A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Firearm-Related Injury and Death: A U.S. Health Care Crisis in Need of Health Care Professionals.

The U.S.-based Editors of ICMJE journals call for health-care professionals to act against the public health crisis of injury and death from guns.

Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis.

Prior research suggests that United States governmental sources documenting the number of law-enforcement-related deaths (i.e., fatalities due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers) undercount these incidents. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), administered by the federal government and based on state death certificate data, identifies such deaths by assigning them diagnostic codes corresponding to "legal intervention" in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10). Newer, nongovernmental databases track law-enforcement-related deaths by compiling news media reports and provide an opportunity to assess the magnitude and determinants of suspected NVSS underreporting. Our a priori hypotheses were that underreporting by the NVSS would exceed that by the news media sources, and that underreporting rates would be higher for decedents of color versus white, decedents in lower versus higher income counties, decedents killed by non-firearm (e.g., Taser) versus firearm mechanisms, and deaths recorded by a medical examiner versus coroner.

Retained Needle Following Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization.

A needle was retained during transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization. This rare complication has not been described before.

Penetrating Vascular Injury: Diagnosis and Management Updates.

Penetrating vascular injury is becoming increasingly common in the United States and abroad. Much of the current research and treatment is derived from wartime and translation to the civilian sector has been lacking. Penetrating vascular injury can be classified as extremity, junctional, or noncompressible. Diagnosis can be obvious but at other times subtle and difficult to diagnose. Although there are numerous modalities, computed tomography angiography is the diagnostic study of choice. It is hoped that care will be improved by using an algorithmic approach integrating experience from military and civilian research.

Extracranial Cervical Artery Dissections.

Cervical artery dissections (CeAD) include both internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. They are rare but important causes of stroke, especially in younger patients. CeAD should be considered in patients with strokelike symptoms, a new-onset headache and/or neck pain, and/or other risk factors. Early imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is key to making the diagnosis. Treatment may vary depending on the extent of the dissection, timing of the dissection, and other comorbidities. The overall prognosis is good, but does depend on the initial severity of symptoms.

Vesical transmigration of an intrauterine contraceptive device: A rare case report and literature review.

Displacement of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is a rare and serious complication of IUD insertion. Theoretically, it can migrate to anywhere in the pelvic and abdominal cavity. However, it is not usual for an IUD to migrate to the bladder.

Conversion of failed hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty: A short-term follow-up study.

Purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients underwent hemiarthroplasty for proximal femoral fracture converted to total hip arthroplasty (THA).A total of 138 patients from October 2009 till October 2014 had conversion of their failed hemiarthroplasties following a proximal femoral fracture to total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Erfan and Milad hospitals, Tehran. We performed a prospective analysis of the outcome of conversion surgery in patients with failed hemiarthroplasty. The patients had clinical evaluations at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and annually thereafter. We used Harris Hip Score (HHS) to evaluate the results of conversion procedure in terms of relief of groin pain and functional improvement.Dislocation occurred in 6 patients (4.34%). The mean period of follow-up was 42 months (range 36-60 months). HHS score improved from mean preoperative score of 44.93 ± 8.40 to 95.41 ± 2.27 at final follow-up. The survivorship analysis with revision of HHS score was 89.1%. Existence of infection (P = .038) and time of primary operation to being symptomatic (P = .009) can predict the postoperative pain significantly.THA is a safe option which can lead to good functional and short-term and mid-term outcomes; and patients should be informed of the possibility of incomplete relief of groin pain or other symptoms postoperatively.

Interfractional Rectal Displacement Requiring Repeated Precaution Did Not Correlate to Biochemical Control and Rectal Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy.

To investigate the correlation between frequency of action level of interfractional rectal displacement requiring repeated precaution in patients with prostate cancer and late toxicity from image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) using helical tomotherapy.

Do Dental X-Rays Induce Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity in Oral Mucosa Cells? A Critical Review.

Dental X-rays are widely used in clinical practice, since the technique is an important approach for diagnosing diseases in dental and periodontal tissues. However, it is widely known that radiation is capable of causing damage to cellular systems, such as genotoxicity or cytotoxicity. Thus, the aim of this review was to present a critical analysis regarding the studies published on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by dental X-rays in oral mucosa cells. Such studies have revealed that some oral cell types are more sensitive than others following exposure to dental X-rays. Certainly, this review will contribute to a better understanding of this matter as well as to highlighting perspectives for further studies. Ultimately, such data will promote better safety for both patients and dental professionals.

