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Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Mutations in Fibronectin Cause a Subtype of Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia with "Corner Fractures".

Fibronectin is a master organizer of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and promotes the assembly of collagens, fibrillin-1, and other proteins. It is also known to play roles in skeletal tissues through its secretion by osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and mesenchymal cells. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) comprise a diverse group of skeletal dysplasias and often manifest as short stature, growth-plate irregularities, and vertebral anomalies, such as scoliosis. By comparing the exomes of individuals with SMD with the radiographic appearance of "corner fractures" at metaphyses, we identified three individuals with fibronectin (FN1) variants affecting highly conserved residues. Furthermore, using matching tools and the SkelDys emailing list, we identified other individuals with de novo FN1 variants and a similar phenotype. The severe scoliosis in most individuals and rare developmental coxa vara distinguish individuals with FN1 mutations from those with classical Sutcliffe-type SMD. To study functional consequences of these FN1 mutations on the protein level, we introduced three disease-associated missense variants (p.Cys87Phe [c.260G>T], p.Tyr240Asp [c.718T>G], and p.Cys260Gly [c.778T>G]) into a recombinant secreted N-terminal 70 kDa fragment (rF70K) and the full-length fibronectin (rFN). The wild-type rF70K and rFN were secreted into the culture medium, whereas all mutant proteins were either not secreted or secreted at significantly lower amounts. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated increased intracellular retention of the mutant proteins. In summary, FN1 mutations that cause defective fibronectin secretion are found in SMD, and we thus provide additional evidence for a critical function of fibronectin in cartilage and bone.

Management of patellar fracture with titanium cable cerclage.

Early rehabilitation after surgery for patellar fracture is challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome of titanium cable cerclage for patellar fracture in early functional activity.We reviewed a series of 24 patients treated at our hospital with titanium cable. Functional exercises were started early. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months.Fifteen were males and 9 were females. Fracture occurred in the right knee in 13 patients and in the left knee in 11 patients. The most common mode of injury involves a tumble. None of the patients presented with any postoperative complications. The management resulted in satisfactory outcomes.Titanium cable cerclage offers a new strategy in treating patellar fracture.

Treatment of type II odontoid fracture with a novel technique: Titanium cable-dragged reduction and cantilever-beam internal fixation.

Surgical methods for type II odontoid fracture can be classified into 2 main groups: anterior or posterior approach. A more effective way to achieve bone fusion with the lowest possible surgical risk is needed. Therefore, the aim of our study was to describe and evaluate a novel technique, cable-dragged reduction/cantilever beam internal fixation for the treatment of type II odontoid fracture.This was a retrospective study enrolled 34 patients underwent posterior cable-dragged reduction/cantilever-beam internal fixation surgery. Medical records, rates of reduction, the location of the instrumentation and fracture healing during follow-up were analyzed. Once fracture healing was obtained, instrumentation was removed. Neck pain (scored using a visual analog scale [VAS]), neck stiffness, patient satisfaction, and neck disability index (NDI) were recorded before and after removing the instrumentation during follow-up.The mean duration of follow up was 22.8 ± 5.3 months. There was no iatrogenic damage to nerves or blood vessels. Radiographic evaluation showed complete reduction in the 20 patients with fracture displacement and satisfactory fracture healing in all 34 cases. Titanium cable breakage was observed in 4 patients after fracture healing. After removal of instrumentation, significant improvements were seen in neck-pain VAS score, neck stiffness, patient satisfaction, and NDI (all P < .01).Posterior cable-dragged reduction/cantilever-beam internal fixation was an optimal salvage maneuver to conventional surgical methods such as anterior screw fixation and C1-C2 screw-rod system. The operative difficulty and incidence of nerve and vascular injury were reduced. Its major disadvantage is the exposure and screw-setting at C3, which is left intact in traditional surgery, and it is suitable only for patients with intact C1 posterior arches.

The treatment strategies for spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A case report.

The aim of the study was to explore surgical strategies for effectively treating spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and investigate the postoperative outcomes.

Usability verification of the Emergency Trauma Score (EMTRAS) and Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) in patients with trauma: A retrospective cohort study.

