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Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.

Abstract Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Parturition

Keywords
Journal Title biology letters
Publication Year Start
%A Hirata, Satoshi; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Takeshita, Hideko
%T Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.
%J Biology letters, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 686-688
%D 10/2011
%V 7
%N 5
%M eng
%B Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.
%K Animals, Female, Humans, Pan troglodytes, Parturition, Pregnancy
%P 686
%L 688
%Y 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2011........7..686H

@Article{Hirata2011,
author="Hirata, Satoshi
and Fuwa, Koki
and Sugama, Keiko
and Kusunoki, Kiyo
and Takeshita, Hideko",
title="Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.",
journal="Biology letters",
year="2011",
month="Oct",
day="23",
volume="7",
number="5",
pages="686--688",
keywords="Animals",
keywords="Female",
keywords="Humans",
keywords="Pan troglodytes",
keywords="Parturition",
keywords="Pregnancy",
abstract="Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.",
issn="1744-957X",
doi="10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508028",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.
%A Hirata, Satoshi
%A Fuwa, Koki
%A Sugama, Keiko
%A Kusunoki, Kiyo
%A Takeshita, Hideko
%J Biology letters
%D 2011
%8 Oct 23
%V 7
%N 5
%@ 1744-957X
%G eng
%F Hirata2011
%X Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.
%K Animals
%K Female
%K Humans
%K Pan troglodytes
%K Parturition
%K Pregnancy
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508028
%P 686-688

PT Journal
AU Hirata, S
   Fuwa, K
   Sugama, K
   Kusunoki, K
   Takeshita, H
TI Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.
SO Biology letters
JI Biol. Lett.
PD Oct
PY 2011
BP 686
EP 688
VL 7
IS 5
DI 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214
LA eng
DE Animals; Female; Humans; Pan troglodytes; Parturition; Pregnancy
AB Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.
ER

PMID- 21508028
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20110913
DCOM- 20111222
LR  - 20150204
IS  - 1744-957X (Electronic)
IS  - 1744-9561 (Linking)
VI  - 7
IP  - 5
DP  - 2011 Oct 23
TI  - Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.
PG  - 686-8
LID - 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214 [doi]
AB  - Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates 
      and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite
      direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the
      birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated,
      because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This
      paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on
      the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in
      captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior
      orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore,
      these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three
      cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the
      birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an
      occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the
      necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our
      observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human
      birth.
FAU - Hirata, Satoshi
AU  - Hirata S
AD  - Great Ape Research Institute of Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories Inc., 952-2 
      Nu, Tamano, 706-0316 Okayama, Japan.
FAU - Fuwa, Koki
AU  - Fuwa K
FAU - Sugama, Keiko
AU  - Sugama K
FAU - Kusunoki, Kiyo
AU  - Kusunoki K
FAU - Takeshita, Hideko
AU  - Takeshita H
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20110420
PL  - England
TA  - Biol Lett
JT  - Biology letters
JID - 101247722
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Pan troglodytes/*physiology
MH  - *Parturition
MH  - Pregnancy
PMC - PMC3169058
OID - NLM: PMC3169058
EDAT- 2011/04/22 06:00
MHDA- 2011/12/23 06:00
CRDT- 2011/04/22 06:00
PHST- 2011/04/20 [aheadofprint]
AID - rsbl.2011.0214 [pii]
AID - 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Biol Lett. 2011 Oct 23;7(5):686-8. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214. Epub 2011 Apr 20.
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Hirata, Satoshi
AU  - Fuwa, Koki
AU  - Sugama, Keiko
AU  - Kusunoki, Kiyo
AU  - Takeshita, Hideko
PY  - 2011/Oct/23
TI  - Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates.
T2  - Biol. Lett.
JO  - Biology letters
SP  - 686
EP  - 688
VL  - 7
IS  - 5
KW  - Animals
KW  - Female
KW  - Humans
KW  - Pan troglodytes
KW  - Parturition
KW  - Pregnancy
N2  - Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.
SN  - 1744-957X
UR  - http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214
UR  - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508028
ID  - Hirata2011
ER  - 
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