A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Inhalational Chlorine Injuries at Public Aquatic Venues - California, 2008-2015.

In June 2015, personnel from California's Contra Costa Health Services Environmental Health and Hazardous Materials (hazmat) divisions were alerted to a possible chemical release at a swimming pool in an outdoor municipal water park. Approximately 50 bathers were in the pool when symptoms began; 34 (68%) experienced vomiting, coughing, or eye irritation. Among these persons, 17 (50%) were treated at the scene by Contra Costa's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and released, and 17 (50%) were transported to local emergency departments; five patients also were evaluated later at an emergency department or by a primary medical provider. Environmental staff members determined that a chemical controller malfunction had allowed sodium hypochlorite and muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) solutions to be injected into the main pool recirculation line while the recirculation pump was off; when the main recirculation pump was restarted, toxic chlorine gas (generated by the reaction of concentrated sodium hypochlorite and muriatic acid) was released into the pool. A review of 2008-2015 California pesticide exposure records identified eight additional such instances of toxic chlorine gas releases at public aquatic venues caused by equipment failure or human error that sickened 156 persons. Chemical exposures at public aquatic venues can be prevented by proper handling, storage, and monitoring of pool chemicals; appropriate equipment operation and maintenance; training of pool operators and staff members on pool chemical safety; and reporting of chemical exposures.

Clarification of Employer’s Continuing Obligation To Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of Each Recordable Injury and Illness. Final rule.

Under the Congressional Review Act, Congress has passed, and the President has signed, Public Law 115-21, a resolution of disapproval of OSHA's final rule titled, "Clarification of Employer's Continuing Obligation to Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of each Recordable Injury and Illness." OSHA published the rule, which contained various amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations, on December 19, 2016. The amendments became effective on January 18, 2017. Because Public Law 115-21 invalidates the amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations contained in the rule promulgated on December 19, 2016, OSHA is hereby removing those amendments from the Code of Federal Regulations.

Enhanced hip fracture management: use of statistical methods and dataset to evaluate a fractured neck of femur fast track pathway-pilot study.

The increasing elderly population and subsequent rise in total hip fracture(s) in this group means more effective management strategies are necessary to improve efficiency. We have changed our patient care strategy from the emergency department (ED), acute orthopaedic wards, operating theatre, post-operation and rehabilitation, and called it Fracture Neck of Femur Fast Track Pathway. All clinical data and actions were captured, integrated and displayed on a weekly basis using 'signalfromnoise' (SFN) software. The initial four months analysis of this project showed significant improvement in patient flow within the hospitals. The overall length of stay was reduced by four days. Time in ED was reduced by 30 minutes, and the wait for rehabilitation reduced by three days. Overall time in rehabilitation reduced by 3-7 days depending on facility. On average, fast track patients spent 95 less hours in hospital, resulting in 631 bed days saved in this period, with projected savings of NZD700,000. No adverse effects were seen in mortality, readmission and functional improvement status. Fractured neck of femur has increasing clinical demand in a busy tertiary hospital. Length of stay, co-morbidities and waiting time for theatres are seen as major barriers to treatment for these conditions. Wait for rehabilitation can significantly lengthen hospital stay; also poor communication between the individual hospital management facets of this condition has been an ongoing issue. Lack of instant and available electronic information on this patient group has also been seen as a major barrier to improvement. This paper demonstrates how integration of service components that are involved in fractured neck of femur can be achieved. It also shows how the use of electronic data capture and analysis can give a very quick and easily interpretable data trend that will enable change in practice. This paper indicates that cooperation between health professionals and practitioners can significantly improve the length of stay and the time in which patients can be returned home. Full interdisciplinary involvement was the key to this approach. The use of electronic data capture and analysis can be used in many other health pathways within the health system.

Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children hospitalised for burn injuries: a population data linkage study.

To investigate differences in the characteristics of burn injuries leading to hospitalisation of Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous children in New South Wales.Design, setting: Population-based cohort analysis of linked hospital and mortality data for 2000-2014.

