PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.

Abstract There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.
PMID
Related Publications

Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

Emerging viral diseases and infectious disease risks.

Public health threat of new, reemerging, and neglected zoonoses in the industrialized world.

The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.

Bats and emerging zoonoses: henipaviruses and SARS.

Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Zoonoses

Keywords
Journal Title revue scientifique et technique (international office of epizootics)
Publication Year Start
%A Bengis, R. G.; Leighton, F. A.; Fischer, J. R.; Artois, M.; M?rner, T.; Tate, C. M.
%T The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.
%J Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 497-511
%D 08/2004
%V 23
%N 2
%M eng
%B There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.
%K Animals, Animals, Domestic, Animals, Wild, Communicable Diseases, Emerging, Disease Reservoirs, Environment, Global Health, Humans, Population Density, Population Dynamics, Species Specificity, Zoonoses
%P 497
%L 511
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2004.......23..497B

@Article{Bengis2004,
author="Bengis, R. G.
and Leighton, F. A.
and Fischer, J. R.
and Artois, M.
and M{\"o}rner, T.
and Tate, C. M.",
title="The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.",
journal="Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)",
year="2004",
month="Aug",
volume="23",
number="2",
pages="497--511",
keywords="Animals",
keywords="Animals, Domestic",
keywords="Animals, Wild",
keywords="Communicable Diseases, Emerging",
keywords="Disease Reservoirs",
keywords="Environment",
keywords="Global Health",
keywords="Humans",
keywords="Population Density",
keywords="Population Dynamics",
keywords="Species Specificity",
keywords="Zoonoses",
abstract="There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.",
issn="0253-1933",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15702716",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.
%A Bengis, R. G.
%A Leighton, F. A.
%A Fischer, J. R.
%A Artois, M.
%A M?rner, T.
%A Tate, C. M.
%J Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
%D 2004
%8 Aug
%V 23
%N 2
%@ 0253-1933
%G eng
%F Bengis2004
%X There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.
%K Animals
%K Animals, Domestic
%K Animals, Wild
%K Communicable Diseases, Emerging
%K Disease Reservoirs
%K Environment
%K Global Health
%K Humans
%K Population Density
%K Population Dynamics
%K Species Specificity
%K Zoonoses
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15702716
%P 497-511

PT Journal
AU Bengis, RG
   Leighton, FA
   Fischer, JR
   Artois, M
   M?rner, T
   Tate, CM
TI The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.
SO Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
JI Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot.
PD Aug
PY 2004
BP 497
EP 511
VL 23
IS 2
LA eng
DE Animals; Animals, Domestic; Animals, Wild; Communicable Diseases, Emerging; Disease Reservoirs; Environment; Global Health; Humans; Population Density; Population Dynamics; Species Specificity; Zoonoses
AB There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.
ER

