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Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury.

Association of congenital anomalies with fracture of spine, trunk, and upper and lower limbs among young people: A population-based matched cohort study in Taiwan.

According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, congenital anomalies are caused by kidney malfunctions, which decreased the bone quality, and may eventually result in bone fractures. This retrospective cohort study investigated the relationship between congenital anomalies and fracture of spine, trunk, and upper and lower limbs in young people. We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. This study included patients with congenital anomalies (International Classification of Diseases/ICD-9 code: 740-759) and a comparison group of patients without congenital anomalies. Cases evaluated were fracture of spine and trunk (ICD-9 codes: 805-809), fracture of upper limbs (ICD-9 codes: 810-819), and fracture of lower limbs (ICD-9 codes: 820-829). Our study shows that in comparison to the control group, patients with congenital anomalies are 1.11 times more likely to develop fractures. This is the first documented research study that supports the TCM theory that "the Kidney governs the bones, and healthy bones give the body stabilization and prevent fracture."

Risk factors and the surgery affection of respiratory complication and its mortality after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

The aim of this study is to estimate the risk factors of both respiratory complication (RC) and mortality after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (TCSCI). Between July 2005 and July 2015, in 181 patients (142 males and 39 females; mean age 41.0 years) with acute TCSCI, we compared the difference and odds ratio in RC group (n = 73) with that of non-RC group (n = 108), and also death group (n = 15) and survival group (n = 166). We collected injury-related information after half a year of injury, which is as follows: the causes of injury, time of surgery, ICU (intensive care unit) days, ventilator days, ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) classification, neurological injury, CIPS (Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score), and BMI (body mass index). Besides these, we gathered the general information such as age, gender, smoking history, and use of steroids. The study compared perioperative parameters; surgery-related and instrumentation- and graft-related complication rates; clinical parameters; patient satisfaction; and radiologic parameters. Variations like gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.269, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.609-2.646]), smoking history (OR = 2.902, 95% CI [1.564-5.385]), AIS grade (grade A) (OR = 6.439, 95% CI [3.334-12.434]), neurological level (C1-C4) (OR = 2.714, 95% CI [1.458-5.066]), and steroid use (OR = 2.983, 95% CI [1.276-6.969]) have a facilitated effect on RC. When we estimated surgery-related affection, only the time of surgery and anterior approach compared with posterior has significant difference in RC (P < .05). Between death and survival group, the aspect of age, non-surgical, CPIS, AIS grade, and BMI have statistically significant difference. Survival analysis reveals significant difference in aforementioned groups. In patients suffering from acute TCSCI, those who are old, have long smoking history, complete spinal cord injury, C1-C4, high CPIS, and fat have high incidence of RC and mortality.

Percutaneous Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Stenosis Secondary to Radiation Arteritis.

Radiation arteritis is a rare cause of lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusive disease, and has been traditionally treated with open interventions. There have been only a few reported cases of endovascular interventions for this disease. Previous reports described endovascular treatment in the iliac and common femoral regions, but intervention in the superficial femoral artery have not been described. Described here is a case of acute lower extremity ischemia caused by remote radiation arteritis of the superficial femoral artery, which was successfully treated by percutaneous endovascular technique.

Increased Age Predicts Failure to Rescue.

Failure to rescue (FTR), defined as any death after the development of in-hospital complications, is an important quality measure, but the relationship with age after a traumatic injury, has not been well defined. We sought to examine whether older trauma patients are at higher risk for FTR. The National Trauma Databank (NTDB) research datasets 2007 to 2011 were queried for patients ≥16 years who had any reported complication. Those who survived (non-FTR) were compared with those who did not (FTR) using a forward logistic regression model. Overall, 218,986 subjects met inclusion criteria of those, 201,358 (91.2%) survived their complication (non-FTR) and 17,628 (8.8%) died (FTR). A forward logistic regression identified age 65 to 89 years as the strongest predictor of FTR [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.58 (6.11, 7.08), P < 0.001]. Using age group 16 to 45 years as the reference group, the adjusted risk for FTR increased with increasing age in a stepwise fashion [AOR (95 % CI): 1.94 (1.80, 2.09) for age 46 to 65 years, 6.78 (6.19, 7.42) for age 66 to 89 years and 27.58 [21.81, 34.87] for age ≥90 years]. The adjusted risk of FTR also increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing number of complications, reaching AOR (95 per cent CI) of 2.25 (2.07, 2.45), P < 0.001 for ≥4 complications. The risk of failure to rescue increases with age and number of complications. Strategies which track this quality measure to encourage early recognition and treatment of complications in the elderly are necessary.