Fluid Resuscitation of the Adult Trauma Patient: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?

The resuscitation of an adult trauma patient has been researched and written about for the past century. Throughout those discussions, 2 major controversies persist when discussing resuscitation methods: (1) the ideal choice of fluid type to use during the initial resuscitation period, and (2) the ideal fluid volume to infuse during the initial resuscitation period. This article presents a brief historical perspective of fluids used during a trauma resuscitation, along with the latest research findings as they relate to the 2 stated issues.

Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis.

GGPS1 Mutation and Atypical Femoral Fractures with Bisphosphonates.

Laundry Detergent Pods Linked to Increased Eye Injuries in Children.

Pods are responsible for over a quarter of toddlers' chemical ocular burns.

Physical Abuse of Children.

The nurse who could lift.

This month, we celebrate nurses for their dedication to patient well-being and safety. The American Nurses Association has declared National Nurses Week 2017, May 6-12, the "Year of the Healthy Nurse." This special Nurses Week tribute reminds us that although patient health and safety is the goal of every nurse, it's important to remember our own health as well.

Distinguishing the Unique Neuropathological Profile of Blast Polytrauma.

Traumatic brain injury sustained after blast exposure (blast-induced TBI) has recently been documented as a growing issue for military personnel. Incidence of injury to organs such as the lungs has decreased, though current epidemiology still causes a great public health burden. In addition, unprotected civilians sustain primary blast lung injury (PBLI) at alarming rates. Often, mild-to-moderate cases of PBLI are survivable with medical intervention, which creates a growing population of survivors of blast-induced polytrauma (BPT) with symptoms from blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI). Currently, there is a lack of preclinical models simulating BPT, which is crucial to identifying unique injury mechanisms of BPT and its management. To meet this need, our group characterized a rodent model of BPT and compared results to a blast-induced mTBI model. Open field (OF) performance trials were performed on rodents at 7 days after injury. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate cellular outcome at day seven following BPT. Levels of reactive astrocytes (GFAP), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 expression), and vascular damage (SMI-71) were significantly elevated in BPT compared to blast-induced mTBI. Downstream markers of hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF) were higher only after BPT. This study highlights the need for unique therapeutics and prehospital management when handling BPT.

Developmental and behavioural associations of burns and scalds in children: a prospective population-based study.

To investigate child developmental and behavioural characteristics and risk of burns and scalds.

Lethal Trauma Pulmonary Embolism Is a Black Swan Event in Patients at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis: An Evidence-Based Review.

We delineated the incidence of trauma patient pulmonary embolism (PE) and risk conditions by performing a systematic literature review of those at risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The PE proportion was 1.4 per cent (95% confidence interval = 1.2-1.6) in at-risk patients. Of 10 conditions, PE was only associated with increased age (P < 0.01) or leg injury (P < 0.01; risk ratio = 1.6). As lower extremity DVT (LEDVT) proportions increased, mortality proportions (P = 0.02) and hospital stay (P = 0.0002) increased, but PE proportions did not (P = 0.13). LEDVT was lower with chemoprophylaxis (CP) (4.9%) than without CP (19.1%; P < 0.01). PE was lower with CP (1.0%) than without CP (2.2%; P = 0.0004). Mortality was lower with CP (6.6%) than without CP (11.6%; P = 0.002). PE was similar with (1.2%) and without (1.9%; P = 0.19) mechanical prophylaxis (MP). LEDVT was lower with MP (8.5%) than without MP (12.2%; P = 0.0005). PE proportions were similar with (1.3%) and without (1.5%; P = 0.24) LEDVT surveillance. Mortality was higher with LEDVT surveillance (7.9%) than without (4.8%; P < 0.01). A PE mortality of 19.7 per cent (95% confidence interval = 18-22) × a 1.4 per cent PE proportion yielded a 0.28 per cent lethal PE proportion. As PE proportions increased, mortality (P = 0.52) and hospital stay (P = 0.13) did not. Of 176 patients with PE, 76 per cent had no LEDVT. In trauma patients at risk for DVT, PE is infrequent, has a minimal impact on outcomes, and death is a black swan event. LEDVT surveillance did not improve outcomes. Because PE was not associated with LEDVT and most patients with PE had no LEDVT, preventing, diagnosing, and treating LEDVT may be ineffective PE prophylaxis.