Topical Management of Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

To evaluate the efficacy of topical corticosteroids in managing acute radiation dermatitis (RD) in female breast cancer patients.

Characteristics of older adults hospitalised following trauma in the Midland region of New Zealand.

To describe the epidemiology of injuries sustained by older adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in the Midland region (population 886,000) of New Zealand.

The New Zealand Major Trauma Registry: the foundation for a data-driven approach in a contemporary trauma system.

To describe the development of the New Zealand Major Trauma Registry (NZ-MTR) and the initial experiences of its use.

Ten-year experience of splenic trauma in New Zealand: the rise of non-operative management.

The aim of this study was to describe the demographics, mechanisms of injury, management and outcomes in patients who suffered splenic trauma in Christchurch, New Zealand.

T-Score Discordance of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Atypical Femoral Fracture.

Although atypical femoral fracture (AFF) occurs more frequently in patients taking bisphosphonates and longer treatment is associated with higher risk, the causal relationship between AFF and bisphosphonates has not been established. Most patients with AFF have osteoporosis that is being treated with bisphosphonates, but we are not aware of any reports regarding the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and discordance between the T-scores of the femur and spine in such patients. We investigated the prevalence of aBMD discordance and the characteristics of patients with AFF.

The Role of Extra-Articular Tenodesis in Combined ACL and Anterolateral Capsular Injury.

The "gold standard" treatment of anterolateral capsular injuries in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ACL reconstruction and extra-articular reconstruction on joint motion in the ACL-deficient knee and in the combined ACL and anterolateral capsule-deficient knee.

Alterations in Corneal Sensory Nerves During Homeostasis, Aging, and After Injury in Mice Lacking the Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Syndecan-1.

To determine the impact of the loss of syndecan 1 (SDC1) on intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) during homeostasis, aging, and in response to 1.5-mm trephine and debridement injury.

Edaravone Prevents Retinal Degeneration in Adult Mice Following Optic Nerve Injury.

To assess the therapeutic potential of edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is used for the treatment of acute brain infarction and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in a mouse model of optic nerve injury (ONI).

P7C3 Suppresses Neuroinflammation and Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells of Rats from Optic Nerve Crush.

To determine whether P7C3-A20 can inhibit the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), depress neuroinflammation, and protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of rats from optic nerve crush (ONC).

Chronic non-freezing cold injury results in neuropathic pain due to a sensory neuropathy.

Non-freezing cold injury develops after sustained exposure to cold temperatures, resulting in tissue cooling but not freezing. This can result in persistent sensory disturbance of the hands and feet including numbness, paraesthesia and chronic pain. Both vascular and neurological aetiologies of this pain have been suggested but remain unproven. We prospectively approached patients referred for clinical assessment of chronic pain following non-freezing cold injury between 12 February 2014 and 30 November 2016. Of 47 patients approached, 42 consented to undergo detailed neurological evaluations including: questionnaires to detail pain location and characteristics, structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fibre assessment. Of the 42 study participants, all had experienced non-freezing cold injury while serving in the UK armed services and the majority were of African descent (76.2%) and male (95.2%). Many participants reported multiple exposures to cold. The median time between initial injury and referral was 3.72 years. Pain was principally localized to the hands and the feet, neuropathic in nature and in all study participants associated with cold hypersensitivity. Clinical examination and quantitative sensory testing were consistent with a sensory neuropathy. In all cases, large fibre nerve conduction studies were normal. The intraepidermal nerve fibre density was markedly reduced with 90.5% of participants having a count at or below the 0.05 centile of published normative controls. Using the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain grading for neuropathic pain, 100% had probable and 95.2% definite neuropathic pain. Chronic non-freezing cold injury is a disabling neuropathic pain disorder due to a sensory neuropathy. Why some individuals develop an acute painful sensory neuropathy on sustained cold exposure is not yet known, but individuals of African descent appear vulnerable. Screening tools, such as the DN4 questionnaire, and treatment algorithms for neuropathic pain should now be used in the management of these patients.

Cemented total hip arthroplasty following acetabular fracture.

To evaluate the outcomes of cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) following a fracture of the acetabulum, with evaluation of risk factors and comparison with a patient group with no history of fracture.

The association of body mass index with complications and functional outcomes after surgery for closed ankle fractures.