Early estimation of mortality risk in patients with trauma is essential. In this study, we evaluate the validity of the Emergency Trauma Score (EMTRAS) and Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with trauma. Furthermore, we compared the REMS and the EMTRAS with 2 other scoring systems: the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and Injury Severity score (ISS).We performed a retrospective chart review of 6905 patients with trauma reported between July 2011 and June 2016 at a large national university hospital in South Korea. We analyzed the associations between patient characteristics, treatment course, and injury severity scoring systems (ISS, RTS, EMTRAS, and REMS) with in-hospital mortality. Discriminating power was compared between scoring systems using the areas under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. Higher EMTRAS and REMS scores were associated with hospital mortality (P < .001). The ROC curve demonstrated adequate discrimination (AUC = 0.957 for EMTRAS and 0.9 for REMS). After performing AUC analysis followed by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, EMTRAS was significantly superior to REMS and ISS in predicting in-hospital mortality (P < .001), but not significantly different from the RTS (P = .057). The other scoring systems were not significantly different from each other.The EMTRAS and the REMS are simple, accurate predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with trauma.

Ischemic stroke due to intracranial arterial dolichoectasia coexisting with spontaneous dissection of the basilar artery: A case report.

We present a rarely seen case of cerebral infarction due to intracranial dolichoectasia coexisting with spontaneous dissection of the basilar artery. A definition of dolichoectasia, its pathology, and imaging findings, as well as the clinical management and prognosis are briefly reviewed.

Outcome and risk factors associated with extent of central nervous system injury due to exertional heat stroke.

To explore the relationship between the extent of central nervous system (CNS) injury and patient outcomes meanwhile research the potential risk factors associated with neurologic sequelae. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 117 consecutive patients (86 survivors, 31 nonsurvivors) with exertional heat stroke (EHS) who had been admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at 48 Chinese hospitals between April 2003 and July 2015. Extent of CNS injury was dichotomized according to Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score (severe 3-8, not severe 9-15). We then assessed differences in hospital mortality based on the extent of CNS injury by comparing 90-day survival time between the patient groups. Exploring the risk factors of neurologic sequelae. The primary outcomewas the 90-day survival ratewhich differed between the 2 groups (P = .023). The incidence of neurologic sequelae was 24.4%. For its risk factors, duration of recurrent hyperthermia (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.20-2.49, P = .003), duration of CNS injury (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.85, P = .025), and low GCS in the first 24 hours after admission (OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.11-5.15, P = .025) were selected by multivariable logistic regression. Cooling effect was eliminated as a factor (OR = 2641.27, 95% CI 0.40-1.73_107, P = .079). Significant differences in 90-day survival ratewere observed based on the extent of CNS injury in patients with EHS, and incidence was 24.4% for neurologic sequelae. Duration of recurrent hyperthermia, duration of CNS injury, and low GCS score in the first 24 hours following admission may be independent risk factors of neurologic sequelae. Cooling effect should be validated in the further studies.

Risk factors of wound infection after open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures.

The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of wound infection after open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures.In all, 299 patients with 318 calcaneal fractures who underwent open reduction and internal fixation by a single surgeon were grouped according to different outcomes. We gathered the data on each patient including sex, age, injury mechanism, body mass index (BMI), time to operation, fracture type, associated injuries, treatment course, tourniquet time, blood loss, bone graft (yes or no), diabetes (yes or no), smoking history, and complications. Univariate analysis and multivariable analysis were used to determine the association between risk factors and wound infection.Patients who met the entry criteria included 267 males and 32 females with a mean age of 38.6 years. Among them, 5.3% (n = 17) suffered wound infection, and all of the wounds healed after different treatments. According to the univariate analysis, the patients who developed wound infections were active smokers, more obese (higher BMI), had a longer time from injury to operation, and longer tourniquet time. Multivariate analysis indicated that a higher BMI, delayed operation, and active smoking were independent risk factors for wound infection after open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures.Patients with calcaneal fractures who were smokers and had a higher BMI had a high risk of wound infections. We suggested that surgeons wait to operate until swellings of the injured foot improved, and we also suggested the operation should be within 14 days after the injury.

Pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in an adolescent male patient: A case report and literature review.

Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases.

The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures.

Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

Mortality rates of severe traumatic brain injury patients: impact of direct versus nondirect transfers.

Direct transport of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) to trauma centers (TCs) that can provide definitive care results in lower mortality rates. This study investigated the impact of direct versus nondirect transfers on the mortality rates of patients with sTBI.

Shedding new light on rapidly resolving traumatic acute subdural hematomas.