Use of Antibiotic-Impregnated Absorbable Beads and Tissue Coverage of Complex Wounds.

The treatment of complex wounds is commonplace for plastic surgeons. Standard management is debridement of infected and devitalized tissue and systemic antibiotic therapy. In cases where vital structures are exposed within the wound, coverage is obtained with the use of vascularized tissue using both muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The use of nondissolving polymethylmethacrylate and absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads has been shown to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics with low systemic levels of the same antibiotic. We present a multicenter retrospective review of all cases that used absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads for complex wound management from 2003 to 2013. A total of 104 cases were investigated, flap coverage was used in 97 cases (93.3%). Overall, 15 patients (14.4%) required reoperation with the highest groups involving orthopedic wounds and sternal wounds. The advantages of using absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads in complex infected wounds have been demonstrated with minimal disadvantages. The utilization of these beads is expanding to a variety of complex infectious wounds requiring high concentrations of local antibiotics.

A Comprehensive Investigation of Comorbidities, Mechanisms, Injury Patterns, and Outcomes in Geriatric Blunt Trauma Patients.

The geriatric population is growing and trauma providers are often tasked with caring for injuries in the elderly. There is limited information regarding injury patterns in geriatric trauma patients stratified by mechanism of injury. This study intends to investigate the comorbidities, mechanisms, injury patterns, and outcomes in geriatric blunt trauma patients. A retrospective study of the 2012 National Trauma Databank was performed. Adult blunt trauma patients were identified; geriatric (>/=65) patients were compared with younger (<65) patients regarding admission demographics and vital signs, mechanism and severity of injury, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was injuries sustained and secondary outcomes included mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital, and ventilator days. There were 589,830 blunt trauma patients who met the inclusion criteria, including 183,209 (31%) geriatric and 406,621 (69%) nongeriatric patients. Falls were more common in geriatric patients (79 vs 29%, P < 0.0001). Geriatric patients less often had an Injury Severity Score >/=16 (18 vs 20%, P < 0.0001) but more often a head Abbreviated Injury Scale >/=3 (24 vs 18%, P < 0.0001) and lower extremity Abbreviated Injury Scale >/=3 (24% vs 8%, P < 0.0001). After logistic regression older age was an independent risk factor for mortality for the overall population and across all mechanisms. Falls are the most common mechanism for geriatric trauma patients. Geriatric patients overall present with a lower Injury Severity Score, but more often sustain severe injuries to the head and lower extremities. Injury patterns vary significantly between older and younger patients when stratified by mechanism. Mortality is significantly higher for geriatric trauma patients and older age is independently associated with mortality across all mechanisms.

The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic subdural haematoma.

Correlation of Radiation Pneumonitis History Before Nivolumab with Onset of Interstitial Lung Disease and Progression-free Survival of Patients with Pre-treated Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Nivolumab has a promising efficacy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line or later treatment, and after radiotherapy as abscopal effect. However, the effects of radiation pneumonitis history before nivolumab have not been clarified. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the correlation of a history of radiation pneumonitis before nivolumab with onset of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and progression-free survival (PFS) after nivolumab treatment in patients with previously treated NSCLC.

Management of Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression.

Cancer metastasis is a key event in tumor progression associated not only with mortality but also significant morbidity. Metastatic disease can promote end-organ dysfunction and even failure through mass effect compression of various vital organs including the spinal cord. In such cases, prompt medical attention is needed to restore neurological function, relieve pain, and prevent permanent damage. The three therapeutic approaches to managing metastatic spinal cord compression include corticosteroids, surgery, and radiation therapy. Although each may improve patients' symptoms, their combination has yielded the best outcome. In cancer patients with clinical suspicion of spinal cord compression, dexamethasone should be initiated followed by surgical decompression, when possible, and radiation. The latter becomes the preferred treatment in patients with inoperable disease.

