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Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.

Abstract Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.
PMID
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Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China.

Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Seasons

Keywords

Birth pattern

Birth seasonality

Birth synchrony

Rhinopithecus bieti

Journal Title dong wu xue yan jiu = zoological research / "dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji
Publication Year Start
%A Li, Jin-Fa; He, Yu-Chao; Huang, Zhi-Pang; Wang, Shuang-Jin; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Zhao, Juan-Jun; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei
%T Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.
%J Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 474-484
%D 11/2014
%V 35
%N 6
%M eng
%B Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.
%K Animals, China, Colobinae, Environment, Female, Parturition, Pregnancy, Seasons, Time Factors
%P 474
%L 484
%Y 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2014.......35..474L

@Article{Li2014,
author="Li, Jin-Fa
and He, Yu-Chao
and Huang, Zhi-Pang
and Wang, Shuang-Jin
and Xiang, Zuo-Fu
and Zhao, Juan-Jun
and Xiao, Wen
and Cui, Liang-Wei",
title="Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.",
journal="Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / ``Dong wu xue yan jiu'' bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji",
year="2014",
month="Nov",
day="18",
volume="35",
number="6",
pages="474--484",
keywords="Animals",
keywords="China",
keywords="Colobinae",
keywords="Environment",
keywords="Female",
keywords="Parturition",
keywords="Pregnancy",
keywords="Seasons",
keywords="Time Factors",
abstract="Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a ``V'' style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.",
issn="2095-8137",
doi="10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25465083",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.
%A Li, Jin-Fa
%A He, Yu-Chao
%A Huang, Zhi-Pang
%A Wang, Shuang-Jin
%A Xiang, Zuo-Fu
%A Zhao, Juan-Jun
%A Xiao, Wen
%A Cui, Liang-Wei
%J Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji
%D 2014
%8 Nov 18
%V 35
%N 6
%@ 2095-8137
%G eng
%F Li2014
%X Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.
%K Animals
%K China
%K Colobinae
%K Environment
%K Female
%K Parturition
%K Pregnancy
%K Seasons
%K Time Factors
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25465083
%P 474-484

PT Journal
AU Li, J
   He, Y
   Huang, Z
   Wang, S
   Xiang, Z
   Zhao, J
   Xiao, W
   Cui, L
TI Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.
SO Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji
JI Zool. Res.
PD Nov
PY 2014
BP 474
EP 484
VL 35
IS 6
DI 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474
LA eng
DE Animals; China; Colobinae; Environment; Female; Parturition; Pregnancy; Seasons; Time Factors
AB Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.
ER

PMID- 25465083
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20141203
DCOM- 20150424
LR  - 20160517
IS  - 2095-8137 (Print)
IS  - 2095-8137 (Linking)
VI  - 35
IP  - 6
DP  - 2014 Nov 18
TI  - Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys
      (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.
PG  - 474-84
LID - 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474 [doi]
AB  - Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of
      seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is
      necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly
      seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed
      monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality
      with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization.
      Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V"
      style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The
      beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered
      years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats,
      earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth
      synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and
      food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually
      shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the
      highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that
      photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and
      mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the 
      peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus,
      food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality,
      and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between
      seasonal breeding and food availability.
FAU - Li, Jin-Fa
AU  - Li JF
AD  - Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province,
      Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan 650224, China.
FAU - He, Yu-Chao
AU  - He YC
AD  - Bureau of Yunling Provincial Nature Reserve, Lanping, Yunnan 671400, China.
FAU - Huang, Zhi-Pang
AU  - Huang ZP
AD  - Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province,
      Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan 650224, China.
FAU - Wang, Shuang-Jin
AU  - Wang SJ
AD  - Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province,
      Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan 650224, China.
FAU - Xiang, Zuo-Fu
AU  - Xiang ZF
AD  - College of Life Science and Technology, Central South University of Forestry and 
      Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China.
FAU - Zhao, Juan-Jun
AU  - Zhao JJ
AD  - Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali,
      Yunnan 671003, China . [email protected];[email protected]
FAU - Xiao, Wen
AU  - Xiao W
AD  - Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali,
      Yunnan 671003, China . [email protected]
FAU - Cui, Liang-Wei
AU  - Cui LW
AD  - Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province,
      Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan 650224, [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL  - China
TA  - Dongwuxue Yanjiu
JT  - Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei
      yuan hui bian ji
JID - 100961499
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - China
MH  - Colobinae/*physiology
MH  - Environment
MH  - Female
MH  - Parturition/*physiology
MH  - Pregnancy
MH  - *Seasons
MH  - Time Factors
PMC - PMC4790276
OID - NLM: PMC4790276
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Birth pattern
OT  - Birth seasonality
OT  - Birth synchrony
OT  - Rhinopithecus bieti
EDAT- 2014/12/04 06:00
MHDA- 2015/04/25 06:00
CRDT- 2014/12/04 06:00
AID - 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2014 Nov 18;35(6):474-84. doi:
      10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474.
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Li, Jin-Fa
AU  - He, Yu-Chao
AU  - Huang, Zhi-Pang
AU  - Wang, Shuang-Jin
AU  - Xiang, Zuo-Fu
AU  - Zhao, Juan-Jun
AU  - Xiao, Wen
AU  - Cui, Liang-Wei
PY  - 2014/Nov/18
TI  - Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.
T2  - Zool. Res.
JO  - Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji
SP  - 474
EP  - 484
VL  - 35
IS  - 6
KW  - Animals
KW  - China
KW  - Colobinae
KW  - Environment
KW  - Female
KW  - Parturition
KW  - Pregnancy
KW  - Seasons
KW  - Time Factors
N2  - Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.
SN  - 2095-8137
UR  - http://dx.doi.org/10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474
UR  - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25465083
ID  - Li2014
ER  - 
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<b:Title>Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan.</b:Title>
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<b:Comments>Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a &quot;V&quot; style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.</b:Comments>
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