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Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.

Abstract The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Biological Evolution

Labor Presentation

Keywords

birth

evolution

obstetric dilemma, pelvis

primate

Journal Title philosophical transactions of the royal society of london. series b, biological sciences
Publication Year Start
%A Trevathan, Wenda
%T Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.
%J Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, vol. 370, no. 1663, p. 20140065
%D 03/2015
%V 370
%N 1663
%M eng
%B The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate.
%K Adaptation, Biological, Animals, Biological Evolution, Female, History, Ancient, Humans, Labor Presentation, Midwifery, Parturition, Pelvis, Pregnancy, Primates, Species Specificity
%P 20140065
%Y 10.1098/rstb.2014.0065
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2015......370?..65T

@Article{Trevathan2015,
author="Trevathan, Wenda",
title="Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.",
journal="Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences",
year="2015",
month="Mar",
day="05",
volume="370",
number="1663",
pages="20140065",
keywords="Adaptation, Biological",
keywords="Animals",
keywords="Biological Evolution",
keywords="Female",
keywords="History, Ancient",
keywords="Humans",
keywords="Labor Presentation",
keywords="Midwifery",
keywords="Parturition",
keywords="Pelvis",
keywords="Pregnancy",
keywords="Primates",
keywords="Species Specificity",
abstract="The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate.",
issn="1471-2970",
doi="10.1098/rstb.2014.0065",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602069",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.
%A Trevathan, Wenda
%J Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
%D 2015
%8 Mar 05
%V 370
%N 1663
%@ 1471-2970
%G eng
%F Trevathan2015
%X The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate.
%K Adaptation, Biological
%K Animals
%K Biological Evolution
%K Female
%K History, Ancient
%K Humans
%K Labor Presentation
%K Midwifery
%K Parturition
%K Pelvis
%K Pregnancy
%K Primates
%K Species Specificity
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0065
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602069
%P 20140065

PT Journal
AU Trevathan, W
TI Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.
SO Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
JI Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PD Mar
PY 2015
BP 20140065
VL 370
IS 1663
DI 10.1098/rstb.2014.0065
LA eng
DE Adaptation, Biological; Animals; Biological Evolution; Female; History, Ancient; Humans; Labor Presentation; Midwifery; Parturition; Pelvis; Pregnancy; Primates; Species Specificity
AB The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate.
ER

PMID- 25602069
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20150120
DCOM- 20160108
LR  - 20160305
IS  - 1471-2970 (Electronic)
IS  - 0962-8436 (Linking)
VI  - 370
IP  - 1663
DP  - 2015 Mar 5
TI  - Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.
PG  - 20140065
LID - 10.1098/rstb.2014.0065 [doi]
LID - 20140065 [pii]
AB  - The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides
      somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it
      serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for
      encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to
      negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a
      baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism
      in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation 
      of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the
      infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the
      mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys
      and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported
      observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in
      human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These
      include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external
      rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and
      the developmental state of the neonate.
CI  - (c) 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
FAU - Trevathan, Wenda
AU  - Trevathan W
AD  - Department of Anthropology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003,
      USA [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Comparative Study
PT  - Historical Article
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
PL  - England
TA  - Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
JT  - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological
      sciences
JID - 7503623
SB  - IM
MH  - Adaptation, Biological/*physiology
MH  - Animals
MH  - *Biological Evolution
MH  - Female
MH  - History, Ancient
MH  - Humans
MH  - *Labor Presentation
MH  - Midwifery/history/*methods
MH  - Parturition/*physiology
MH  - Pelvis/*anatomy & histology/physiology
MH  - Pregnancy
MH  - Primates/*anatomy & histology
MH  - Species Specificity
PMC - PMC4305166
OID - NLM: PMC4305166
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - birth
OT  - evolution
OT  - obstetric dilemma, pelvis
OT  - primate
EDAT- 2015/01/21 06:00
MHDA- 2016/01/09 06:00
CRDT- 2015/01/21 06:00
AID - rstb.2014.0065 [pii]
AID - 10.1098/rstb.2014.0065 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Mar 5;370(1663):20140065. doi:
      10.1098/rstb.2014.0065.
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Trevathan, Wenda
PY  - 2015/Mar/05
TI  - Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.
T2  - Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
JO  - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
SP  - 20140065
VL  - 370
IS  - 1663
KW  - Adaptation, Biological
KW  - Animals
KW  - Biological Evolution
KW  - Female
KW  - History, Ancient
KW  - Humans
KW  - Labor Presentation
KW  - Midwifery
KW  - Parturition
KW  - Pelvis
KW  - Pregnancy
KW  - Primates
KW  - Species Specificity
N2  - The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate.
SN  - 1471-2970
UR  - http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0065
UR  - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602069
ID  - Trevathan2015
ER  - 
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