This study assessed the association of classes of body mass index in kg/m(2) (classified as normal weight 18.5 kg/m(2) to 24.9 kg/m(2), overweight 25.0 kg/m(2) to 29.9 kg/m(2), and obese ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) with short-term complications and functional outcomes three to six years post-operatively for closed ankle fractures.

Long-term outcome of carpal tunnel release surgery in patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome.

Few studies have examined the long-term outcome of carpal tunnel release (CTR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient-reported long-term outcome of CTR for electrophysiologically severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

Early unprotected return to contact sport after metacarpal fixation in professional athletes.

To determine whether an early return to sport in professional Australian Rules Football players after fixation of a non-thumb metacarpal fracture was safe and effective.

Appropriate hinge position for prevention of unstable lateral hinge fracture in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

Open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) for medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee can be complicated by intra-operative lateral hinge fracture (LHF). We aimed to establish the relationship between hinge position and fracture types, and suggest an appropriate hinge position to reduce the risk of this complication.

Balanced Resuscitation in Trauma Management.

Over the past decade substantial knowledge has been gained in understanding both the coagulopathy of trauma and the complications associated with aggressive crystalloid-based resuscitation. Balanced resuscitation, which includes permissive hypotension, limiting crystalloid use, and the transfusion of blood products in ratios similar to whole blood, has changed the previous standard of care. Prompt initiation of massive transfusion and the protocolled use of 1:1:1 product ratios have improved the morbidity and mortality of patients with trauma in hemorrhagic shock. Balanced resuscitation minimizes the impact of trauma-induced coagulopathy, limits blood product waste, and reduces the complications that occur with aggressive crystalloid resuscitation.

Assessment and Resuscitation in Trauma Management.

The golden hour of trauma represents a crucial period in the management of acute injury. In an efficient trauma resuscitation, the primary survey is viewed as more than simple ABCs with multiple processes running in parallel. Resuscitation efforts should be goal oriented with defined endpoints for airway management, access, and hemodynamic parameters. In tandem with resuscitation, early identification of life-threatening injuries is critical for determining the disposition of patients when they leave the trauma bay. Salvage strategies for profoundly hypotensive or pulseless patients include retrograde balloon occlusion of the aorta and resuscitative thoracotomy, with differing populations benefiting from each.

Prehospital Assessment of Trauma.

The organization of prehospital care for trauma patients began in the military arena. At the urging of multiple stakeholders and providers, these lessons were applied to the civilian setting and emergency medical services were created across the nation. Advances have taken place in the triage, transport, and management of severely injured patients. Many issues remain in the care of trauma patients in the prehospital environment. Collaboration between stakeholders and providers, regionalization of trauma care, and protocol-driven care may be solutions to some of these issues. Further research is necessary to dictate standard of care in this early phase after injury.

Trauma Systems: Origins, Evolution, and Current Challenges.

Trauma is the leading cause of death among patients 46 years or younger, and having a system in place for the care of the injured is of paramount importance to the health of a community. The growth and development of civilian trauma systems has not been an easy process. The concept of regionalized health care that the trauma system models has been emulated by other specialized and time-sensitive areas of medicine, notably stroke and acute cardiac events. Continued process improvement, public education, support and involvement, a sound infrastructure, and integrated technology should remain our focus.

Trauma Education and Prevention.

Trauma education and injury prevention are essential components of a robust trauma program. Educational programs address specific knowledge gaps and provide focused and structured learning. Advanced Trauma Life Support is the most well-known. Each offering seems to be valid, although it has been difficult to prove improved patient care outcomes owing specifically to any of them. Injury prevention offers the best opportunity to limit death and disability owing to trauma. Injury prevention initiatives have paid tremendous dividends in reducing the mortality rates for motor vehicle crashes. Modern injury prevention efforts focus on reducing distracted driver rates and increasing helmet use.

Radiology for Trauma and the General Surgeon.

Conventional radiography (plain film), ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) are important modalities for the evaluation of patients with trauma. In meta-stable or unstable patients, the combination of chest radiograph, pelvis radiograph, and focused assessment for sonography in trauma (FAST) or extended FAST rapidly triages the torso. CT has become a standard for definitive imaging in blunt trauma. CT angiography is the modality of choice for suspected vascular injuries of the neck and extremities. The impact of ionizing radiation (effective dose) from CT scans may be significant at the population level. Imaging strategies in trauma should be evaluated continuously.