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Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.

Abstract Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit one of the harshest habitats by any nonhuman primate. Reliable predictive cues to initiate reproduction may be particularly critical for R. bieti because they inhabit such seasonally energetically challenging environments. To better understand the seasonal distribution of and predictive cues to reproduction, we collected breeding and birth data in a population of R. bieti at Mt. Lasha in Yunling Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, from January 2008 to May 2010, using a combination of 10-min instantaneous scans and ad libitum observations. We examined variations in temperature, rainfall, and food availability, as well as photoperiod differences between Mt. Lasha and the more northerly Xiaochangdu to identify environmental influences on the timing of reproductive events. Our data show the area exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, and food availability. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in August, coinciding with the end of the period of highest temperatures and food availability, and during the peak rainfall. Copulation frequency peaked 1 month after corresponding peaks in staple foods, rainfall, and minimum temperatures, and 3-4 months after peaks in high-quality foods. Births were significantly seasonal, with a birth peak from mid-February to early April, and a mean birth date of 14 March. Eleven births occurred in 41 days in 2009, and 16 births occurred in 52 days in 2010. Births occurred during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability. Our findings are suggestive of at least one environmental control of conception timing, and support the notion that food availability during key reproductive stages is an ultimate factor for birth seasonality, but provide no supporting evidence for photoperiod during the conception season as a proximate cue to reproduction in R. bieti.
PMID
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Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.

Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Environment

Photoperiod

Reproduction

Keywords
Journal Title primates; journal of primatology
Publication Year Start
%A Huang, Zhi-Pang; Cui, Liang-Wei; Scott, Matthew B.; Wang, Shuang-Jin; Xiao, Wen
%T Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.
%J Primates; journal of primatology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 237-245
%D 07/2012
%V 53
%N 3
%M eng
%B Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit one of the harshest habitats by any nonhuman primate. Reliable predictive cues to initiate reproduction may be particularly critical for R. bieti because they inhabit such seasonally energetically challenging environments. To better understand the seasonal distribution of and predictive cues to reproduction, we collected breeding and birth data in a population of R. bieti at Mt. Lasha in Yunling Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, from January 2008 to May 2010, using a combination of 10-min instantaneous scans and ad libitum observations. We examined variations in temperature, rainfall, and food availability, as well as photoperiod differences between Mt. Lasha and the more northerly Xiaochangdu to identify environmental influences on the timing of reproductive events. Our data show the area exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, and food availability. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in August, coinciding with the end of the period of highest temperatures and food availability, and during the peak rainfall. Copulation frequency peaked 1 month after corresponding peaks in staple foods, rainfall, and minimum temperatures, and 3-4 months after peaks in high-quality foods. Births were significantly seasonal, with a birth peak from mid-February to early April, and a mean birth date of 14 March. Eleven births occurred in 41 days in 2009, and 16 births occurred in 52 days in 2010. Births occurred during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability. Our findings are suggestive of at least one environmental control of conception timing, and support the notion that food availability during key reproductive stages is an ultimate factor for birth seasonality, but provide no supporting evidence for photoperiod during the conception season as a proximate cue to reproduction in R. bieti.
%K Animals, China, Colobinae, Copulation, Environment, Female, Food Chain, Male, Photoperiod, Rain, Reproduction, Seasons, Temperature
%P 237
%L 245
%Y 10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2012.......53..237H

