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Disruption of outer blood-retinal barrier by Toxoplasma gondii-infected monocytes is mediated by paracrinely activated FAK signaling.

Abstract Ocular toxoplasmosis is mediated by monocytes infected with Toxoplasma gondii that are disseminated to target organs. Although infected monocytes can easily access to outer blood-retinal barrier due to leaky choroidal vasculatures, not much is known about the effect of T. gondii-infected monocytes on outer blood-retinal barrier. We prepared human monocytes, THP-1, infected with T. gondii and human retinal pigment epithelial cells, ARPE-19, grown on transwells as an in vitro model of outer blood-retinal barrier. Exposure to infected monocytes resulted in disruption of tight junction protein, ZO-1, and decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance of retinal pigment epithelium. Supernatants alone separated from infected monocytes also decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and disrupted tight junction protein. Further investigation revealed that the supernatants could activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in retinal pigment epithelium and the disruption was attenuated by FAK inhibitor. The disrupted barrier was partly restored by blocking CXCL8, a FAK activating factor secreted by infected monocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that monocytes infected with T. gondii can disrupt outer blood-retinal barrier, which is mediated by paracrinely activated FAK signaling. FAK signaling can be a target of therapeutic approach to prevent negative influence of infected monocytes on outer blood-retinal barrier.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Blood-Retinal Barrier

Monocytes

Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28406972
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170413
DCOM- 20170428
LR  - 20170504
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017
TI  - Disruption of outer blood-retinal barrier by Toxoplasma gondii-infected monocytes
      is mediated by paracrinely activated FAK signaling.
PG  - e0175159
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0175159 [doi]
AB  - Ocular toxoplasmosis is mediated by monocytes infected with Toxoplasma gondii
      that are disseminated to target organs. Although infected monocytes can easily
      access to outer blood-retinal barrier due to leaky choroidal vasculatures, not
      much is known about the effect of T. gondii-infected monocytes on outer
      blood-retinal barrier. We prepared human monocytes, THP-1, infected with T.
      gondii and human retinal pigment epithelial cells, ARPE-19, grown on transwells
      as an in vitro model of outer blood-retinal barrier. Exposure to infected
      monocytes resulted in disruption of tight junction protein, ZO-1, and decrease in
      transepithelial electrical resistance of retinal pigment epithelium. Supernatants
      alone separated from infected monocytes also decreased transepithelial electrical
      resistance and disrupted tight junction protein. Further investigation revealed
      that the supernatants could activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in
      retinal pigment epithelium and the disruption was attenuated by FAK inhibitor.
      The disrupted barrier was partly restored by blocking CXCL8, a FAK activating
      factor secreted by infected monocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that
      monocytes infected with T. gondii can disrupt outer blood-retinal barrier, which 
      is mediated by paracrinely activated FAK signaling. FAK signaling can be a target
      of therapeutic approach to prevent negative influence of infected monocytes on
      outer blood-retinal barrier.
FAU - Song, Hyun Beom
AU  - Song HB
AD  - Fight against Angiogenesis-Related Blindness (FARB) Laboratory, Biomedical
      Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
AD  - Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Seoul National
      University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
AD  - Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Seoul National University
      College of Medicine, and Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University
      Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
FAU - Jun, Hyoung-Oh
AU  - Jun HO
AD  - Fight against Angiogenesis-Related Blindness (FARB) Laboratory, Biomedical
      Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
FAU - Kim, Jin Hyoung
AU  - Kim JH
AD  - Fight against Angiogenesis-Related Blindness (FARB) Laboratory, Biomedical
      Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
FAU - Lee, Young-Ha
AU  - Lee YH
AD  - Department of Infection Biology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine,
      Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
FAU - Choi, Min-Ho
AU  - Choi MH
AD  - Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Seoul National University
      College of Medicine, and Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University
      Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
FAU - Kim, Jeong Hun
AU  - Kim JH
AD  - Fight against Angiogenesis-Related Blindness (FARB) Laboratory, Biomedical
      Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
AD  - Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Seoul National
      University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University,
      Seoul, Republic of Korea.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170413
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
RN  - 0 (IL8 protein, human)
RN  - 0 (Interleukin-8)
RN  - 0 (TJP1 protein, human)
RN  - 0 (Zonula Occludens-1 Protein)
RN  - EC 2.7.10.2 (Focal Adhesion Kinase 1)
RN  - EC 2.7.10.2 (PTK2 protein, human)
SB  - IM
MH  - *Blood-Retinal Barrier/immunology/parasitology
MH  - Cell Line
MH  - Focal Adhesion Kinase 1/*immunology
MH  - Humans
MH  - Interleukin-8/immunology
MH  - *Monocytes/immunology/parasitology
MH  - Paracrine Communication/*immunology
MH  - Retinal Pigment Epithelium/immunology/parasitology
MH  - Signal Transduction/*immunology
MH  - Toxoplasma/*immunology
MH  - Toxoplasmosis/*immunology
MH  - Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/immunology
PMC - PMC5390985
EDAT- 2017/04/14 06:00
MHDA- 2017/04/30 06:00
CRDT- 2017/04/14 06:00
PHST- 2016/08/17 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/21 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0175159 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-32942 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Apr 13;12(4):e0175159. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175159.
      eCollection 2017.

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