Comparative Analysis of the Paravertebral Analgesic Pump Catheter with the Epidural Catheter in Elderly Trauma Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures.

Presently, trauma guidelines recommend epidural analgesia as the optimal modality of pain relief from rib fractures. They are not ideally suited for elderly trauma patients and have disadvantages including bleeding risk. The paravertebral analgesic pump (PVP) eliminates such disadvantages and includes ease of placement in the trauma setting. This study compares pain control in patients treated by EPI versus PVP. This is a retrospective, historical cohort study comparing two methods of pain management in the trauma setting. Before 2010, patients who had epidural catheters (EPI) placed for pain control were compared with patients after 2010 in which the PVP was used. All patients had multiple rib fractures as diagnosed by CT scan. Analysis was adjusted for age, number of fractures, and comorbid conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to compare average reported pain. A total of 110 patients, 31 PVP and 79 epidural catheters, were included in the study. Overall mean age was 65 years. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 (EPI) and 11.1 (PVP). Mean number rib fractures was 4.29 (EPI) and 4.71 (PVP). PVP was associated with a 30 per cent greater decrease in pain than that seen with EPI (6.0-1.9 vs 6.4-3.4). After controlling for age, Injury Severity Score, and number of rib fractures, there were no differences in intensive care unit or total length of stay (P = 0.35) or in pain score (3.76 vs 3.56, P = 0.64). In conclusion, the PVP compares well with epidural analgesia in older trauma patients yet is safe, well tolerated, and easily inserted.

Improvement of Treatment Outcomes after Implementation of a Massive Transfusion Protocol: A Level I Trauma Center Experience.

We assessed the effectiveness of the implementation of an institutional massive transfusion protocol (MTP) for resuscitation with a 1:1:1 transfusion ratio of packed red blood cell (PRBC), fresh frozen plasma, and platelet units. In a Level I trauma center database, all trauma admissions (2004-2012) that received massive transfusions (≥10 units PRBCs in the first 24 hours) were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, transfusion ratios, and outcomes were compared before (PRE) and after (POST) MTP implementation in May 2008. Age, sex, and mechanism of injury were similar between 239 PRE and 208 POST trauma patients requiring massive transfusion. Transfusion ratios of fresh frozen plasma:PRBC and platelet:PRBC increased after MTP implementation. Among survivors, MTP implementation shortened hospital length of stay from 31 to 26 days (P = 0.04) and intensive care unit length of stay from 31 to 26 days (P = 0.02). Linear regression identified treatment after (versus before) implementation of MTP as an independent predictor of decreased ventilator days after adjusting for age, Glasgow Coma Scale, and chest Abbreviated Injury Score (P < 0.0001). Modest improvement in ratios likely does not account for all significant improvements in outcomes. Implementing a standardized protocol likely impacts automation, efficiency, and/or timeliness of product delivery.

Outcomes of Recreational Activity-Associated Trauma in Elderly Persons on Blood-Thinning Medications.

With increasing life expectancy, the elderly are participating in recreational activities traditionally pursued by younger persons. Elderly patients have many reasons for worse outcomes after trauma, one of which may be the rising use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications. This study aimed to determine whether preinjury use of these agents yielded worse outcomes in geriatric patients injured during high-impact recreational activities. The National Trauma Data Bank was reviewed from 2007 to 2010 for patients ≥65 years admitted to Level I or II trauma centers with ICD-9 E-codes for specific mechanisms of injury. These included motorcycles, bicycles, snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, equestrian, water and alpine skiing, snowboarding, and others. Patients with preinjury bleeding disorder (BD), including warfarin and clopidogrel use, were compared with controls via a coarsened exact matching analysis. BD patients (294) were compared with 3929 controls. Although increased in BD patients, no significant mortality differences were observed in unmatched or matched analyses. BD patients yielded greater hospital length of stay (5 vs 4 days, P = 0.020) with increased odds of receiving five units or more of blood (7.0% vs 2.1%, odds ratio = 4.7, P < 0.001) and of deep vein thrombosis (7.6% vs 3.8%, odds ratio = 2.1, P = 0.018). Elderly patients with BD, including warfarin or clopidogrel use, do not seem to have significantly increased mortality after injury during specified recreational activities. BD patients had greater hospital length of stay, transfusion requirements, and deep vein thrombosis rates. These findings may inform counseling for those taking such medications as to the potential for adverse outcomes.