Rapidly resolving acute subdural hematomas (RRASDHs) have been described in case reports and case series but are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that a cohort analysis would confirm previously reported predictors of RRASDH including coagulopathy, additional intracranial hemorrhage, and low-density band on imaging. We also hypothesized that rapid resolution would be associated with improved trauma outcomes.

Repeat computed tomography is highly sensitive in determining need for delayed exploration in blunt abdominal trauma.

Computed tomography (CT) imaging has an established role in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. What is less clear is the role of CT in guiding delayed exploration in patients initially managed nonoperatively after blunt trauma. We hypothesized that a repeat CT would accurately identify the need for an exploratory laparotomy in this patient population.

Hand-to-hand coupling and strategies to minimize unintentional energy transfer during laparoscopic surgery.

Energy-based devices are used in nearly every laparoscopic operation. Radiofrequency energy can transfer to nearby instruments via antenna and capacitive coupling without direct contact. Previous studies have described inadvertent energy transfer through bundled cords and nonelectrically active wires. The purpose of this study was to describe a new mechanism of stray energy transfer from the monopolar instrument through the operating surgeon to the laparoscopic telescope and propose practical measures to decrease the risk of injury.

Sleep Disturbance Following Concussion Is a Risk Factor for a Prolonged Recovery.

Sleep disturbance is a common problem following concussion. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a regional concussion clinic on patients 13 to 18 years of age between 2005 and 2011. Statistical analysis evaluated sleep disturbance and duration of concussion, as well as the use and effectiveness of melatonin. A total of 417 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred twenty-three (34%) reported disturbance in sleep. There was no difference in sleep disturbance based on age, gender, or past number of concussions. Sleep disturbance was associated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in recovery time. Non-sport-related concussions were more likely to be associated with sleep disturbance compared to sport-related concussions (45% vs 29%, P = .01). Melatonin improved sleep disturbance in 67% of the patients. Evaluating sleep disorders following concussion is an important part of the assessment. These findings will help clinicians provide anticipatory guidance and treatment for adolescents recovering from concussion.

Association of Early Outpatient Rehabilitation With Health Service Utilization in Managing Medicare Beneficiaries With Nontraumatic Knee Pain: Retrospective Cohort Study.

Nontraumatic knee pain (NTKP) is highly prevalent in adults 65 years of age and older. Evidence-based guidelines recommend early use of rehabilitation; however, there is limited information comparing differences in health care utilization when rehabilitation is included in the management of NTKP.

Button Magnets in the Nasal Cavity.

Esophageal foreign body ingestion in adults on weekdays and holidays: A retrospective study of 1058 patients.

The purpose of this study is to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of esophageal foreign body (FB) ingestion in adults between weekdays and holidays. This is a retrospective study including 1058 patients with esophageal FB ingestion from 2012 to 2016. Patient characteristics, the types and locations of FB, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients on weekdays and holidays. Furthermore, independent risk factors of complication on weekdays and holidays respectively were evaluated. The locations of FB, underlying diseases, and complications significantly differed between weekdays and holidays groups, while no difference was found in the types of FB. Patients got higher percentage of erosion complication on holidays than that on weekdays (60.8% vs 47.6%, P < .0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that jujube shell was a significant predictor of complication on weekdays (P < .001). However, complication was significantly associated with nonfood bolus FB ingestion on holidays (P < .001). Our data suggest that there were different clinicopathological characteristics of FB ingestion between weekdays and holidays, and more patients got complications on holidays. On holidays, a latex protector hood or an overtube should be applied to patients who swallowed nonfood bolus in order to reduce esophageal mucosal damage.

Oxygen embolism caused by accidental subcutaneous injection of hydrogen peroxide during orthopedic surgery: A case report.

We report a 39-year-old male patient with a fracture of the right acetabulum undergoing open reduction and internal fixation with a plate under general anesthesia. At closure, the surgeons injected 0.75% ropivacaine into the subcutaneous tissue of the incision wound for postoperative analgesia. Soon after injection, subcutaneous emphysema at the injection site and a sudden decrease in end-tidal CO2 tension with crude oscillatory ripples during the alveolar plateau phase were observed. Shortly thereafter, it was found that the surgeons had mistakenly injected hydrogen peroxide instead of ropivacaine. Fortunately, the patient recovered to normal status after 10 minutes. After the surgery, the patient was carefully observed for suspected pulmonary embolism and discharged without complications.

Aggravation of an injured dentato-rubro-thalamic tract in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury: A case report.

We report on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) by follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), and observed for approximately nine monthsby serial diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).