Bruises on the ears and body.

Over the course of a month, this 34-year-old woman had sought care at our facility--and another--on 3 separate occasions for painful bruises (visits #1 and #3) and deep vein thrombosis (visit #2). The bruises first appeared acutely on her arms, prompting her first visit to our ED and leading to a hospital stay. Several weeks later, the patient developed new bruise-like lesions on her earlobes, face, trunk, and lower extremities. In between these 2 visits, the patient was seen in another ED (and admitted) for right upper extremity DVT and was started on enoxaparin, followed by warfarin. The patient had no history of trauma, but did have a 7-year history of cocaine abuse. The initial bruises appeared one week after using cocaine from a different dealer. On her most recent visit, her vitals and physical examination were unremarkable, apart from the skin findings. Her complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, and urinalysis were unremarkable. On her previous admissions, the patient's urine drug test had been positive for cocaine. She'd also tested positive for cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-double stranded DNA, and anticardiolipin IgM. WHAT IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS? HOW WOULD YOU TREAT THIS PATIENT?

Cervical artery dissection related to chiropractic manipulation: One institution's experience.

The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of patients seen at a single institution who were diagnosed with a cervical vessel dissection related to chiropractic neck manipulation.

The use of an anterior pelvic internal fixator to treat disruptions of the anterior pelvic ring: a report of technique, indications and complications.

The anterior pelvic internal fixator is increasingly used for the treatment of unstable, or displaced, injuries of the anterior pelvic ring. The evidence for its use, however, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe the indications for its use, how it is applied and its complications.

The changing face of fractures of the hip in Northern Ireland: a 15-year review.

We reviewed all patients who sustained a fracture of the hip and were treated in Northern Ireland over a period of 15 years to identify trends in incidence, the demographics of the patients, the rates of mortality, the configuration of the fracture and the choice of implant.

Surgery for a fracture of the hip within 24 hours of admission is independently associated with reduced short-term post-operative complications.

We aimed to characterise the effect of expeditious hip fracture surgery in elderly patients within 24 hours of admission on short-term post-operative outcomes.

Sliding hip screw versus the Targon PFT nail for trochanteric hip fractures: a randomised trial of 400 patients.

To compare the outcomes for trochanteric fractures treated with a sliding hip screw (SHS) or a cephalomedullary nail.

Mid-term outcomes of 77 modular radial head prostheses.

Radial head arthroplasty (RHA) may be used in the treatment of non-reconstructable radial head fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical and radiographic results of RHA.

Contemporary acetabular fracture surgery: treading water or swimming upstream?

In the time since Letournel popularised the surgical treatment of acetabular fractures, more than 25 years ago, there have been many changes within the field, related to patients, surgical technique, implants and post-operative care. However, the long-term outcomes appear largely unchanged. Does this represent stasis or have the advances been mitigated by other negative factors? In this article we have attempted to document the recent changes within the surgery of patients with a fracture involving the acetabulum, outline contemporary management, and identify the major problem areas where further research is most needed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1125-31.

Media accounts of unintentional child injury deaths in New Zealand: a teachable moment?

To review media accounts of fatal child unintentional injury events reported in leading New Zealand newspapers for their completeness and potential to deliver evidence-based injury prevention messages.

Alcohol or Drug Use and Trauma Recidivism.

Alcohol, illicit drugs, and psychotropic medications are well-known causes of traumatic events. However, the association of each type of substance with trauma recidivism remains unclear.

An injury mortality prediction based on the anatomic injury scale.