Analysis of Mortality in Traumatically Injured Patients Based on Body Mass Index and Mechanism Reveals Highest Mortality among the Underweight in Comparison with the Ideal Weight Patients.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on mortality after traumatic injury. The records of patients from 2012 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were stratified into the following groups based on admission BMI (kg/m2): underweight (UW) (BMI <19), ideal weight (IW) (BMI = 19-24.9), overweight (OW) (BMI = 25-29.9), obese (OB) (BMI = 30-39.9), and morbid obese (MO) (BMI >40). The groups were well matched with no significant differences in demographics and Injury Severity Score. Morality for the IW group was compared with the remaining BMI groups. A total of 6049 patients were identified. In comparison with IW group, the UW mortality was significantly higher (IW vs UW, 4.1% vs 8.8%, P = 0.001); however, the there was no significant difference with remaining groups. There was also no significant difference in mortality between IW and the remaining groups for patients that went directly to the operating room or for patients that had penetrating trauma (stab wounds and gunshot wounds). However, for blunt trauma, the mortality was significantly higher for UW (IW vs UW, 4.3% vs 9.4%, P = 0.001), no different for IW vs OW (4.3% vs 3.7%, P = 0.3), and significantly lower for IW vs OB (4.3% vs 2.8%, P = 0.04) and for IW vs MO (4.3% vs 1.0%, P = 0.03). After traumatic injuries, it is the underweight patients (BMI <19) and not the obese, that are at a significantly higher risk for overall mortality; this difference is especially evident after blunt trauma where obesity may actually confer a protective role.

Thromboelastography Utilization in Delayed Recurrent Coagulopathy after Severe Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Envenomation.

Venomous snakebites are fairly common in the United States and can present with a wide range of symptoms. A 48-year-old man presented after Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake envenomation. His hospital course was complicated by right leg compartment syndrome and delayed recurrent coagulopathy, requiring multiple doses of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) antivenom and transfusions. Thromboelastography was used as an adjunct to standard coagulation studies in monitoring his delayed recurrent coagulopathy.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Incidence, But Not Mortality, Has Decreased Nationwide: A National Trauma Data Bank Study.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence is reported to have decreased in recent years. However, no large-scale study to date has exclusively examined ARDS in the critically injured. We sought to examine the national incidence of ARDS and its associated outcomes exclusively in adult trauma patients. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was queried to evaluate the incidence of ARDS and associated outcomes over a 6-year study period (2007-2012). Included patients were ≥18 years old, with at least one ventilator day, and complications recorded. ARDS-associated outcomes and complications were also analyzed. Mean age increased over the study period (48.1-51.4 years, P < 0.003). ARDS incidence decreased from 21.5 to 8.5 per cent (P < 0.001). Length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit LOS (ICU LOS), and ventilator days decreased over time. Mortality increased from 21.3 to 24.9 per cent (P < 0.002). Incidence of pneumonia and acute kidney injury increased marginally (39.5-40.9% and 11.4-12.3%, respectively). Sepsis trended down from 2007 to 2010, after which comparable NTDB data were not available. ARDS incidence in mechanically ventilated adult trauma patients has decreased significantly in recent years. We theorize this is likely attributable to improved critical care strategies. Unlike ARDS incidence, mortality in this patient population has not improved despite these advancements.

