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Infectious keratoconjunctivitis in wild Caprinae: merging field observations and molecular analyses sheds light on factors shaping outbreak dynamics.

Abstract Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an ocular infectious disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae which affects small domestic and wild mountain ruminants. Domestic sheep maintain the pathogen but the detection of healthy carriers in wildlife has raised the question as to whether M. conjunctivae may also persist in the wild. Furthermore, the factors shaping the dynamics of IKC outbreaks in wildlife have remained largely unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to verify the etiological role of M. conjunctivae in IKC outbreaks recorded between 2002 and 2010 at four study sites in different regions of France (Pyrenees and Alps, samples from 159 Alpine ibex Capra ibex, Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra and Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica); (2) to establish whether there existed any epidemiological links between the different regions through a cluster analysis of the detected strains (from 80 out of the 159 animals tested); (3) to explore selected pathogen, host and environmental factors potentially influencing the dynamics of IKC in wildlife, by joining results obtained by molecular analyses and by field observations (16,609 animal observations). All of the samples were tested for M. conjunctivae by qPCR, and cluster analysis was based on a highly variable part of the lppS gene.
PMID
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Infectious keratoconjunctivitis of ibex, chamois and other Caprinae.

Occurrence, quantification, and genotyping of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in wild Caprinae with and without infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Animals, Wild

Keywords

Chamois

Disease spread

Ibex

Molecular epidemiology

Mycoplasma conjunctivae

Ocular disease

Persistence

Resurgence

Journal Title bmc veterinary research
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28259139
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170305
DCOM- 20170313
LR  - 20170313
IS  - 1746-6148 (Electronic)
IS  - 1746-6148 (Linking)
VI  - 13
IP  - 1
DP  - 2017 Mar 04
TI  - Infectious keratoconjunctivitis in wild Caprinae: merging field observations and 
      molecular analyses sheds light on factors shaping outbreak dynamics.
PG  - 67
LID - 10.1186/s12917-017-0972-0 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an ocular infectious disease
      caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae which affects small domestic and wild mountain 
      ruminants. Domestic sheep maintain the pathogen but the detection of healthy
      carriers in wildlife has raised the question as to whether M. conjunctivae may
      also persist in the wild. Furthermore, the factors shaping the dynamics of IKC
      outbreaks in wildlife have remained largely unknown. The aims of this study were 
      (1) to verify the etiological role of M. conjunctivae in IKC outbreaks recorded
      between 2002 and 2010 at four study sites in different regions of France
      (Pyrenees and Alps, samples from 159 Alpine ibex Capra ibex, Alpine chamois
      Rupicapra rupicapra and Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica); (2) to establish
      whether there existed any epidemiological links between the different regions
      through a cluster analysis of the detected strains (from 80 out of the 159
      animals tested); (3) to explore selected pathogen, host and environmental factors
      potentially influencing the dynamics of IKC in wildlife, by joining results
      obtained by molecular analyses and by field observations (16,609 animal
      observations). All of the samples were tested for M. conjunctivae by qPCR, and
      cluster analysis was based on a highly variable part of the lppS gene. RESULTS:
      We documented infections with M. conjunctivae in epidemic and endemic situations,
      both in symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. The identified M. conjunctivae
      strains were site-specific and persisted in the local wild population for at
      least 6 years. In epidemic situations, peaks of cases and disease resurgence were
      associated with the emergence of new similar strains in a given area. Social
      interactions, seasonal movements and the landscape structure such as natural and 
      anthropogenic barriers influenced the spatio-temporal spread of IKC. Adults were 
      more affected than young animals and host susceptibility differed depending on
      the involved strain. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that IKC is a multifactorial
      disease and that M. conjunctivae can persist in wildlife populations. The disease
      course in individual animals and populations is influenced by both host and
      mycoplasma characteristics, and the disease spread within and among populations
      is shaped by host behavior and landscape structure.
FAU - Gelormini, Giuseppina
AU  - Gelormini G
AD  - Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of
      Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
AD  - Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern,
      Bern, Switzerland.
FAU - Gauthier, Dominique
AU  - Gauthier D
AD  - Laboratoire Veterinaire des Hautes Alpes, Gap, France.
FAU - Vilei, Edy M
AU  - Vilei EM
AD  - Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern,
      Bern, Switzerland.
FAU - Crampe, Jean-Paul
AU  - Crampe JP
AD  - Parc National des Pyrenees, Tarbes, France.
FAU - Frey, Joachim
AU  - Frey J
AD  - Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern,
      Bern, Switzerland.
FAU - Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre
AU  - Ryser-Degiorgis MP
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1062-870X
AD  - Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of
      Bern, Bern, Switzerland. [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170304
PL  - England
TA  - BMC Vet Res
JT  - BMC veterinary research
JID - 101249759
SB  - IM
MH  - Aging
MH  - Animals
MH  - *Animals, Wild
MH  - Disease Outbreaks/*veterinary
MH  - Female
MH  - France/epidemiology
MH  - Goat Diseases/epidemiology/*pathology
MH  - Goats
MH  - Keratoconjunctivitis, Infectious/diagnosis/epidemiology/*pathology
MH  - Male
MH  - Time Factors
PMC - PMC5336646
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Chamois
OT  - Disease spread
OT  - Ibex
OT  - Molecular epidemiology
OT  - Mycoplasma conjunctivae
OT  - Ocular disease
OT  - Persistence
OT  - Resurgence
EDAT- 2017/03/06 06:00
MHDA- 2017/03/14 06:00
CRDT- 2017/03/06 06:00
PHST- 2016/07/09 [received]
PHST- 2017/02/10 [accepted]
AID - 10.1186/s12917-017-0972-0 [doi]
AID - 10.1186/s12917-017-0972-0 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - BMC Vet Res. 2017 Mar 4;13(1):67. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-0972-0.

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