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Chaetocin induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, and exerts its anti-tumor activity in vivo.

Abstract Chaetocin is a small-molecule natural product produced by Chaetomium species fungi, and it has a potent anti-proliferative pharmacological activity on various cancer cells. However, the effect of chaetocin on anti-melanoma pharmacological role has not been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of chaetocin on cell proliferation in the human melanoma Sk-Mel-28 and A375 cells and the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. The results indicated that chaetocin treatment significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the Sk-Mel-28 and A375 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, chaetocin treatment resulted in an increased level of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pre-incubation of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly abrogated chaetocin-induced apoptosis in the melanoma cells. A significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c were observed after chaetocin treatment. Additionally, chaetocin treatment significantly up-regulated the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9/-3, simultaneously down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2, procaspase-9/-3, and activated caspase-9/-3 activity in the melanoma cells. The in vivo data demonstrated that chaetocin treatment significantly inhibited the growth of melanoma tumor xenografts in nude mice, which was closely associated with apoptosis induction, a reduced level of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression, and activation of capase-9/-3 in tumor xenografts. These are the first data to demonstrate that chaetocin exerts a proapoptotic activity on human melanoma cells through ROS generation and the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, chaetocin might represent an effective candidate for melanoma chemotherapy.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28419143
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
DA  - 20170418
LR  - 20170418
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017
TI  - Chaetocin induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells through the generation of
      reactive oxygen species and the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, and exerts its
      anti-tumor activity in vivo.
PG  - e0175950
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0175950 [doi]
AB  - Chaetocin is a small-molecule natural product produced by Chaetomium species
      fungi, and it has a potent anti-proliferative pharmacological activity on various
      cancer cells. However, the effect of chaetocin on anti-melanoma pharmacological
      role has not been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect 
      of chaetocin on cell proliferation in the human melanoma Sk-Mel-28 and A375 cells
      and the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. The results indicated that
      chaetocin treatment significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced
      apoptosis in the Sk-Mel-28 and A375 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
      Furthermore, chaetocin treatment resulted in an increased level of cellular
      reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pre-incubation of cells with N-acetylcysteine 
      (NAC) significantly abrogated chaetocin-induced apoptosis in the melanoma cells. 
      A significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of
      cytochrome c were observed after chaetocin treatment. Additionally, chaetocin
      treatment significantly up-regulated the protein levels of Bax, cleaved
      caspase-9/-3, simultaneously down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2,
      procaspase-9/-3, and activated caspase-9/-3 activity in the melanoma cells. The
      in vivo data demonstrated that chaetocin treatment significantly inhibited the
      growth of melanoma tumor xenografts in nude mice, which was closely associated
      with apoptosis induction, a reduced level of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear
      antigen) expression, and activation of capase-9/-3 in tumor xenografts. These are
      the first data to demonstrate that chaetocin exerts a proapoptotic activity on
      human melanoma cells through ROS generation and the intrinsic mitochondrial
      pathway. Therefore, chaetocin might represent an effective candidate for melanoma
      chemotherapy.
FAU - Han, Xinming
AU  - Han X
AD  - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital,
      Beijing, China.
AD  - Medical Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University,
      Beijing, China.
FAU - Han, Yan
AU  - Han Y
AD  - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital,
      Beijing, China.
FAU - Zheng, Yongsheng
AU  - Zheng Y
AD  - Medical Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University,
      Beijing, China.
FAU - Sun, Qiang
AU  - Sun Q
AD  - Medical Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University,
      Beijing, China.
FAU - Ma, Tao
AU  - Ma T
AD  - Medical Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University,
      Beijing, China.
FAU - Zhang, Junyi
AU  - Zhang J
AD  - Medical Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University,
      Beijing, China.
FAU - Xu, Lianji
AU  - Xu L
AD  - Medical Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University,
      Beijing, China.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170418
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
EDAT- 2017/04/19 06:00
MHDA- 2017/04/19 06:00
CRDT- 2017/04/19 06:00
PHST- 2016/11/14 [received]
PHST- 2017/04/03 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0175950 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-45291 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Apr 18;12(4):e0175950. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175950.
      eCollection 2017.

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