressive painful pruritic breast fullness, skin dimpling, and skin discoloration of the mastectomy scar and radiation bed. She sought medical care in January 2014 after she noticed a periareolar ulcerating skin plaque, more noticeable nipple retraction, and new onset of retroareolar aching. At physical examination ( Fig 1 ), there was generalized periareolar erythema, dimpling, firmness, and fixation involving the central breast and right upper outer quadrant. There was more conspicuous retraction of the nipple when compared with that seen at prior examinations. Nipple discharge was not present. There was a 1-cm periareolar ulcerating skin plaque. The only discrete palpable finding was lumpectomy bed seroma. There was no palpable axillary adenopathy. [Figure: see text] A diagnostic mammogram was obtained and compared with the most recent studies available. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed. Her most recent mammogram, obtained 3 months earlier in September 2013, reported Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 2 findings (ie, stable postoperative benign findings).

Imaging of Acute Capsuloligamentous Sports Injuries in the Ankle and Foot: Sports Imaging Series.

The ankle and foot are commonly injured during sporting activities. Clinical diagnosis can at times be challenging, due to the complex anatomy and multiple sites of potential injury. In the athlete, there is a reduced threshold for imaging to clarify diagnosis, guide prognosis, and treatment. Diagnostic imaging is also helpful in evaluating ongoing symptoms in the subacute or chronic setting. (©) RSNA, 2017.

Clarification of Employer’s Continuing Obligation To Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of Each Recordable Injury and Illness. Final rule.

Under the Congressional Review Act, Congress has passed, and the President has signed, Public Law 115-21, a resolution of disapproval of OSHA's final rule titled, "Clarification of Employer's Continuing Obligation to Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of each Recordable Injury and Illness." OSHA published the rule, which contained various amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations, on December 19, 2016. The amendments became effective on January 18, 2017. Because Public Law 115-21 invalidates the amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations contained in the rule promulgated on December 19, 2016, OSHA is hereby removing those amendments from the Code of Federal Regulations.

Use of bioactive materials and limited FOV CBCT in the treatment of a replanted permanent tooth affected by inflammatory external root resorption: a case report.

Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the possible complications of replantation of an avulsed tooth. Several studies have shown that limited FOV CBCT is an efficient diagnostic support and in treatment planning of these cases in paediatric patients because of its high resolution combined with low radiation doses. The recent literature has suggested that Biodentine is an effective material for resolution of inflammatory root resorption.

A combined approach with passive and active repositioning of a traumatically intruded immature permanent incisor.

Severe damage to the tooth, periodontal ligament, and pulpal tissue often occurs with intrusive luxation, and outcomes are quite unpredictable because of the variable ways in which the injury may occur, which influences both the choice of treatment and prognosis.