PMID- 15702716
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20050210
DCOM- 20050616
LR  - 20141120
IS  - 0253-1933 (Print)
IS  - 0253-1933 (Linking)
VI  - 23
IP  - 2
DP  - 2004 Aug
TI  - The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.
PG  - 497-511
AB  - There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the
      diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a
      kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and
      invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive 
      array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild 
      animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent
      decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural
      production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of 
      these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal
      factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human
      activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the
      increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in 
      human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural
      practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic
      animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild
      hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two 
      different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are
      evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual
      transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred,
      human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or
      permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are
      human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A,
      Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct 
      or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human
      infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen
      and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this 
      pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West 
      Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia,
      leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources 
      all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors
      discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these
      zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range,
      variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail
      in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.
FAU - Bengis, R G
AU  - Bengis RG
AD  - Veterinary Investigation Centre, PO Box 12, Skukuza, Kruger National Park, 1350, 
      South Africa.
FAU - Leighton, F A
AU  - Leighton FA
FAU - Fischer, J R
AU  - Fischer JR
FAU - Artois, M
AU  - Artois M
FAU - Morner, T
AU  - Morner T
FAU - Tate, C M
AU  - Tate CM
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
PL  - France
TA  - Rev Sci Tech
JT  - Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
JID - 8712301
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Animals, Domestic/*microbiology/parasitology/virology
MH  - Animals, Wild/*microbiology/parasitology/virology
MH  - Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology/*transmission
MH  - Disease Reservoirs/*veterinary
MH  - Environment
MH  - Global Health
MH  - Humans
MH  - Population Density
MH  - Population Dynamics
MH  - Species Specificity
MH  - *Zoonoses
RF  - 62
EDAT- 2005/02/11 09:00
MHDA- 2005/06/17 09:00
CRDT- 2005/02/11 09:00
PST - ppublish
SO  - Rev Sci Tech. 2004 Aug;23(2):497-511.
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bengis, R. G.
AU  - Leighton, F. A.
AU  - Fischer, J. R.
AU  - Artois, M.
AU  - M?rner, T.
AU  - Tate, C. M.
PY  - 2004/Aug/
TI  - The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.
T2  - Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot.
JO  - Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
SP  - 497
EP  - 511
VL  - 23
IS  - 2
KW  - Animals
KW  - Animals, Domestic
KW  - Animals, Wild
KW  - Communicable Diseases, Emerging
KW  - Disease Reservoirs
KW  - Environment
KW  - Global Health
KW  - Humans
KW  - Population Density
KW  - Population Dynamics
KW  - Species Specificity
KW  - Zoonoses
N2  - There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.
SN  - 0253-1933
UR  - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15702716
ID  - Bengis2004
ER  - 
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<b:Sources SelectedStyle="" xmlns:b="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography"  xmlns="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography" >
<b:Source>
<b:Tag>Bengis2004</b:Tag>
<b:SourceType>ArticleInAPeriodical</b:SourceType>
<b:Year>2004</b:Year>
<b:Month>Aug</b:Month>
<b:PeriodicalName>Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)</b:PeriodicalName>
<b:Volume>23</b:Volume>
<b:Issue>2</b:Issue>
<b:Pages>497-511</b:Pages>
<b:Author>
<b:Author><b:NameList>
<b:Person><b:Last>Bengis</b:Last><b:First>R</b:First><b:Middle>G</b:Middle></b:Person>
<b:Person><b:Last>Leighton</b:Last><b:First>F</b:First><b:Middle>A</b:Middle></b:Person>
<b:Person><b:Last>Fischer</b:Last><b:First>J</b:First><b:Middle>R</b:Middle></b:Person>
<b:Person><b:Last>Artois</b:Last><b:First>M</b:First></b:Person>
<b:Person><b:Last>M&#246;rner</b:Last><b:First>T</b:First></b:Person>
<b:Person><b:Last>Tate</b:Last><b:First>C</b:First><b:Middle>M</b:Middle></b:Person>
</b:NameList></b:Author>
</b:Author>
<b:Title>The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.</b:Title>
 <b:ShortTitle>Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot.</b:ShortTitle>
<b:Comments>There are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. Each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. Infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial impacts on human health, agricultural production, wildlife-based economies and wildlife conservation. The emergence of these pathogens as significant health issues is associated with a range of causal factors, most of them linked to the sharp and exponential rise of global human activity. Among these causal factors are the burgeoning human population, the increased frequency and speed of local and international travel, the increase in human-assisted movement of animals and animal products, changing agricultural practices that favour the transfer of pathogens between wild and domestic animals, and a range of environmental changes that alter the distribution of wild hosts and vectors and thus facilitate the transmission of infectious agents. Two different patterns of transmission of pathogens from wild animals to humans are evident among these emerging zoonotic diseases. In one pattern, actual transmission of the pathogen to humans is a rare event but, once it has occurred, human-to-human transmission maintains the infection for some period of time or permanently. Some examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission are human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the second pattern, direct or vector-mediated animal-to-human transmission is the usual source of human infection. Wild animal populations are the principal reservoirs of the pathogen and human-to-human disease transmission is rare. Examples of pathogens with this pattern of transmission include rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. These zoonotic diseases from wild animal sources all have trends that are rising sharply upwards. In this paper, the authors discuss the causal factors associated with the emergence or re-emergence of these zoonoses, and highlight a selection to provide a composite view of their range, variety and origins. However, most of these diseases are covered in more detail in dedicated papers elsewhere in this Review.</b:Comments>
</b:Source>
</b:Sources>