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Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

Abstract Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a disorder characterized by nonspecific and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the prefrontal area during olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and fecal) at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal perceived odor level) in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor) and normal perceived levels (sweet and fecal odors) were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls. However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their associations with MCS symptoms is needed.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Cerebrovascular Circulation

Odorants

Sensory Thresholds

Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 27936122
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20161209
DCOM- 20170711
LR  - 20170713
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 12
DP  - 2016
TI  - Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the
      Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical
      Sensitivity.
PG  - e0168006
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0168006 [doi]
AB  - Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a disorder characterized by nonspecific
      and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low
      levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls
      do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with
      increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the prefrontal area during
      olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging. The aim
      of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes
      in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with
      MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T 
      olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and 
      fecal) at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal
      perceived odor level) in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T
      olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic
      odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both
      unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors 
      at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain
      responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor) and normal perceived levels
      (sweet and fecal odors) were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls.
      However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds
      and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain
      responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past
      exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of
      sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their
      associations with MCS symptoms is needed.
FAU - Azuma, Kenichi
AU  - Azuma K
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6382-9807
AD  - Department of Environmental Medicine and Behavioral Science, Kindai University
      Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka, Japan.
AD  - Sick-house Medical Science Laboratory, Division of Basic Research, Louis Pasteur 
      Center for Medical Research, Kyoto, Japan.
FAU - Uchiyama, Iwao
AU  - Uchiyama I
AD  - Sick-house Medical Science Laboratory, Division of Basic Research, Louis Pasteur 
      Center for Medical Research, Kyoto, Japan.
AD  - Outpatient Department of Sick-house Syndrome, Hyakumanben Clinic, Kyoto, Japan.
FAU - Tanigawa, Mari
AU  - Tanigawa M
AD  - Clinical Immune Function Laboratory, Division of Basic Research, Louis Pasteur
      Center for Medical Research, Kyoto, Japan.
AD  - Division of Internal Medicine, Hyakumanben Clinic, Kyoto, Japan.
FAU - Bamba, Ikuko
AU  - Bamba I
AD  - Faculty of Education, Home Economics, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo,
      Japan.
FAU - Azuma, Michiyo
AU  - Azuma M
AD  - Department of Human Environmental Design, Faculty of Health Science, Kio
      University, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara, Japan.
FAU - Takano, Hirohisa
AU  - Takano H
AD  - Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto
      University, Kyoto, Japan.
FAU - Yoshikawa, Toshikazu
AU  - Yoshikawa T
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto,
      Japan.
FAU - Sakabe, Kou
AU  - Sakabe K
AD  - Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tokai University School of Medicine, 
      Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20161209
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Adult
MH  - Aged
MH  - Case-Control Studies
MH  - *Cerebrovascular Circulation
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Multiple Chemical Sensitivity/*physiopathology/psychology
MH  - *Odorants
MH  - Olfactometry
MH  - Prefrontal Cortex/*blood supply
MH  - *Sensory Thresholds
MH  - Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
PMC - PMC5148047
COI - The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
EDAT- 2016/12/10 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/14 06:00
CRDT- 2016/12/10 06:00
PHST- 2016/08/12 [received]
PHST- 2016/11/24 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0168006 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-31573 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2016 Dec 9;11(12):e0168006. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168006.
      eCollection 2016.