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History of Newcastle disease in South Africa.

Abstract Poultry production in South Africa, a so-called developing country, may be seen as a gradient between two extremes with highly integrated commercial enterprises with world-class facilities on one hand and unimproved rural chickens kept by households and subsistence farmers on the other. Although vaccination against Newcastle disease is widely applied to control this devastating infection, epizootics continue to occur. Since the first official diagnosis in 1945, through the sporadic outbreaks of the 1950s and early 1960s, to serious epizootics caused by genotype VIII (late 1960s-2000), genotype VIIb (1993-1999), genotype VIId (2003-2012) and most recently genotype VIIh (2013 to present), South Africa's encounters with exotic Newcastle disease follow global trends. Importation - probably illegal - of infected poultry, poultry products or exotic birds and illegal swill dumping are likely routes of entry. Once the commercial sector is affected, the disease spreads rapidly within the region via transportation routes. Each outbreak genotype persisted for about a decade and displaced its predecessor.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Chickens

Keywords
Journal Title the onderstepoort journal of veterinary research
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28281777
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170310
DCOM- 20170317
LR  - 20170317
IS  - 2219-0635 (Electronic)
IS  - 0030-2465 (Linking)
VI  - 84
IP  - 1
DP  - 2017 Feb 24
TI  - History of Newcastle disease in South Africa.
PG  - e1-e7
LID - 10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1306 [doi]
AB  - Poultry production in South Africa, a so-called developing country, may be seen
      as a gradient between two extremes with highly integrated commercial enterprises 
      with world-class facilities on one hand and unimproved rural chickens kept by
      households and subsistence farmers on the other. Although vaccination against
      Newcastle disease is widely applied to control this devastating infection,
      epizootics continue to occur. Since the first official diagnosis in 1945, through
      the sporadic outbreaks of the 1950s and early 1960s, to serious epizootics caused
      by genotype VIII (late 1960s-2000), genotype VIIb (1993-1999), genotype VIId
      (2003-2012) and most recently genotype VIIh (2013 to present), South Africa's
      encounters with exotic Newcastle disease follow global trends. Importation -
      probably illegal - of infected poultry, poultry products or exotic birds and
      illegal swill dumping are likely routes of entry. Once the commercial sector is
      affected, the disease spreads rapidly within the region via transportation
      routes. Each outbreak genotype persisted for about a decade and displaced its
      predecessor.
FAU - Abolnik, Celia
AU  - Abolnik C
AD  - Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria.
      celia.abolnik@up.ac.za.
LA  - eng
PT  - Historical Article
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170224
PL  - South Africa
TA  - Onderstepoort J Vet Res
JT  - The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research
JID - 0401107
SB  - IM
MH  - Animal Husbandry/history
MH  - Animals
MH  - *Chickens
MH  - Disease Outbreaks/history
MH  - History, 20th Century
MH  - Newcastle Disease/*history
MH  - South Africa
EDAT- 2017/03/11 06:00
MHDA- 2017/03/18 06:00
CRDT- 2017/03/11 06:00
PHST- 2016/07/04 [received]
PHST- 2016/08/05 [accepted]
AID - 1306 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2017 Feb 24;84(1):e1-e7. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1306.

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