Not All Gustilo Type IIIB Fractures Are Created Equal: Arterial Injury Impacts Limb Salvage Outcomes.

Open tibia fractures are commonly stratified by the Gustilo classification, an orthopedic grading system that does not incorporate the presence of arterial injury when limb perfusion is intact. In the authors' experience, however, the presence of arterial injury appears to negatively impact microsurgical outcomes.

Watch Out for Wild Animals: A Systematic Review of Upper Extremity Injuries Caused by Uncommon Species.

Across the world, many species of nondomesticated animals dwell among humans in metropolitan areas. Rare animal bites pose a dilemma for hand surgeons, as they often result in operative injuries and recalcitrant infections. The authors treated an 85-year-old man who experienced severe cellulitis of the index finger following an opossum bite. This case prompted a systematic review of upper extremity injuries caused by species other than dogs, cats, snakes, and insects.

A Systematic Review of Outcomes after Arthroscopic Débridement for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear.

Evidence regarding the effectiveness of arthroscopic débridement for a triangular fibrocartilage complex tear is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of débridement for triangular fibrocartilage complex tears.

Nerve Transfer versus Interpositional Nerve Graft Reconstruction for Posttraumatic, Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries: A Systematic Review.

The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes between nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures in the setting of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries.

Do Bacteria and Biofilm Play a Role in Double-Capsule Formation around Macrotextured Implants?

The double capsule is a complication mostly described in aggressive macrotextured implants. Mechanical shear stress applied onto an immature periprosthetic capsule has been linked to their formation. The authors aim to demonstrate the role of bacterial phenotype and biofilm in the development of the double capsule.

The role of splenic angioembolization as an adjunct to nonoperative management of blunt splenic injuries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nonoperative management (NOM) of hemodynamically normal patients with blunt splenic injury (BSI) is the standard of care. Guidelines recommend additional splenic angioembolization (SAE) in patients with American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade IV and Grade V BSI, but the role of SAE in Grade III injuries is unclear and controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the safety and effectiveness of SAE as an adjunct to NOM versus NOM alone in adults with BSI.

Association of Prehospital Blood Product Transfusion During Medical Evacuation of Combat Casualties in Afghanistan With Acute and 30-Day Survival.

Prehospital blood product transfusion in trauma care remains controversial due to poor-quality evidence and cost. Sequential expansion of blood transfusion capability after 2012 to deployed military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) units enabled a concurrent cohort study to focus on the timing as well as the location of the initial transfusion.

Substantial vertebral body osteophytes protect against severe vertebral fractures in compression.

Recent findings suggest that vertebral osteophytes increase the resistance of the spine to compression. However, the role of vertebral osteophytes on the biomechanical response of the spine under fast dynamic compression, up to failure, is unclear. Seventeen human spine specimens composed of three vertebrae (from T5-T7 to T11-L1) and their surrounding soft tissues were harvested from nine cadavers, aged 77 to 92 years. Specimens were imaged using quantitative computer tomography (QCT) for medical observation, classification of the intervertebral disc degeneration (Thomson grade) and measurement of the vertebral trabecular density (VTD), height and cross-sectional area. Specimens were divided into two groups (with (n = 9) or without (n = 8) substantial vertebral body osteophytes) and compressed axially at a dynamic displacement rate of 1 m/s, up to failure. Normalized force-displacement curves, videos and QCT images allowed characterizing failure parameters (force, displacement and energy at failure) and fracture patterns. Results were analyzed using chi-squared tests for sampling distributions and linear regression for correlations between VTD and failure parameters. Specimens with substantial vertebral body osteophytes present higher stiffness (2.7 times on average) and force at failure (1.8 times on average) than other segments. The presence of osteophytes significantly influences the location, pattern and type of fracture. VTD was a good predictor of the dynamic force and energy at failure for specimens without substantial osteophytes. This study also showed that vertebral body osteophytes provide a protective mechanism to the underlying vertebra against severe compression fractures.

A cross-sectional study of emergency care utilization and associated costs of violent-related (assault) injuries in the United States.

Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs.

Comparison of percutaneous versus open femoral cutdown access for endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Ruptured endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (REVAR) is being increasingly used to treat ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs). However, the comparison between totally percutaneous (pREVAR) vs femoral cutdown (cREVAR) access for REVAR has not been studied. We used a national surgical database to evaluate the 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing pREVAR vs cREVAR.