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Marek's disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy.

Abstract Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal and thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves with severe clinical symptoms that include transient paralysis, anemia, weight loss, and neurologic disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are considered the largest lymphoid aggregates of avian gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Along with Peyer's patches, CT elicits protective immune responses against bacterial and viral pathogens in the intestinal tract of avian species. In this study we investigated the effect of MDV infection on CT structural changes and cytokine gene expression in two MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines. The histopathologic analysis revealed that MDV causes the loss of germinal follicular centers within the CT of the resistant line while inducing a severe, near-total lymphoid depletion in the susceptible line during cytolytic infection. The lymphoid depletion, however, recovered approximately 2 wk postinfection but the loss of germinal centers persisted during the latent phase of infection in both lines. The atrophy of this important GALT was transient and there were no visible differences between the CT of the infected and control birds of either line by 21 days postinfection. Of the genes tested, IFN-beta and IFN-gamma were up regulated in the CT of both infected lines during lytic infection. The expression levels of both genes were much higher in the susceptible line than in the resistant line. A similar pattern of expression was observed for IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and iNOS. IL-12 was up regulated in the CT of birds of the susceptible line during all three phases of infection. An over expression of IL-18 was also observed in CT of the susceptible line during lytic and latent phases of infection. IL-8 was the only cytokine expressed at higher levels in the CT of the resistant line during the lytic and reactivation phases of infection. The histopathologic observations and gene expression profiling are further discussed.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Chickens

Keywords
Journal Title avian diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 25055631
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20140724
DCOM- 20140821
IS  - 0005-2086 (Print)
IS  - 0005-2086 (Linking)
VI  - 58
IP  - 2
DP  - 2014 Jun
TI  - Marek's disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy.
PG  - 262-70
AB  - Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that
      is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek's
      disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a
      latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal and thymic
      atrophy and rapid onset of T cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues,
      visceral organs, and peripheral nerves with severe clinical symptoms that include
      transient paralysis, anemia, weight loss, and neurologic disorders. The cecal
      tonsils (CT) are considered the largest lymphoid aggregates of avian
      gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Along with Peyer's patches, CT elicits
      protective immune responses against bacterial and viral pathogens in the
      intestinal tract of avian species. In this study we investigated the effect of
      MDV infection on CT structural changes and cytokine gene expression in two
      MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines. The histopathologic analysis revealed
      that MDV causes the loss of germinal follicular centers within the CT of the
      resistant line while inducing a severe, near-total lymphoid depletion in the
      susceptible line during cytolytic infection. The lymphoid depletion, however,
      recovered approximately 2 wk postinfection but the loss of germinal centers
      persisted during the latent phase of infection in both lines. The atrophy of this
      important GALT was transient and there were no visible differences between the CT
      of the infected and control birds of either line by 21 days postinfection. Of the
      genes tested, IFN-beta and IFN-gamma were up regulated in the CT of both infected
      lines during lytic infection. The expression levels of both genes were much
      higher in the susceptible line than in the resistant line. A similar pattern of
      expression was observed for IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and iNOS. IL-12 was up regulated 
      in the CT of birds of the susceptible line during all three phases of infection. 
      An over expression of IL-18 was also observed in CT of the susceptible line
      during lytic and latent phases of infection. IL-8 was the only cytokine expressed
      at higher levels in the CT of the resistant line during the lytic and
      reactivation phases of infection. The histopathologic observations and gene
      expression profiling are further discussed.
FAU - Heidari, Mohammad
AU  - Heidari M
FAU - Fitzgerald, Scott D
AU  - Fitzgerald SD
FAU - Zhang, Huanmin
AU  - Zhang H
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - United States
TA  - Avian Dis
JT  - Avian diseases
JID - 0370617
RN  - 0 (Avian Proteins)
RN  - 0 (Cytokines)
RN  - EC 1.14.13.39 (Nitric Oxide Synthase)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Avian Proteins/genetics/metabolism
MH  - Cecum/*pathology/virology
MH  - *Chickens
MH  - Cytokines/genetics/metabolism
MH  - Gene Expression Profiling/veterinary
MH  - Gene Expression Regulation
MH  - Mardivirus/genetics/*isolation & purification/metabolism
MH  - Marek Disease/genetics/metabolism/*pathology/virology
MH  - Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics/metabolism
MH  - Poultry Diseases/genetics/metabolism/*pathology/virology
MH  - Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
MH  - Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
EDAT- 2014/07/25 06:00
MHDA- 2014/08/22 06:00
CRDT- 2014/07/25 06:00
AID - 10.1637/10673-092013-Reg.1 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Avian Dis. 2014 Jun;58(2):262-70.

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