Acute brain injury following illicit drug abuse in adolescent and young adult patients: spectrum of neuroimaging findings.

The use of illicit drugs is currently a major medical problem among adolescents. Several illicit drugs have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic causing high morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestation of adolescents with acute drug-induced neurotoxicity is often characterized by non-specific symptoms and findings. Early diagnosis is important to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. We report on clinical and neuroimaging findings in five adolescents with acute brain imaging following illicit drug intoxication to highlight the role of neuroimaging findings in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric acute drug-induced neurotoxicity. Our patients reveal two main neuroimaging patterns of brain injury: diffuse symmetric subcortical white matter injury with preferential cerebellar involvement (leukoencephalopathy pattern) or multiple foci of ischemic infarctions in a non-arterial territory distribution (ischemic pattern). Familiarity with these two neuroimaging patterns of findings in the evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging studies in adolescents with acutely altered mental status may suggest the correct diagnosis, narrow the differential diagnosis, and consequently allow early initiation of targeted laboratory investigations and treatment, potentially improving outcome.

Muscle contributions to medial tibiofemoral compartment contact loading following ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts.

The muscle-tendon properties of the semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis (GR) are substantially altered following tendon harvest for the purpose of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study adopted a musculoskeletal modelling approach to determine how the changes to the ST and GR muscle-tendon properties alter their contribution to medial compartment contact loading within the tibiofemoral joint in post ACLR patients, and the extent to which other muscles compensate under the same external loading conditions during walking, running and sidestep cutting.

The evolution of cost-efficiency in neural networks during recovery from traumatic brain injury.

A somewhat perplexing finding in the systems neuroscience has been the observation that physical injury to neural systems may result in enhanced functional connectivity (i.e., hyperconnectivity) relative to the typical network response. The consequences of local or global enhancement of functional connectivity remain uncertain and this is particularly true for the overall metabolic cost of the network. We examine the hyperconnectivity hypothesis in a sample of 14 individuals with TBI with data collected at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months following moderate and severe TBI. As anticipated, individuals with TBI showed increased network strength and cost early after injury, but by one-year post injury hyperconnectivity was more circumscribed to frontal DMN and temporal-parietal attentional control regions. Cost in these subregions was a significant predictor of cognitive performance. Cost-efficiency analysis in the Power 264 data parcellation suggested that at 6 months post injury the network requires higher cost connections to achieve high efficiency as compared to the network 12 months post injury. These results demonstrate that networks self-organize to re-establish connectivity while balancing cost-efficiency trade-offs.

Defining the complex phenotype of severe systemic loxoscelism using a large electronic health record cohort.

Systemic loxoscelism is a rare illness resulting from the bite of the recluse spider and, in its most severe form, can lead to widespread hemolysis, coagulopathy, and death. We aim to describe the clinical features and outcomes of the largest known cohort of individuals with moderate to severe loxoscelism.

An in vitro biomechanical evaluation of an expansive double-threaded bi-directional compression screw for fixation of type II odontoid process fractures: A SQUIRE-compliant article.

Odontoid process fracture accounts for 5% to 15% of all cervical spine injuries, and the rate is higher among elderly people. The anterior cannulated screw fixation has been widely used in odontoid process fracture, but the fixation strength may still be limited under some circumstances. This study aims to investigate the biomechanical fixation strength of expansive double-threaded bi-directional compression screw (EDBCS) compared with cannulated lag screw (CLS) and improved Herbert screw (IHS) for fixation of type II odontoid process fracture.Thirty fresh cadaveric C2 vertebrae specimens were harvested and randomly divided into groups A, B, and C. A type II fracture model was simulated by osteotomy. Then the specimens of the 3 groups were stabilized with a single CLS, IHS, or EDBCS, respectively. Each specimen was tested in torsion from 0° to 1.25° for 75 s in each of 5 cycles clockwise and 5 cycles anticlockwise. Shear and tensile forces were applied at the anterior-to-posterior and proximal-to-distal directions, respectively, both to a maximum load of 45 N and at a speed of 1 mm/min.The mean torsional stiffness was 0.309 N m/deg for IHS and 0.389 N m/deg for EDBCS, which were significantly greater compared with CLS, respectively (0.169 N m/deg) (P < .05 and P < .05). The mean shear stiffness for the EDBCS was 238 N/mm, which was significantly greater than CLS (150 N/mm) and IHS (132 N/mm) (P < .05 and P < .05). All 3 screws only partly restored tensile stiffness, but not significantly.Fixation with the EDBCS can improve the biomechanical strength for odontoid process fracture compared with CLS and IHS, especially in terms of torsional and shear stiffness.

