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Global Transmission Dynamics of Measles in the Measles Elimination Era.

Abstract Although there have been many epidemiological reports of the inter-country transmission of measles, systematic analysis of the global transmission dynamics of the measles virus (MV) is limited. In this study, we applied phylogeographic analysis to characterize the global transmission dynamics of the MV using large-scale genetic sequence data (obtained for 7456 sequences) from 115 countries between 1954 and 2015. These analyses reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of global transmission of the virus, especially in Australia, China, India, Japan, the UK, and the USA in the period since 1990. The transmission is frequently observed, not only within the same region but also among distant and frequently visited areas. Frequencies of export from measles-endemic countries, such as China, India, and Japan are high but decreasing, while the frequencies from countries where measles is no longer endemic, such as Australia, the UK, and the USA, are low but slightly increasing. The world is heading toward measles eradication, but the disease is still transmitted regionally and globally. Our analysis reveals that countries wherein measles is endemic and those having eliminated the disease (apart from occasional outbreaks) both remain a source of global transmission in this measles elimination era. It is therefore crucial to maintain vigilance in efforts to monitor and eradicate measles globally.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Disease Eradication

Keywords

elimination

endemic

globalization

measles

outbreak

phylogeography

transmission

Journal Title viruses
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28420160
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170419
DCOM- 20170421
LR  - 20170421
IS  - 1999-4915 (Electronic)
IS  - 1999-4915 (Linking)
VI  - 9
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017 Apr 16
TI  - Global Transmission Dynamics of Measles in the Measles Elimination Era.
LID - E82 [pii]
LID - 10.3390/v9040082 [doi]
AB  - Although there have been many epidemiological reports of the inter-country
      transmission of measles, systematic analysis of the global transmission dynamics 
      of the measles virus (MV) is limited. In this study, we applied phylogeographic
      analysis to characterize the global transmission dynamics of the MV using
      large-scale genetic sequence data (obtained for 7456 sequences) from 115
      countries between 1954 and 2015. These analyses reveal the spatial and temporal
      characteristics of global transmission of the virus, especially in Australia,
      China, India, Japan, the UK, and the USA in the period since 1990. The
      transmission is frequently observed, not only within the same region but also
      among distant and frequently visited areas. Frequencies of export from
      measles-endemic countries, such as China, India, and Japan are high but
      decreasing, while the frequencies from countries where measles is no longer
      endemic, such as Australia, the UK, and the USA, are low but slightly increasing.
      The world is heading toward measles eradication, but the disease is still
      transmitted regionally and globally. Our analysis reveals that countries wherein 
      measles is endemic and those having eliminated the disease (apart from occasional
      outbreaks) both remain a source of global transmission in this measles
      elimination era. It is therefore crucial to maintain vigilance in efforts to
      monitor and eradicate measles globally.
FAU - Furuse, Yuki
AU  - Furuse Y
AD  - Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 980-8575 Sendai, Japan.
      [email protected]
FAU - Oshitani, Hitoshi
AU  - Oshitani H
AD  - Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 980-8575 Sendai, Japan.
      [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170416
PL  - Switzerland
TA  - Viruses
JT  - Viruses
JID - 101509722
SB  - IM
MH  - *Disease Eradication
MH  - Disease Transmission, Infectious/*prevention & control
MH  - Global Health
MH  - Humans
MH  - Measles/*epidemiology/prevention & control/*transmission
MH  - Measles virus/classification/genetics/isolation & purification
MH  - Molecular Epidemiology
MH  - Phylogeography
MH  - Spatio-Temporal Analysis
MH  - Topography, Medical
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - elimination
OT  - endemic
OT  - globalization
OT  - measles
OT  - outbreak
OT  - phylogeography
OT  - transmission
EDAT- 2017/04/20 06:00
MHDA- 2017/04/22 06:00
CRDT- 2017/04/20 06:00
PHST- 2017/02/15 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/26 [revised]
PHST- 2017/04/11 [accepted]
AID - v9040082 [pii]
AID - 10.3390/v9040082 [doi]
PST - epublish
SO  - Viruses. 2017 Apr 16;9(4). pii: E82. doi: 10.3390/v9040082.

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