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Lipid and fatty acid profiles in rats consuming different high-fat ketogenic diets.

Abstract High-fat ketogenic diets are used to treat intractable seizures in children, but little is known of the mechanism by which these diets work or whether fats rich in n-3 polyunsaturates might be beneficial. Tissue lipid and fatty acid profiles were determined in rats consuming very high fat (80 weight%), low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets containing either medium-chain triglyceride, flaxseed oil, butter, or an equal combination of these three fat sources. Ketogenic diets containing butter markedly raised liver triglyceride but had no effect on plasma cholesterol. Unlike the other fats, flaxseed oil in the ketogenic diet did not raise brain cholesterol. Brain total and free fatty acid profiles remained similar in all groups, but there was an increase in the proportion of arachidonate in brain total lipids in the medium-chain triglyceride group, while the two groups consuming flaxseed oil had significantly lower arachidonate in brain, liver, and plasma. The very high dietary intake of alpha-linolenate in the flaxseed group did not change docosahexaenoate levels in the brain. Our previous report based on these diets showed that although ketosis is higher in rats consuming a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil, seizure resistance in the pentylenetetrazol model is not clearly related to the degree of ketosis achieved. In combination with our present data from the same seizure study, it appears that ketogenic diets with widely differing effects on tissue lipids and fatty acid profiles can confer a similar amount of seizure protection.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title lipids
Publication Year Start




PMID- 11383688
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20011204
LR  - 20171105
IS  - 0024-4201 (Print)
IS  - 0024-4201 (Linking)
VI  - 36
IP  - 4
DP  - 2001 Apr
TI  - Lipid and fatty acid profiles in rats consuming different high-fat ketogenic
      diets.
PG  - 373-8
AB  - High-fat ketogenic diets are used to treat intractable seizures in children, but 
      little is known of the mechanism by which these diets work or whether fats rich
      in n-3 polyunsaturates might be beneficial. Tissue lipid and fatty acid profiles 
      were determined in rats consuming very high fat (80 weight%), low-carbohydrate
      ketogenic diets containing either medium-chain triglyceride, flaxseed oil,
      butter, or an equal combination of these three fat sources. Ketogenic diets
      containing butter markedly raised liver triglyceride but had no effect on plasma 
      cholesterol. Unlike the other fats, flaxseed oil in the ketogenic diet did not
      raise brain cholesterol. Brain total and free fatty acid profiles remained
      similar in all groups, but there was an increase in the proportion of
      arachidonate in brain total lipids in the medium-chain triglyceride group, while 
      the two groups consuming flaxseed oil had significantly lower arachidonate in
      brain, liver, and plasma. The very high dietary intake of alpha-linolenate in the
      flaxseed group did not change docosahexaenoate levels in the brain. Our previous 
      report based on these diets showed that although ketosis is higher in rats
      consuming a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil, seizure
      resistance in the pentylenetetrazol model is not clearly related to the degree of
      ketosis achieved. In combination with our present data from the same seizure
      study, it appears that ketogenic diets with widely differing effects on tissue
      lipids and fatty acid profiles can confer a similar amount of seizure protection.
FAU - Dell, C A
AU  - Dell CA
AD  - Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto,
      Canada.
FAU - Likhodii, S S
AU  - Likhodii SS
FAU - Musa, K
AU  - Musa K
FAU - Ryan, M A
AU  - Ryan MA
FAU - Burnham, W M
AU  - Burnham WM
FAU - Cunnane, S C
AU  - Cunnane SC
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL  - Germany
TA  - Lipids
JT  - Lipids
JID - 0060450
RN  - 0 (Dietary Carbohydrates)
RN  - 0 (Dietary Fats)
RN  - 0 (Fatty Acids)
RN  - 0 (Ketone Bodies)
RN  - 0 (Lipids)
RN  - 0 (Phospholipids)
RN  - 0 (Triglycerides)
RN  - 27YG812J1I (Arachidonic Acid)
RN  - 8001-26-1 (Linseed Oil)
RN  - 8029-34-3 (Butter)
RN  - 97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Arachidonic Acid/analysis/blood
MH  - Brain Chemistry
MH  - Butter
MH  - Cholesterol/analysis/blood
MH  - Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage
MH  - Dietary Fats/*administration & dosage
MH  - Fatty Acids/*analysis/blood
MH  - Ketone Bodies/*biosynthesis
MH  - Linseed Oil/administration & dosage
MH  - Lipids/*analysis/blood
MH  - Liver/chemistry
MH  - Male
MH  - Phospholipids/analysis
MH  - Rats
MH  - Rats, Wistar
MH  - Triglycerides/administration & dosage/analysis
EDAT- 2001/06/01 10:00
MHDA- 2002/01/05 10:01
CRDT- 2001/06/01 10:00
PHST- 2001/06/01 10:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2002/01/05 10:01 [medline]
PHST- 2001/06/01 10:00 [entrez]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Lipids. 2001 Apr;36(4):373-8.