To determine whether the injury mortality prediction (IMP) statistically outperforms the trauma mortality prediction model (TMPM) as a predictor of mortality.The TMPM is currently the best trauma score method, which is based on the anatomic injury. Its ability of mortality prediction is superior to the injury severity score (ISS) and to the new injury severity score (NISS). However, despite its statistical significance, the predictive power of TMPM needs to be further improved.Retrospective cohort study is based on the data of 1,148,359 injured patients in the National Trauma Data Bank hospitalized from 2010 to 2011. Sixty percent of the data was used to derive an empiric measure of severity of different Abbreviated Injury Scale predot codes by taking the weighted average death probabilities of trauma patients. Twenty percent of the data was used to create computing method of the IMP model. The remaining 20% of the data was used to evaluate the statistical performance of IMP and then be compared with the TMPM and the single worst injury by examining area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) statistic, and the Akaike information criterion.IMP exhibits significantly both better discrimination (ROC-IMP, 0.903 [0.899-0.907] and ROC-TMPM, 0.890 [0.886-0.895]) and calibration (HL-IMP, 9.9 [4.4-14.7] and HL-TMPM, 197 [143-248]) compared with TMPM. All models show slight changes after the extension of age, gender, and mechanism of injury, but the extended IMP still dominated TMPM in every performance.The IMP has slight improvement in discrimination and calibration compared with the TMPM and can accurately predict mortality. Therefore, we consider it as a new feasible scoring method in trauma research.

Effect of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for treating patients with chronic rotator cuff tendonitis.

This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) for treating patients with chronic rotator cuff tendonitis (CRCT).

The influences of cognitive appraisal, physical injury, coping strategy, and forgiveness of others on PTSD symptoms in traffic accidents using hierarchical linear modeling.

The purpose of this study was to identify how physical injury, perceived threat, forgiveness of others, and problem-focused coping influence the change of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred twenty patients who had experienced a traumatic vehicle accident participated in 1 to 2 months after the accident; 70 of these people involved at 6 months after the accident. We used a hierarchical linear model analysis to verify the impacts of predictors on change of PTSD symptoms as time passed. The results showed that PTSD symptoms decreased over time, and greater perceived threat would worsen PTSD symptoms and more forgiveness would decrease PTSD symptoms. On the other hand problem-focused coping and physical injury severity were not significantly related to the PTSD symptoms. Specifically, greater perceived threat was found to be related with a deceleration of the decrease in PTSD symptoms, whereas greater forgiveness of others was associated with an acceleration of this decrease. However, problem-focused coping and physical injury severity had no influence on the change rate of PTSD symptoms. Cognitive variable could be more important than physical injury to understand PTSD. In addition, forgiveness of other in a traumatic situation needs to be considered as one of coping strategies.

Rotator cuff surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: clinical outcome comparable to age, sex and tear size matched non-rheumatoid patients.

Aims This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of rotator cuff repair in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with those of patients who have no known history of the disease. We hypothesised that the functional outcomes are comparable between patients and without rheumatoid arthritis and may be affected by the level of disease activity, as assessed from C-reactive protein (CRP) level and history of systemic steroid intake. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of the institutional surgical database from May 1995 to April 2012. Twenty-nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had rotator cuff repair were enrolled as the study group. Age, sex, and tear size matched patients with no disease who were selected as the control group. The mean duration of follow-up was 46 months (range 24-92 months). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire, Constant score and visual analogue scale (VAS). All data were recorded preoperatively and at regular postoperative follow-up visits. CRP was measured preoperatively as the disease activity marker for rheumatoid arthritis. Medication history was thoroughly reviewed in the study group. Results In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, all shoulder functional scores improved after surgery (ASES 56.1-78.1, Constant 50.8-70.5 and VAS 5.2-2.5; P < 0.001). The functional outcome of surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was comparable to that of the control group (difference with control: ASES 78.1 vs. 85.5, P = 0.093; Constant 70.5 vs. 75.9, P = 0.366; VAS 2.5 vs. 1.8, P = 0.108). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an elevated CRP level (> 1 mg/dl) showed inferior clinical outcomes than those with normal CRP levels. Patients with a history of systemic steroid intake showed inferior functional outcomes than those who had not taken steroids. Conclusions Surgical intervention for rotator cuff tear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis improved the shoulder functional outcome comparable to that in matched patients without rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated preoperative CRP level and history of systemic steroid intake portend inferior functional outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Incidental finding of a persistent median artery (palmar type) during a routine carpal tunnel decompression: a case report.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterised by compression of the median nerve. The mainstay of treatment is surgical decompression. This case report highlights the occurrence of a persistent median artery, which could complicate surgery. A 55-year-old woman underwent carpal tunnel decompression. An incidental finding of a large-calibre persistent median artery, which was superficial to the flexor sheath, could have been damaged. This was carefully retracted and the procedure was completed, without any complications. Several studies have shown the prevalence of persistent median artery to range from 1.1-27.1%. It is usually found deep to the flexor retinaculum but in this case it was found to be just beneath the palmar fascia. There is increased chance of iatrogenic injury with this particular variant. Surgeons performing the procedure should be mindful of this variation, because accidental damage could result in devastating consequences to the hand.

