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Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria.

Abstract Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among pregnant women from Okoyong when compared to those from Calabar. It was also shown that pregnant women in their third trimesters and multigravidae had the highest prevalence of iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia while prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia were higher in primigravidae and the pregnant women in their second trimester. In conclusion, this study has shown that the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia are higher among pregnant women in the rural communities when compared to those in the urban areas.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Developing Countries

Maternal Health

Rural Health

Urban Health

Keywords
Journal Title nigerian journal of physiological sciences : official publication of the physiological society of nigeria
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28262847
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170306
DCOM- 20170315
LR  - 20170315
IS  - 0794-859X (Print)
IS  - 0794-859X (Linking)
VI  - 31
IP  - 2
DP  - 2017 Mar 06
TI  - Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River
      State, South-South Nigeria.
PG  - 121-125
AB  - Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency
      is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy. Inadequate iron intake during
      pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women
      was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria.
      Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin
      concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity,
      transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble 
      transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant
      women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from
      antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban
      community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo
      Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching
      Hospital extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government
      Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, iron
      depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among
      pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban
      community. it was also observed that the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, 
      iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05)
      among pregnant women from Akpabuyo 38(76.00%), 20(40.00%), 23(46.0%) , 16(32.00%)
      respectively followed by Okoyong 24(48.0%), 20(40.0%), 16(32.0%), 6(12.0) and
      then those from Calabar 14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%). The mean haemoglobin and
      haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural
      communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no
      significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin 
      receptor significantly increased among pregnant women from Okoyong when compared 
      to those from Calabar. It was also shown that pregnant women in their third
      trimesters and multigravidae had the highest prevalence of iron depletion and
      iron deficiency anaemia while prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia were
      higher in primigravidae and the pregnant women in their second trimester. In
      conclusion, this study has shown that the prevalence of anaemia and iron
      deficiency anaemia are higher among pregnant women in the rural communities when 
      compared to those in the urban areas.
FAU - Okafor, I M
AU  - Okafor IM
AD  - Haematology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical
      Sciences University of Calabar, Calabar. okaforifymaryann@yahoo.com.
FAU - Okpokam, D C
AU  - Okpokam DC
FAU - Antai, A B
AU  - Antai AB
FAU - Usanga, E A
AU  - Usanga EA
LA  - eng
PT  - Comparative Study
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Multicenter Study
DEP - 20170306
PL  - Nigeria
TA  - Niger J Physiol Sci
JT  - Nigerian journal of physiological sciences : official publication of the
      Physiological Society of Nigeria
JID - 8811109
RN  - 0 (Biomarkers)
RN  - 0 (Hemoglobins)
RN  - E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
SB  - IM
MH  - Adolescent
MH  - Adult
MH  - Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/*blood/diagnosis/epidemiology
MH  - Biomarkers/blood
MH  - *Developing Countries
MH  - Erythrocyte Indices
MH  - Erythrocytes/chemistry
MH  - Female
MH  - Health Status
MH  - Hematocrit
MH  - Hemoglobins/analysis
MH  - Humans
MH  - Iron/*blood
MH  - *Maternal Health
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Nigeria/epidemiology
MH  - Parity
MH  - Pregnancy
MH  - Pregnancy Complications/*blood/diagnosis/epidemiology
MH  - Pregnancy Trimester, Third
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - *Rural Health
MH  - *Urban Health
MH  - Young Adult
EDAT- 2017/03/07 06:00
MHDA- 2017/03/16 06:00
CRDT- 2017/03/07 06:00
PHST- 2017/03/06 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/06 [accepted]
PST - epublish
SO  - Niger J Physiol Sci. 2017 Mar 6;31(2):121-125.

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