@Article{Huang2012,
author="Huang, Zhi-Pang
and Cui, Liang-Wei
and Scott, Matthew B.
and Wang, Shuang-Jin
and Xiao, Wen",
title="Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.",
journal="Primates; journal of primatology",
year="2012",
month="Jul",
day="10",
volume="53",
number="3",
pages="237--245",
keywords="Animals",
keywords="China",
keywords="Colobinae",
keywords="Copulation",
keywords="Environment",
keywords="Female",
keywords="Food Chain",
keywords="Male",
keywords="Photoperiod",
keywords="Rain",
keywords="Reproduction",
keywords="Seasons",
keywords="Temperature",
abstract="Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit one of the harshest habitats by any nonhuman primate. Reliable predictive cues to initiate reproduction may be particularly critical for R. bieti because they inhabit such seasonally energetically challenging environments. To better understand the seasonal distribution of and predictive cues to reproduction, we collected breeding and birth data in a population of R. bieti at Mt. Lasha in Yunling Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, from January 2008 to May 2010, using a combination of 10-min instantaneous scans and ad libitum observations. We examined variations in temperature, rainfall, and food availability, as well as photoperiod differences between Mt. Lasha and the more northerly Xiaochangdu to identify environmental influences on the timing of reproductive events. Our data show the area exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, and food availability. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in August, coinciding with the end of the period of highest temperatures and food availability, and during the peak rainfall. Copulation frequency peaked 1 month after corresponding peaks in staple foods, rainfall, and minimum temperatures, and 3-4 months after peaks in high-quality foods. Births were significantly seasonal, with a birth peak from mid-February to early April, and a mean birth date of 14 March. Eleven births occurred in 41 days in 2009, and 16 births occurred in 52 days in 2010. Births occurred during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability. Our findings are suggestive of at least one environmental control of conception timing, and support the notion that food availability during key reproductive stages is an ultimate factor for birth seasonality, but provide no supporting evidence for photoperiod during the conception season as a proximate cue to reproduction in R. bieti.",
issn="1610-7365",
doi="10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22407272",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.
%A Huang, Zhi-Pang
%A Cui, Liang-Wei
%A Scott, Matthew B.
%A Wang, Shuang-Jin
%A Xiao, Wen
%J Primates; journal of primatology
%D 2012
%8 Jul 10
%V 53
%N 3
%@ 1610-7365
%G eng
%F Huang2012
%X Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit one of the harshest habitats by any nonhuman primate. Reliable predictive cues to initiate reproduction may be particularly critical for R. bieti because they inhabit such seasonally energetically challenging environments. To better understand the seasonal distribution of and predictive cues to reproduction, we collected breeding and birth data in a population of R. bieti at Mt. Lasha in Yunling Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, from January 2008 to May 2010, using a combination of 10-min instantaneous scans and ad libitum observations. We examined variations in temperature, rainfall, and food availability, as well as photoperiod differences between Mt. Lasha and the more northerly Xiaochangdu to identify environmental influences on the timing of reproductive events. Our data show the area exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, and food availability. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in August, coinciding with the end of the period of highest temperatures and food availability, and during the peak rainfall. Copulation frequency peaked 1 month after corresponding peaks in staple foods, rainfall, and minimum temperatures, and 3-4 months after peaks in high-quality foods. Births were significantly seasonal, with a birth peak from mid-February to early April, and a mean birth date of 14 March. Eleven births occurred in 41 days in 2009, and 16 births occurred in 52 days in 2010. Births occurred during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability. Our findings are suggestive of at least one environmental control of conception timing, and support the notion that food availability during key reproductive stages is an ultimate factor for birth seasonality, but provide no supporting evidence for photoperiod during the conception season as a proximate cue to reproduction in R. bieti.
%K Animals
%K China
%K Colobinae
%K Copulation
%K Environment
%K Female
%K Food Chain
%K Male
%K Photoperiod
%K Rain
%K Reproduction
%K Seasons
%K Temperature
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22407272
%P 237-245

