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Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant mortality and interbirth interval.

Abstract Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13 births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was 15.8%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5) and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant mortality in Trachypithecus.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Animals, Newborn

Mortality

Seasons

Keywords
Journal Title american journal of primatology
Publication Year Start
%A Jin, Tong; Wang, De-Zhi; Zhao, Qing; Yin, Li-Jie; Qin, Da-Gong; Ran, Wen-Zhong; Pan, Wen-Shi
%T Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant mortality and interbirth interval.
%J American journal of primatology, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 558-566
%D 07/2009
%V 71
%N 7
%M eng
%B Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13 births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was 15.8%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5) and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant mortality in Trachypithecus.
%K Age Factors, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Cercopithecidae, China, Conservation of Natural Resources, Demography, Mortality, Parturition, Reproduction, Seasons
%P 558
%L 566
%Y 10.1002/ajp.20688
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2009.......71..558J

@Article{Jin2009,
author="Jin, Tong
and Wang, De-Zhi
and Zhao, Qing
and Yin, Li-Jie
and Qin, Da-Gong
and Ran, Wen-Zhong
and Pan, Wen-Shi",
title="Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant mortality and interbirth interval.",
journal="American journal of primatology",
year="2009",
month="Jul",
volume="71",
number="7",
pages="558--566",
keywords="Age Factors",
keywords="Animals",
keywords="Animals, Newborn",
keywords="Cercopithecidae",
keywords="China",
keywords="Conservation of Natural Resources",
keywords="Demography",
keywords="Mortality",
keywords="Parturition",
keywords="Reproduction",
keywords="Seasons",
abstract="Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13 births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was 15.8\%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5) and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant mortality in Trachypithecus.",
issn="1098-2345",
doi="10.1002/ajp.20688",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367607",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant mortality and interbirth interval.
%A Jin, Tong
%A Wang, De-Zhi
%A Zhao, Qing
%A Yin, Li-Jie
%A Qin, Da-Gong
%A Ran, Wen-Zhong
%A Pan, Wen-Shi
%J American journal of primatology
%D 2009
%8 Jul
%V 71
%N 7
%@ 1098-2345
%G eng
%F Jin2009
%X Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13 births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was 15.8%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5) and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant mortality in Trachypithecus.
%K Age Factors
%K Animals
%K Animals, Newborn
%K Cercopithecidae
%K China
%K Conservation of Natural Resources
%K Demography
%K Mortality
%K Parturition
%K Reproduction
%K Seasons
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20688
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367607
%P 558-566

PT Journal
AU Jin, T
   Wang, D
   Zhao, Q
   Yin, L
   Qin, D
   Ran, W
   Pan, W
TI Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant mortality and interbirth interval.
SO American journal of primatology
JI Am. J. Primatol.
PD Jul
PY 2009
BP 558
EP 566
VL 71
IS 7
DI 10.1002/ajp.20688
LA eng
DE Age Factors; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Cercopithecidae; China; Conservation of Natural Resources; Demography; Mortality; Parturition; Reproduction; Seasons
AB Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13 births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was 15.8%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5) and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant mortality in Trachypithecus.
ER

PMID- 19367607
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20090603
DCOM- 20090831
IS  - 1098-2345 (Electronic)
IS  - 0275-2565 (Linking)
VI  - 71
IP  - 7
DP  - 2009 Jul
TI  - Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant
      mortality and interbirth interval.
PG  - 558-66
LID - 10.1002/ajp.20688 [doi]
AB  - Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital 
      for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation
      measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive
      parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on 
      demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in
      Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births
      were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred
      throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal
      variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the
      dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13
      births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was
      15.8%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal
      groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5)
      and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n 
      = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant
      loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose
      infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs
      is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions
      was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters
      for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for
      other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant
      mortality in Trachypithecus.
CI  - (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
FAU - Jin, Tong
AU  - Jin T
AD  - Giant Panda and Wildlife Conservation Research Center, School of Life Sciences,
      Peking University, Beijing, China. [email protected]
FAU - Wang, De-Zhi
AU  - Wang DZ
FAU - Zhao, Qing
AU  - Zhao Q
FAU - Yin, Li-Jie
AU  - Yin LJ
FAU - Qin, Da-Gong
AU  - Qin DG
FAU - Ran, Wen-Zhong
AU  - Ran WZ
FAU - Pan, Wen-Shi
AU  - Pan WS
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL  - United States
TA  - Am J Primatol
JT  - American journal of primatology
JID - 8108949
SB  - IM
MH  - Age Factors
MH  - Animals
MH  - *Animals, Newborn
MH  - Cercopithecidae/*physiology
MH  - China
MH  - Conservation of Natural Resources/methods
MH  - Demography
MH  - *Mortality
MH  - Parturition/*physiology
MH  - Reproduction/*physiology
MH  - *Seasons
EDAT- 2009/04/16 09:00
MHDA- 2009/09/01 06:00
CRDT- 2009/04/16 09:00
AID - 10.1002/ajp.20688 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Am J Primatol. 2009 Jul;71(7):558-66. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20688.
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Jin, Tong
AU  - Wang, De-Zhi
AU  - Zhao, Qing
AU  - Yin, Li-Jie
AU  - Qin, Da-Gong
AU  - Ran, Wen-Zhong
AU  - Pan, Wen-Shi
PY  - 2009/Jul/
TI  - Reproductive parameters of wild Trachypithecus leucocephalus: seasonality, infant mortality and interbirth interval.
T2  - Am. J. Primatol.
JO  - American journal of primatology
SP  - 558
EP  - 566
VL  - 71
IS  - 7
KW  - Age Factors
KW  - Animals
KW  - Animals, Newborn
KW  - Cercopithecidae
KW  - China
KW  - Conservation of Natural Resources
KW  - Demography
KW  - Mortality
KW  - Parturition
KW  - Reproduction
KW  - Seasons
N2  - Understanding the reproductive parameters of endangered primate species is vital for evaluating the status of populations and developing adequate conservation measures. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive parameters of wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), based on demographic data collected over an 8-year period in the Nongguan Karst Hills in Chongzuo County, Guangxi, China. From 1998 to 2002, a total of 133 live births were recorded in the population based on systematic censuses. Births occurred throughout the year, but the temporal pattern was highly correlated with seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, with the birth peak coinciding with the dry and cold months of November-March. The average birthrate was 0.47+/-0.13 births per female per year and mortality for infants younger than 20 months was 15.8%. From 1998 to 2006, 14 females gave birth to 41 infants in four focal groups. The average age at first birth for female langurs was 5-6 years (n = 5) and the interbirth interval (IBI) was 23.2+/-5.2 months (median = 24.5 months, n = 27). Infants are weaned at 19-21 months of age. The IBI for females with infant loss before weaning was significantly shorter than those for females whose infants survived. It appears that birth seasonality in the white-headed langurs is influenced by seasonal changes in food availability. The timing of conceptions was found to coincide with peak food availability. The reproductive parameters for white-headed langurs reported here are quite similar to those reported for other colobine species. One major difference is our observation of lower infant mortality in Trachypithecus.
SN  - 1098-2345
UR  - http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20688
UR  - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367607
ID  - Jin2009
ER  - 
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