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Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia--Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students.

Abstract This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio=3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR=3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR=2.66), headache (OR=2.13) and tiredness (OR=2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p<0.001) and rhinitis (p=0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p<0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p=0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p=0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p=0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among the students deserve further attention.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Endotoxin

Fungal DNA

Indoor environment

Malaysia

Microbial markers

Rhinitis

School students

Sick building syndrome (SBS)

Journal Title the science of the total environment
Publication Year Start




PMID- 26745297
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20160129
DCOM- 20160915
IS  - 1879-1026 (Electronic)
IS  - 0048-9697 (Linking)
VI  - 545-546
DP  - 2016 Mar 1
TI  - Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor 
      Bahru, Malaysia--Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in
      junior high school students.
PG  - 95-103
LID - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.072 [doi]
LID - S0048-9697(15)31231-6 [pii]
AB  - This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and
      dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to
      exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools
      in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools
      in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed
      from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as
      3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol
      and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied.
      Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and
      11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported
      pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese
      students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less
      tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds 
      ratio=3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR=3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat
      symptoms (OR=2.66), headache (OR=2.13) and tiredness (OR=2.02). There were
      positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular 
      symptoms (p&lt;0.001) and rhinitis (p=0.006). There were positive associations
      between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p&lt;0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms 
      (p=0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total 
      endotoxin (LPS) (p=0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p=0.03) and rhinitis and
      between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine
      dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and
      improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems
      to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of
      endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among 
      the students deserve further attention.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
FAU - Norback, Dan
AU  - Norback D
AD  - Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala
      University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:
      [email protected]
FAU - Hashim, Jamal Hisham
AU  - Hashim JH
AD  - United Nations University-International Institute for Global Health, Kuala
      Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Community Health, National University of
      Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
FAU - Markowicz, Pawel
AU  - Markowicz P
AD  - Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University
      of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
FAU - Cai, Gui-Hong
AU  - Cai GH
AD  - Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala
      University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
FAU - Hashim, Zailina
AU  - Hashim Z
AD  - Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and
      Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
FAU - Ali, Faridah
AU  - Ali F
AD  - Primary Care Unit, Johor State Health Department, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
FAU - Larsson, Lennart
AU  - Larsson L
AD  - Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University
      of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20151231
PL  - Netherlands
TA  - Sci Total Environ
JT  - The Science of the total environment
JID - 0330500
RN  - 0 (Allergens)
RN  - 0 (DNA, Fungal)
RN  - 0 (Dust)
RN  - 0 (Endotoxins)
RN  - 0 (Muramic Acids)
RN  - Z30RAY509F (Ergosterol)
SB  - IM
MH  - Adolescent
MH  - Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis/*statistics &amp; numerical data
MH  - Allergens/analysis
MH  - Asthma
MH  - DNA, Fungal/*analysis
MH  - Dust/analysis
MH  - Endotoxins/*analysis
MH  - Ergosterol/*analysis
MH  - Humans
MH  - Hypersensitivity
MH  - Inhalation Exposure/*statistics &amp; numerical data
MH  - Malaysia/epidemiology
MH  - Muramic Acids/*analysis
MH  - Rhinitis/*epidemiology
MH  - Schools
MH  - Sick Building Syndrome/*epidemiology
MH  - Students
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Endotoxin
OT  - Fungal DNA
OT  - Indoor environment
OT  - Malaysia
OT  - Microbial markers
OT  - Rhinitis
OT  - School students
OT  - Sick building syndrome (SBS)
EDAT- 2016/01/09 06:00
MHDA- 2016/09/16 06:00
CRDT- 2016/01/09 06:00
PHST- 2015/07/22 [received]
PHST- 2015/12/07 [revised]
PHST- 2015/12/16 [accepted]
PHST- 2015/12/31 [aheadofprint]
AID - S0048-9697(15)31231-6 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.072 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Sci Total Environ. 2016 Mar 1;545-546:95-103. doi:
      10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.072. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

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