Hospital mortality after hip fracture surgery in relation to length of stay by care delivery factors: A database study.

Two hypotheses were offered for the effect of shorter hospital stays on mortality after hip fracture surgery: worsening the quality of care and shifting death occurrence to postacute settings.We tested whether the risk of hospital death after hip fracture surgery differed across years when postoperative stays shortened, and whether care factors moderated the association.Analysis of acute hospital discharge abstracts for subgroups defined by hospital type, bed capacity, surgical volume, and admission time.153,917 patients 65 years or older surgically treated for first hip fracture.Risk of hospital death.We found a decrease in the 30-day risk of hospital death from 7.0% (95%CI: 6.6-7.5) in 2004 to 5.4% (95%CI: 5.0-5.7) in 2012, with an adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.71 (95%CI: 0.63-0.80). In subgroup analysis, only large community hospitals showed the reduction of ORs by calendar year. No trend was observed in teaching and medium community hospitals. By 2012, the risk of death in large higher volume community hospitals was 34% lower for weekend admissions, OR = 0.66 (95%CI: 0.46-0.95) and 39% lower for weekday admissions, OR = 0.61 (95%CI: 0.40-0.91), compared to 2004. In large lower volume community hospitals, the 2012 risk was 56% lower for weekend admissions, OR = 0.44 (95%CI: 0.26-0.75), compared to 2004.The risk of hospital death after hip fracture surgery decreased only in large community hospitals, despite universal shortening of hospital stays. This supports the concern of worsening the quality of hip fracture care due to shorter stays.

The management and surgical intervention timing of enchondromas: A 10-year experience.

Enchondroma, reportedly the most common primary tumor of the long bones of the hand, usually develops during the first till fourth decades of life. However, there has no consensus been reached regarding the surgical intervention timing for these patients. We aim to evaluate the optimal surgical intervention timing for the patients with fractures due to enchondromas, investigate the impact of pathological fractures on the treatment and outcomes in these patients.Medical records and X-rays of patients treated for enchondroma of the hand from 2005 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. We collected 148 cases in total and 92 of them had complete information including X-rays, medical records, and files of follow up.There were no significant differences in terms of consolidation time after surgery, recurrence rate, and DASH scores between the groups with and without fractures; the treatment costs were higher in the group with fractures than those without fractures; however, patients without fractures were able to resume work earlier than those with fractures.The pathological fractures associated with enchondromas have no significant impact on the treatment outcomes compared to those with simple nonfractured enchondromas. Although the cost was more expensive for patients treated primarily with pathological fractures due to enchondromas, these patients could resume their work normally much earlier than those treated by delayed surgery. Early surgical intervention is recommended for better results and no increased risks for patients with pathological fractures caused by enchondromas.

Low complication rate of elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) of pediatric forearm fractures: A retrospective study of 202 cases.

Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has been established as state of the art treatment for forearm fractures in children, if operative stabilization is required. Their use has been expanded to single bone shaft fractures, and also more complex injuries such as Monteggia fractures or Monteggia-like lesions. A wide range of complications has been reported in the literature, up to 70% in certain investigations. The purpose of this study was to assess the complication rate after ESIN treatment of forearm fractures in children and adolescents in a representative cohort of patients from a level 1 trauma center in Germany.Between 2000 and 2015, we retrospectively analyzed all patients, up to the age of 16 years, with forearm fractures, who were operatively treated using ESIN in our department of general and trauma surgery. The main outcome measurements were the rates of postoperative complications after ESIN such as re-fracture, malunion, nonunion, tendon lesion, wound infection, and limited range of motion.In all, 201 consecutive patients with 202 forearm fractures were included in this study. Age averaged 9.7 years (range 3-16 years). Fifteen (7.4%) fractures were open. Fractures were 82.2% diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures. Follow-up averaged 10.2 months (range 0.7-176.3 months). Complications were 10 re-fractures, 2 malunions, 3 extensor pollicis longus tendon ruptures, 1 superficial wound infection, and 2 limited range of motions. Fourteen (6.9%) children required a secondary operative intervention for their complication. Time to implant removal averaged 3.8 months (range 0.4-16.3 months).Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is a minimally invasive and reliable technique with a low complication rate. Both-bone forearm fractures and single bone fractures, and also Monteggia and Monteggia-equivalent fractures can be successfully treated with this method. As a major complication, re-fractures are frequently seen, even with ESIN in situ.

Teriparatide as a nonoperative treatment for tibial and femoral fracture nonunion: A case report.

Fracture nonunion is a great challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Many surgical interventions are associated with significant pain and heavy economic burden. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the outcomes of a new nonoperative treatment for fracture nonunion.

Feasibility and safety of emergency laparoscopic partial splenectomy: A retrospective analysis.

The increased awareness of asplenia-related life-threatening complications has led to the development of parenchyma sparing splenic resections in past few years. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic partial splenectomy (LPS) in selected emergency patients.From January 2013 to December 2015, there were 46 emergency patients, diagnosed with splenic rupture, admitted in our department. Selection criteria for LPS: (1) Preoperative CT scan revealed single pole rupture without spleen pedicle injury; (2) BP>90/60 mm Hg and heart rates <120 bpm; (3) No sigh of multiple organ injury. Eventually, LPS was performed in 21 patients (Group LPS), while laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) was performed in 20 patients (Group LS).The main cause of splenic rupture was traffic accident, followed by blunt injury and high falling injury. Abdominal CT scan showed the mean longitudinal diameter of spleen of group LPS was 14.2 ± 1.8 cm (range 12-17 cm), while the size of remnant spleen was 5.5 ± 1.2 cm. Between 2 groups, operation time (LPS: 122.6 ± 17.2 min vs LS: 110.5 ± 18.7 minutes, P = .117), and intraoperative blood loss (LPS: 174 ± 22 mL vs LS: 169 ± 29 mL, P = .331) were similar. There were 2 patients suffered subsequent unstable vital sign altering during mobilization when performing LPS. Conversion to LS (2/21, 9.52%) was decided and successfully completed. Although there was no patient suffered postoperative OPSI or thrombocytosis events in both groups after 6-month follow-up, the mean platelets and leukocyte count were significantly lower in group LPS. Splenic regrowth was evaluated in 20 patients of group LPS. And the mean regrowth of splenic volume reached 19% (10%-26%).Due to its minimal invasive effect and functional splenic tissue preservation, LPS may be a safe and feasible approach for emergency patients. And prospective trials with clear inclusion criteria are needed to proof the benefit of LPS.

Adolescent with prolonged toxidrome.

A 13-year-old female was presented to the emergency department following an intentional ingestion. The patient developed significant toxicity including multiple, discreet tonic-clonic seizures. Despite appropriate resuscitation and antidotal management, the patient's symptoms persisted for more than 36 hours post-ingestion. An upright abdominal radiograph was performed revealing a radiopacity suggesting a pharmacobezoar. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed with successful removal of a tennis ball-sized pharmacobezoar. The patient's symptoms subsequently subsided and she recovered fully with no neurologic deficits. Diphenhydramine has not been previously identified as a medication likely to form a pharmacobezoar and has not been shown to be radiopaque. Though bezoar formation is a rare clinical scenario, it is one that toxicologists must consider in patients with clinical courses that persist far beyond expected based on known toxicokinetic principles.