PT Journal
AU Huang, Z
   Cui, L
   Scott, MB
   Wang, S
   Xiao, W
TI Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.
SO Primates; journal of primatology
JI Primates
PD Jul
PY 2012
BP 237
EP 245
VL 53
IS 3
DI 10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7
LA eng
DE Animals; China; Colobinae; Copulation; Environment; Female; Food Chain; Male; Photoperiod; Rain; Reproduction; Seasons; Temperature
AB Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit one of the harshest habitats by any nonhuman primate. Reliable predictive cues to initiate reproduction may be particularly critical for R. bieti because they inhabit such seasonally energetically challenging environments. To better understand the seasonal distribution of and predictive cues to reproduction, we collected breeding and birth data in a population of R. bieti at Mt. Lasha in Yunling Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, from January 2008 to May 2010, using a combination of 10-min instantaneous scans and ad libitum observations. We examined variations in temperature, rainfall, and food availability, as well as photoperiod differences between Mt. Lasha and the more northerly Xiaochangdu to identify environmental influences on the timing of reproductive events. Our data show the area exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, and food availability. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in August, coinciding with the end of the period of highest temperatures and food availability, and during the peak rainfall. Copulation frequency peaked 1 month after corresponding peaks in staple foods, rainfall, and minimum temperatures, and 3-4 months after peaks in high-quality foods. Births were significantly seasonal, with a birth peak from mid-February to early April, and a mean birth date of 14 March. Eleven births occurred in 41 days in 2009, and 16 births occurred in 52 days in 2010. Births occurred during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability. Our findings are suggestive of at least one environmental control of conception timing, and support the notion that food availability during key reproductive stages is an ultimate factor for birth seasonality, but provide no supporting evidence for photoperiod during the conception season as a proximate cue to reproduction in R. bieti.
ER

PMID- 22407272
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20120713
DCOM- 20121113
IS  - 1610-7365 (Electronic)
IS  - 0032-8332 (Linking)
VI  - 53
IP  - 3
DP  - 2012 Jul
TI  - Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys
      (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.
PG  - 237-45
LID - 10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7 [doi]
AB  - Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit one of the
      harshest habitats by any nonhuman primate. Reliable predictive cues to initiate
      reproduction may be particularly critical for R. bieti because they inhabit such 
      seasonally energetically challenging environments. To better understand the
      seasonal distribution of and predictive cues to reproduction, we collected
      breeding and birth data in a population of R. bieti at Mt. Lasha in Yunling
      Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, from January 2008 to May 2010, using a combination
      of 10-min instantaneous scans and ad libitum observations. We examined variations
      in temperature, rainfall, and food availability, as well as photoperiod
      differences between Mt. Lasha and the more northerly Xiaochangdu to identify
      environmental influences on the timing of reproductive events. Our data show the 
      area exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, and food 
      availability. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in August, coinciding with
      the end of the period of highest temperatures and food availability, and during
      the peak rainfall. Copulation frequency peaked 1 month after corresponding peaks 
      in staple foods, rainfall, and minimum temperatures, and 3-4 months after peaks
      in high-quality foods. Births were significantly seasonal, with a birth peak from
      mid-February to early April, and a mean birth date of 14 March. Eleven births
      occurred in 41 days in 2009, and 16 births occurred in 52 days in 2010. Births
      occurred during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability. Our
      findings are suggestive of at least one environmental control of conception
      timing, and support the notion that food availability during key reproductive
      stages is an ultimate factor for birth seasonality, but provide no supporting
      evidence for photoperiod during the conception season as a proximate cue to
      reproduction in R. bieti.
FAU - Huang, Zhi-Pang
AU  - Huang ZP
AD  - Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali,
      671003, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.
FAU - Cui, Liang-Wei
AU  - Cui LW
FAU - Scott, Matthew B
AU  - Scott MB
FAU - Wang, Shuang-Jin
AU  - Wang SJ
FAU - Xiao, Wen
AU  - Xiao W
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20120310
PL  - Japan
TA  - Primates
JT  - Primates; journal of primatology
JID - 0401152
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - China
MH  - Colobinae/*physiology
MH  - Copulation
MH  - *Environment
MH  - Female
MH  - Food Chain
MH  - Male
MH  - *Photoperiod
MH  - Rain
MH  - *Reproduction
MH  - Seasons
MH  - Temperature
EDAT- 2012/03/13 06:00
MHDA- 2012/11/14 06:00
CRDT- 2012/03/13 06:00
PHST- 2011/08/09 [received]
PHST- 2012/02/22 [accepted]
PHST- 2012/03/10 [aheadofprint]
AID - 10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Primates. 2012 Jul;53(3):237-45. doi: 10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7. Epub 2012 Mar
      10.

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