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Urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon: An epidemiological update at Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto crater lakes assessing prospects for intensified control interventions.

Abstract The crater lakes of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis having had several important control initiatives previously. To collect contemporary epidemiological information, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken inclusive of: signs and symptoms of disease, individual treatment histories, local water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related factors and malacological surveillance, with molecular characterisation of specimens.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Bulinus

Female genital schistosomiasis

Indoplanorbis exustus

Schistosoma haematobium

Strongyloides

WASH

Journal Title infectious diseases of poverty
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28238285
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170227
DCOM- 20170306
LR  - 20170306
IS  - 2049-9957 (Electronic)
IS  - 2049-9957 (Linking)
VI  - 6
IP  - 1
DP  - 2017 Feb 27
TI  - Urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon: 
      An epidemiological update at Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto crater lakes assessing
      prospects for intensified control interventions.
PG  - 49
LID - 10.1186/s40249-017-0264-8 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: The crater lakes of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known
      transmission foci of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis having
      had several important control initiatives previously. To collect contemporary
      epidemiological information, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken inclusive
      of: signs and symptoms of disease, individual treatment histories, local water,
      sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related factors and malacological surveillance,
      with molecular characterisation of specimens. METHODS: At each lake, a community 
      cross-sectional survey was undertaken using a combination of stool and urine
      parasitological sampling, and interview with pro-forma questionnaires. A total of
      338 children and adults participated. Material from snail and parasite species
      were characterised by DNA methods. RESULTS: Egg-patent prevalence of urogenital
      schistosomiasis was 8.7% at Barombi Mbo (all light-intensity infections) and
      40.1% at Barombi Kotto (21.2% heavy-intensity infections). Intestinal
      schistosomiasis was absent. At Barombi Kotto, significantly more women reported
      signs and symptoms associated with female genital schistosomiasis. While there
      had been extensive recent improvement in WASH-related infrastructure at Barombi
      Mbo, water contact risk scores were higher among schistosomiasis-infected
      participants (P < 0.001) and at Barombi Kotto in general (P < 0.001). Across both
      lakes, mean prevalence of STH was very low (6.3%) evidencing an impressive
      decrease of 79.0% over the last decade; neither Strongyloides stercoralis nor
      Ascaris lumbricoides were found. A total of 29 freshwater sampling sites were
      inspected for snails, 13 in Barombi Mbo and 16 in Barombi Kotto; water chemistry 
      differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between lakes for both mean pH (7.9 v. 9.6)
      and mean conductivity (64.3 muS v. 202.1 muS) respectively. Only two Bulinus
      camerunensis found on the central island of Barombi Kotto were observed to shed
      schistosome cercariae, but schistosome DNA was later detected in Bulinus sampled 
      from both lakes as well as in Indoplanorbis exustus, an invasive species from
      Asia. CONCLUSIONS: STH is currently at very low levels while urogenital
      schistosomiasis is of greatest concern at Barombi Kotto. This assessment
      highlights a unique opportunity for further study of the epidemiological dynamics
      at these crater lakes, to evaluate future intensified interventions both in terms
      of gaining and sustaining control at Barombi Kotto or in moving towards local
      interruption of transmission of both diseases at Barombi Mbo.
FAU - Campbell, Suzy J
AU  - Campbell SJ
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
FAU - Stothard, J Russell
AU  - Stothard JR
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. [email protected]
FAU - O'Halloran, Faye
AU  - O'Halloran F
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
FAU - Sankey, Deborah
AU  - Sankey D
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
FAU - Durant, Timothy
AU  - Durant T
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
FAU - Ombede, Dieudonne Eloundou
AU  - Ombede DE
AD  - Centre for Schistosomiasis and Parasitology, Yaounde, Cameroon.
FAU - Chuinteu, Gwladys Djomkam
AU  - Chuinteu GD
AD  - Centre for Schistosomiasis and Parasitology, Yaounde, Cameroon.
FAU - Webster, Bonnie L
AU  - Webster BL
AD  - Department of Life Sciences, Parasites and Vectors Division, Natural History
      Museum, London, SW7 5BD, UK.
AD  - London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, London, UK.
FAU - Cunningham, Lucas
AU  - Cunningham L
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
FAU - LaCourse, E James
AU  - LaCourse EJ
AD  - Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke
      Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
FAU - Tchuem-Tchuente, Louis-Albert
AU  - Tchuem-Tchuente LA
AD  - Centre for Schistosomiasis and Parasitology, Yaounde, Cameroon.
AD  - Laboratory of Parasitology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, University of
      Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
AD  - National Programme for the Control of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal
      Helminthiasis, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170227
PL  - England
TA  - Infect Dis Poverty
JT  - Infectious diseases of poverty
JID - 101606645
RN  - 0 (Soil)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Bulinus/parasitology
MH  - Cameroon/epidemiology
MH  - Cross-Sectional Studies
MH  - Humans
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Schistosomiasis haematobia/*epidemiology/parasitology/*prevention & control
MH  - Soil/parasitology
PMC - PMC5327519
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Bulinus
OT  - Female genital schistosomiasis
OT  - Indoplanorbis exustus
OT  - Schistosoma haematobium
OT  - Strongyloides
OT  - WASH
EDAT- 2017/02/28 06:00
MHDA- 2017/03/07 06:00
CRDT- 2017/02/28 06:00
PHST- 2016/12/07 [received]
PHST- 2017/02/17 [accepted]
AID - 10.1186/s40249-017-0264-8 [doi]
AID - 10.1186/s40249-017-0264-8 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - Infect Dis Poverty. 2017 Feb 27;6(1):49. doi: 10.1186/s40249-017-0264-8.

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