The effect of systematic factors on the outcome of trauma laparotomy at a major trauma centre in South Africa.

Introduction The aim of this study was to examine and interrogate outcomes in trauma laparotomy in a South African trauma centre to determine whether systematic factors were associated with any discrepancies in outcome. Methods This was a retrospective review of a prospectively entered trauma registry undertaken at the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. The service has developed a hybrid electronic medical record system (HEMR) where clinical data were captured in real time, which were incorporated this into a database. Results During the period from December 2012 to July 2016, 562 patients underwent emergency laparotomy for trauma and the time and date of surgery was recorded in the HEMR. The mean age of all patients was 29.5 years. There were 256 operations during the weekend or over a public holiday, with a mortality of 8% (n = 21) compared with 306 during the week (mortality of 10%, n = 31). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.237). A total of 327 operations were performed at night (18:00 - 08:00) and 235 operations were performed during the day (08:00-18:00 Hours). This was a significant difference in mortality (10% (33) vs 7 % (16), P=0.013) These differences persisted if weekends and public holidays were separated out from normal working days. A total of 188 operations were performed on a week night, with a mortality of 11% (n = 20) and 121 operations were performed during a week day, with a mortality of 8% (n = 10). There were 139 operations on a weekend or public holiday night, with a mortality of 9% (n = 13). A total of 114 operations were performed on a weekend or public holiday day with a mortality of 7% (n = 8). A total of 208 procedures were performed with an consultant present. Of these, 32 patients (15%) died. A total of 368 procedures were performed without a consultant present and 8 (2%) died. Conclusions This study demonstrated a discrepancy in outcome for trauma laparotomy, depending on whether the operation was performed at night or during the day. The reasons for this are unclear, although the lack of consultant presence at night in comparison to during the day appears to be implicated.

Allogeneic Descemet's Membrane Transplantation Enhances Corneal Endothelial Monolayer Formation and Restores Functional Integrity Following Descemet's Stripping.

To characterize the differences in corneal endothelial wound healing in the presence or absence of Descemet's membrane (DM), in vivo.

Imaging of Groin Pain: Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging Features.

Evaluation of groin pain in athletes may be challenging as pain is typically poorly localized and the pubic symphyseal region comprises closely approximated tendons and muscles. As such, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) may help determine the etiology of groin pain.

Comparison of direct site endovascular repair utilizing expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent grafts versus standard vascular shunts in a porcine (Sus scrofa) model.

The small diameter of temporary vascular shunts for vascular trauma management may restrict flow and result in ischemia or early thrombosis. We have previously reported a clinical experience with direct, open surgical reconstruction using expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent grafts to create a "sutureless" anastomosis as an alternative to standard temporary vascular shunts. We sought to characterize patency and flow characteristics of these grafts compared with standard shunts in a survival model of porcine vascular injury.

Rotational thromboelastometry significantly optimizes transfusion practices for damage control resuscitation in combat casualties.

Up to 40% of combat casualties with a truncal injury die of massive hemorrhage before reaching a surgeon. This hemorrhage can be prevented with damage control resuscitation (DCR) methods, which are focused on replacing shed whole blood by empirically transfusing blood components in a 1:1:1:1 ratio of platelets:fresh frozen plasma:erythrocytes:cryoprecipitate (PLT:FFP:RBC:CRYO). Measurement of hemostatic function with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) may allow optimization of the type and quantity of blood products transfused. Our hypothesis was that incorporating ROTEM measurements into DCR methods at the US Role 3 hospital at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan would change the standard transfusion ratios of 1:1:1:1 to a product mix tailored specifically for the combat causality.